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Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information Technology Foundations Cases: The Computer Industry Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Management Information Systems Chapter 2 Information Technology Foundations Cases: The Computer Industry Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Changing Technology Selections IBM: $3000 Dell: $800 Sun: $4000 Gateway $900 HP: $1500 IBM: Changing Technology Selections IBM: $3000 Dell: $800 Sun: $4000 Gateway $900 HP: $1500 IBM: $4000+ Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e HP: $500 Fujitsu: $2100 Cray: $10, 000+ 2

Trends Ø Hardware v v Ø Size (capacity) Speed (performance) Reliability Data Types Software Trends Ø Hardware v v Ø Size (capacity) Speed (performance) Reliability Data Types Software and Operating System Trends v v Original: Early: Easier: Current: Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e User/Programmer Sequential Questions Menus User/Event Driven 3

Technology Trends Ø Ø Ø Cost of workers increasing Cost of technology decreasing Capabilities Technology Trends Ø Ø Ø Cost of workers increasing Cost of technology decreasing Capabilities increasing v v v Processing speed Storage capacity Types of data text è image è sound è video è v v Quality and reliability Communications Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 4

Binary Input Numbers Text code Data Types Process 000001100 000001000 -------000010100 12 + 8 Binary Input Numbers Text code Data Types Process 000001100 000001000 -------000010100 12 + 8 = 20 This is a test 84 104 73 115 … Output 20 This is a test 00100000000 0100000001001 011000011011 0111111001111111011111100011111 Images Time pitch or volume Sound 8905… 000001000 000001001 000010100 … Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 00101010111 1101010101010 11110100011 00101011011 0010111 110101010 11110100011 00101011011 Video 00101010111 1101010101010 11110100011 00101011011 5

Application Objects Ø Primary Objects v v v Text Numbers Pictures Sound Video Ø Application Objects Ø Primary Objects v v v Text Numbers Pictures Sound Video Ø Primary Functions v v v Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Cut Copy Paste Edit Save and Retrieve Align 6

Application Objects: Numbers Ø Numbers v Attributes Display format è Precision è Value limits Application Objects: Numbers Ø Numbers v Attributes Display format è Precision è Value limits è v Precision Functions Computations è Aggregation è Sorting è Comparisons è 5. 563 0. 354 + 6. 864 12. 781 Round off before add 5. 56 0. 35 + 6. 86 12. 77 Yes Is the display precision the same as the computation precision? Internal data formats Spreadsheet: =Round(5. 563, 2) No decimal places Integer -32, 768 to 32767 0 Float 7 +/- 3. 4 x 10 38 Double +/- 1. 797 x 10 308 Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Round off after add 5. 56 0. 35 + 6. 86 12. 78 15 7

Unicode Ø Application Objects: Text v è è è v Typeface Classification Attributes Typeface Unicode Ø Application Objects: Text v è è è v Typeface Classification Attributes Typeface Point size Color Bold, italic Underline. . . Sans serif Courier 18 (monospace) Serif è è è Spelling Grammar Searching Sorting Garamond 24 New Century Schoolbook 16 Functions è Arial 20 Times 22 Ornamental Braggadocio 18 Brush Script 20 leading 72 points, 1 inch Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e A 8

Resolution 32 24 16 12 32/24 = (8/8)*(4/3) Total pixels: 24*32=768 16/12 = (4/4)*(4/3) Resolution 32 24 16 12 32/24 = (8/8)*(4/3) Total pixels: 24*32=768 16/12 = (4/4)*(4/3) Total pixels: 16*12=192 768 = 4*192 If the rectangles are measured in inches: 4” x 3” the resolution is 8 ppi and 4 ppi Bitmap: GIF, JPEG, PNG Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 9

Common Resolution Numbers Video Displays Video Pixels Computer displays are based on a 4/3 Common Resolution Numbers Video Displays Video Pixels Computer displays are based on a 4/3 aspect ratio from the older TV standard. VGA 640 x 480 HDTV uses a 16/9 aspect ratio. XGA 1024 x 768 Actual resolution depends on the physical size of the screen. SXGA 1280 x 1024 UXGA 1600 x 1200 HDTV 1920 x 1080 Look at what happens to resolution with the camera prints as the size increases. Printers Digital Camera: 5 megapixels Method Pixels Per Inch Print Size Pixels Per Inch Fax 100 -200 3” x 4” 648 Ink jet 300 -700 4” x 5” 486 Laser 600 -1200 8” x 10” 243 Typeset 2400 Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 10

300 dpi scan Sample Bitmap: Bryce Canyon dots per inch Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Bitmap 300 dpi scan Sample Bitmap: Bryce Canyon dots per inch Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Bitmap file: 2, 245, 008 bytes PNG bitmap: 435, 575 bytes 11

Sample Vector Image e. g. line from (0, 0) to (10, 10) in black Sample Vector Image e. g. line from (0, 0) to (10, 10) in black Provides for faster image transfers and scalable images Stored internally as mathematical objects: Lines Points Rectangles Circles Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e WMF: Windows Meta File 12, 430 bytes 12

Bitmap Images: Adobe Photoshop Emboss (1) Set a light source. (2) Twirl. Hundreds of Bitmap Images: Adobe Photoshop Emboss (1) Set a light source. (2) Twirl. Hundreds of tools and options. You can add and delete items from photographs. Professional editing is hard to detect. You need a really good monitor to edit photos. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 13

Audio: Cakewalk MIDI editors provide complex editing tools for music. You can assign instruments, Audio: Cakewalk MIDI editors provide complex editing tools for music. You can assign instruments, set musical features, even edit individual notes. Entire piece (1: 39): 17, 441 bytes Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Musical Instrument Data Interchang e 14

Audio capture: Cakewalk When you capture audio, you can edit it. Detailed options exist Audio capture: Cakewalk When you capture audio, you can edit it. Detailed options exist to match conventional audio studio facilities. Or you can edit individual samples. CD quality audio (44. 1 KHz, stereo): 150 KB/sec or 9 MB/min (6 MB/min compressed) Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 15

Audio Samples frequency (pitch) 440. 01 time amplitude (volume) 37. 15 time How many Audio Samples frequency (pitch) 440. 01 time amplitude (volume) 37. 15 time How many measurements per second? Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 16

Video: Adobe Premiere Video capture or animation Transition Video overlay Superimpose text Audio (2 Video: Adobe Premiere Video capture or animation Transition Video overlay Superimpose text Audio (2 channels) with volume fade. NTSC Video, full screen, 30 fps: 3 MB/sec (compressed) Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 17

Application Objects Ø Pictures & Video v Attributes è è v Ø Sound v Application Objects Ø Pictures & Video v Attributes è è v Ø Sound v Size & resolution Colors è è Functions è è Display/Play Edit Attributes è v Functions è è Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Amplitude/volume Frequency/pitch MIDI v samples Record Play 18

Size Complications Object Raw Compressed Lossy Text and numbers 5 KB/page 2. 3 KB/page Size Complications Object Raw Compressed Lossy Text and numbers 5 KB/page 2. 3 KB/page N/A Image (300 dpi, 24 -bit color, 4 x 6 in. ) 1958 x 1128 6. 32 MB 2. 4 MB Sound (44. 1 KHz stereo) 352 KB/sec 170 KB/sec 0. 01 KB/sec Video (DV 720 x 480 at 29. 97 fps, stereo) 25 MB/sec 1 MB/sec 3. 7 MB/sec 78 – 245 KB Compression: Text uses a ZIP folder Image is JPEG at high quality (12), low (0) – medium (6) Sound is WAV at 44. 1 kbps and WMA at 64 kbps Video is DV AVI and Microsoft WMV at 6383 kbps Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 19

Data Compression Storing every single pixel requires a huge amount of space. Compression looks Data Compression Storing every single pixel requires a huge amount of space. Compression looks for patterns. For example, instead of storing 1000 black dots in a row, it is much shorter to store a note that says 1000 black dots come next. The JPEG standard supports lossy compression, which matches patterns if they are close—saving more space, but reducing quality. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 20

Computer Components Input Process Output seconds - milliseconds nanoseconds • Keyboard • Mouse • Computer Components Input Process Output seconds - milliseconds nanoseconds • Keyboard • Mouse • Optical scanner • Voice input • Bar code • Touch screen • Light pen • MICR • Magnetic strips • Card reader • Other computers seconds - milliseconds • Video monitor • Printer • Plotter • Process control • Voice output Secondary • Music synthesizers storage milliseconds • Other computers • Magnetic Disk • Floppy Disk • Optical Disk • Tape Drive • Processor • RAM • Device controllers Nanoseconds: billionth of a second Milliseconds: thousandth of a second Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 23

Intel Processor Speeds by Year Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 24 Intel Processor Speeds by Year Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 24

Parallel Processing Ø Ø Ø + = 11 24 32 15 27 33 57 Parallel Processing Ø Ø Ø + = 11 24 32 15 27 33 57 84 __________ Are 4 parallel processors four times faster than 1? Crucial assumptions: v v v There are multiple processors. Task can be split into as many parts as there are processors. Coordinating results does not take more time than processing. 23 +54 xx Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e xx +92 yyy 25

RAM Costs Note log scale 2004: $82 for 512 MB $0. 16/MB www. memory-man. RAM Costs Note log scale 2004: $82 for 512 MB $0. 16/MB www. memory-man. com Conclusion: RAM is free. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 26

Cache Memory Processor File Needed Might need Read ahead Fast Cache Memory Processor is Cache Memory Processor File Needed Might need Read ahead Fast Cache Memory Processor is faster than disk drive. Reads ahead and stores several pieces of the file into cache memory. Disk Drive Slow Pulls data from cache as needed. Especially fast for small sets of data used repeatedly. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 27

Input: Keyboards There have been increasing complaints about injuries “caused” by repetitive typing tasks. Input: Keyboards There have been increasing complaints about injuries “caused” by repetitive typing tasks. Several manufacturers have experimented with new keyboard designs (like this one from Microsoft) that are claimed to relieve physical stress. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 28

Input: Scanners Ø Scanners v Format Hand-held è Page è Flatbed è v Optical Input: Scanners Ø Scanners v Format Hand-held è Page è Flatbed è v Optical Character Recognition Text and Graphics è Columns è Proportional v Fixed Fonts è Training v Preprogrammed è v Gray scale and colors Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e OCR “reads” pixels and converts to letters and words. But mistakes arise. Text In Bitmap Pixels 29

Input: Voice Ø Voice v v Microsoft Office includes a decent voice input system. Input: Voice Ø Voice v v Microsoft Office includes a decent voice input system. It must be trained so that it adapts to your speech patterns. It is not perfect, but is relatively fast. It works best if you speak in full sentences—enabling the system to choose words based on context. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Speak in complete sentences. 30

Output: Printers Ø Quality (resolution: dots per inch) v v v Ø Ø Ink Output: Printers Ø Quality (resolution: dots per inch) v v v Ø Ø Ink Jet Laser Typeset/offset press 300 - 720 dpi 600 - 1200 dpi 2400 dpi Speed (pages per minute) Cost Printer Initial Cost (dollars) Cost Per Page (cents) Quality (dots/inch) Speed (pages/min. ) Laser: B&W 400 – 50, 000 0. 6 – 3 600 – 1200 4 – 8 – 17 – 100+ Laser: Color 900+ 5 – 75 600 – 1200 0. 5 – 8 Ink jet: Color 100 - 500 10 - 150 300 – 720 0. 1 - 4 Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 31

Secondary Storage Drive Capacity (gigabytes) Speed (Write MB/s) Initial Cost (dollars) Cost/GB (dollars) Magnetic Secondary Storage Drive Capacity (gigabytes) Speed (Write MB/s) Initial Cost (dollars) Cost/GB (dollars) Magnetic hard 80 – 320 30 – 50 80 – 300 0. 50 USB drive 0. 064 - 1 1– 5 40 – 350 Tape 250 – 2, 000 2 – 20 300 – 5, 000+ 0. 50 – 1. 00 CD-ROM 0. 70 2– 5 50 0. 70 DVD 4. 77 - 9. 0 2– 5 50 – 500 0. 37 Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Conclusion: Storage is free 33

What is a Server? Ø Ø Ø Reliability Easy backup Easy maintenance Multi-user Scalability What is a Server? Ø Ø Ø Reliability Easy backup Easy maintenance Multi-user Scalability Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 34

What is a Client/Browser? Ø Ø Display device/standards User interface Data collection New: Wireless What is a Client/Browser? Ø Ø Display device/standards User interface Data collection New: Wireless v v v Cell phones (3 G) PDAs Tablets Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 35

Compatibility Ø Ø Hardware standards? Operating systems v v v Ø Unix Windows-NT/XP/Vista Linux Compatibility Ø Ø Hardware standards? Operating systems v v v Ø Unix Windows-NT/XP/Vista Linux Software & Data v v Binary incompatibility File compatibility & conversion Leading software è Limited standards (e. g. , ASCII) è Error reading file Invalid format. Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 36

Software Categories Ø Ø Operating System Utilities Programming Languages and Tools Application v General Software Categories Ø Ø Operating System Utilities Programming Languages and Tools Application v General purpose examples Word processing è Spreadsheets è Graphics è v Single purpose examples Accounting è Tax preparation è Games è CAD-CAM è Ø Database Management Systems (DBMS) Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 37

Operating Systems Device driver Operating System Ø Operating system tasks v v Ø Identify Operating Systems Device driver Operating System Ø Operating system tasks v v Ø Identify user (security) User interface Load applications Coordinate devices Device drivers for independence è è Input Process Output Secondary storage Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 38

Operating Systems: User Interface Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 39 Operating Systems: User Interface Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 39

Multitasking & Components Ø Components operate at different speeds v v Ø Processor Input Multitasking & Components Ø Components operate at different speeds v v Ø Processor Input Output Secondary Storage nanoseconds or milliseconds Time comparison v v v 1 ns / 1 sec == 1 micro / 1 sec == 1 ms / 1 sec == Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 31. 7 years 11. 6 days 16: 40 min: sec 40

Multitasking Single Tasking Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Multitasking Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 41 Multitasking Single Tasking Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Multitasking Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 41

Early Computer Languages Ø 1 st generation: v v v Ø 1110 1001 1101 Early Computer Languages Ø 1 st generation: v v v Ø 1110 1001 1101 1111 0111 2 nd generation: v v v MOV AX, [011 E] ADD AX, [0100] MOV [0 FEB], AX Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e Machine get data at 1101 add value at 1111 put result in 0111 Assembly get value at 011 E add value at 0100 put result in 0 FEB 42

Computer Languages Ø 3 rd generation: v Procedural Four popular variations FORTRAN è Basic Computer Languages Ø 3 rd generation: v Procedural Four popular variations FORTRAN è Basic è COBOL è C è Ø 4 th generation: v Ø SQL: v v Database select net+taxes from sales; 5 th generation: v total = net + taxes; Does Not Exist Yet Artificial Intelligence Natural Language Example: What were gross sales last month? Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 43

Application Software Ø Ø Ø Research: Databases Analysis: Calculations (spreadsheets and more) Communication: Writing Application Software Ø Ø Ø Research: Databases Analysis: Calculations (spreadsheets and more) Communication: Writing (word processors and more) Communication: Presentation and Graphics Communication: Voice and Mail (e-mail and more) Organizing Resources: Calendars and Schedules Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 44

Open Software Issues Ø Operating Systems: Linux (and others) Applications: Sun Star Office (and Open Software Issues Ø Operating Systems: Linux (and others) Applications: Sun Star Office (and others) Development: GNU Ø A bunch of open questions: Ø Ø v v v Ø Ø Total cost? Service and support? Training? Upgrades? Security? These can be “religious” issues for some. The Internet solved many of the issues with the client platform—can it solve the application battles? Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 45

Cases: The Computer Industry Should you buy new computers? Has the pace of change Cases: The Computer Industry Should you buy new computers? Has the pace of change slowed? Post/Anderson, MIS 4/e 46