7f027eb1f5648648999f53672ceddfc6.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 31

Making presentations Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology

n n Don’t forget Quiz 10 (the last one!) due this Friday. Class Experiment Final Drafts are due in labs this week. Announcements

n Presenting your research n n n Posters Talks Papers Review Chapter 8 Presentation Types

n To present your work/theory/research n Get feedback • It is an opportunity for peers to ask you questions about your work • For you to ask them questions n n You want your audience to walk away remembering a few key points So your goal is to be as clear as possible Why do presentations?

n Consider your audience - who are they, what do they want, what do they already know n Start collecting the things that you think that you’ll need - graphs, tables, pictures, examples, data analyses, etc. n Determine the key points that you want them to remember n n Camping trip analogy n n n focus your presentation on these points Your initial pack usually has too much stuff Need to figure out what to take out Practice, rehearse, and then practice again Presentation Preparation

Introduction of the issue n n Hourglass Broad Background information n Design n Results n shape n n Specific hypotheses Specifics of your study Interpret the results General Conclusions Broad Rough sketch of a presentation

n n Stick to the hourglass shape for content Balance of text and figures n n Use bullet points Give example stimuli Use large enough font to read from 6 feet away End with 3 or 4 key “take home” points n Decide what these are at the beginning, and then construct the poster so that they are the logical take home points Poster content APA suggestions here | here IBNS - What is the "Poster Session"?

n n Initial sketch/outline Rough layout n n n Balance (text/pictures, data/conclusions) Typography Movement Simplicity Final layout Preparing the poster

Title Authors and affiliation Introduction Results • Not a lot of detail • Just the main points • Hypotheses & predictions • Graphs/tables • Bullet points of main results Conclusions • 3 or 4 take home points • Potential limitations Methods • Not a lot of detail • just the main points • Participants • Design • IVs & DVs • Examples of stimuli References • If you cite something give the full reference

Title Authors and affiliation Introduction Conclusions Methods Results References

The pen is mightier than the brush: Using mnemonics Leon Da. Vinci and Bill Shakespear Illinois State University Introduction Conclusions • Remembering things is often a challenge in everyday life. “What was I supposed to get at the grocery store? ” Results • Stimulus type matters: participants remembered words better than pictures (Cutting, 2000) pictures words • stimulus type: pictures/words • use of mnemonics We predicted: • mnemonic devices will help memory for both pictures and words • effect larger for words than pictures Percent recall We examined two factors • Use of mnemonic devices helps memory performance • Potential limitations mnemonics No mnemonics Methods • 900 native English speakers • 2 x 2 between groups design • Measured the percent correctly recalled items from a free recall procedure • 24 pictures and words pictures • main effect of stimulus type • main effect of mnemonic • no interaction References books frog Cutting J. C. (2000). Finding things in your house. Journal of Memory and Stuff, 17, pg 1 -230.

n n n Arrive early and set up Author(s) stand next to poster Have a short “walk through” presentation ready Answer questions (also ask questions) Handout copies of the poster available (sometimes), or a request sign-up Presentation of the poster Giving an Effective Poster Presentation Basics

n Content n Introduction • • n Problem of interest Very brief summary of past research Basic purpose of experiment(s) Hypotheses Method • • Brief but clear Design Materials Procedure (brief) Your posters (our checklist) Lab manual pg 99

n Content cont. n Results • Descriptive statistics • Inferential results n Discussion • Hypothesis rejected or supported • Implication of results • A few take home points n n References Tables and figures • Useful info to reader • Easy to understand Your posters (our checklist) Lab manual pg 99

n Format n n n Overall clarity Organization Font size Figure/text balance Title Authors Your posters (our checklist) Lab manual pg 99

n Purpose of poster session n n Poster Tips n n n n n https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=2 i. J 2 K 6 q. J 4 Uw https: //www. csun. edu/plunk/documents/poster_presentation. pdf http: //www. swarthmore. edu/Nat. Sci/cpurrin 1/posteradvice. htm http: //www. asp. org/Education/Howto_on. Posters. html http: //colinpurrington. com/tips/poster-design http: //www. organizingcreativity. com/2012/04/conference-posters/ http: //www. kmeverson. org/academic-poster-design. html https: //www. ncsu. edu/project/posters/index. html http: //www. soe. uoguelph. ca/webfiles/agalvez/poster/poster_making/entry. htm Style guide for posters and talks n http: //www. apa. org/pubs/books/4316118. aspx Other sources of poster tips Giving an Effective Poster Presentation Practice & Feedback Poster Presenting Tips : Cal NERDS' Student Research Poster Presenting Tips

n Research Presentations n n (typically 10 to 30 mins) Paper with respondent Panel Presentation Workshop Different kinds of talks

n Create a logical progression to the talk n n n Hourglass shape Work on the transitions between slides Be brief, but include enough details so that the audience can follow the arguments n Use slides to help simplify/clarify points • Include tables, graphs, pictures, etc. • Don’t just read the slides • but do “walk through” those that need it (e. g. graphs of results) n Be careful of jargon, explain terms (if in fact you really need them) Talk Content

n n n n Make it smooth (lots of practice will help) Watch your speaking rate (again, practice) Maintain eye contact with whole audience Emphasize the key points, make sure that the audience can identify these Point to the slides if it helps Beware jokes, can be a double-edged sword Don’t go over your time Presentation of the talk

n Repeat the question in your own words n n Try not to be nervous n n so that the rest of the audience can hear it to make sure that you understood the question to buy yourself some time to think about the answer you know your study better than anyone else When preparing, try to think of likely questions and prepare answers Dealing with questions

n Preparation n Analyze the audience Choose your main points n etc. n n Prepare the Final Outline n n Construct your “speaking” outline n n fix any problems/loose ends e. g. , the note cards that you’ll read Rehearse, rehearse Checklist for the talk

n Finishing up statistics n T-tests & ANOVA • What they test • How to report these results Next time

n Designs n XA XB XC More than two groups • 1 Factor ANOVA, Factorial ANOVA • Both Within and Between Groups Factors n n Test statistic is an F-ratio Degrees of freedom n n Several to keep track of The number of them depends on the design Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

XA n XB XC More than two groups n n Now we can’t just compute a simple difference score since there are more than one difference So we use variance instead of simply the difference • Variance is essentially an average difference F-ratio = Observed variance Variance from chance Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

XA n XB XC 1 Factor, with more than two levels n Now we can’t just compute a simple difference score since there are more than one difference • A - B, B - C, & A - C 1 factor ANOVA

Null hypothesis: XA XB H 0: all the groups are equal XA = X B = X C Alternative hypotheses HA: not all the groups are equal XA ≠ X B ≠ X C XA = X B ≠ X C 1 factor ANOVA XC The ANOVA tests this one!! Do further tests to pick between these XA ≠ X B = X C XA = X C ≠ X B

Planned contrasts and post-hoc tests: - Further tests used to rule out the different Alternative hypotheses XA ≠ X B ≠ X C Test 1: A ≠ B Test 2: A ≠ C Test 3: B = C XA = X B ≠ X C XA ≠ X B = X C XA = X C ≠ X B 1 factor ANOVA

n Reporting your results The observed differences n Kind of test n Computed F-ratio n Degrees of freedom for the test n The “p-value” of the test n Any post-hoc or planned comparison results “The mean score of Group A was 12, Group B was 25, and Group C was 27. A 1 -way ANOVA was conducted and the results yielded a significant difference, F(2, 25) = 5. 67, p < 0. 05. Post hoc tests revealed that the differences between groups A and B and A and C were statistically reliable (respectively t(1) = 5. 67, p < 0. 05 & t(1) = 6. 02, p < 0. 05). Groups B and C did not differ significantly from one another” n n 1 factor ANOVA

n n We covered much of this in our experimental design lecture More than one factor n n n Factors may be within or between Overall design may be entirely within, entirely between, or mixed Many F-ratios may be computed n n An F-ratio is computed to test the main effect of each factor An F-ratio is computed to test each of the potential interactions between the factors Factorial ANOVAs

n n X Consider the results of our class experiment Main effect of cell phone ✓ Main effect of site type n ✓ An Interaction between n cell phone and site type 0. 04 -0. 50 Factorial designs

n Reporting your results n The observed differences • Because there may be a lot of these, may present them in a table instead of directly in the text n Kind of design • e. g. “ 2 x 2 completely between factorial design” n Computed F-ratios • May see separate paragraphs for each factor, and for interactions n Degrees of freedom for the test • Each F-ratio will have its own set of df’s n The “p-value” of the test • May want to just say “all tests were tested with an alpha level of 0. 05” n Any post-hoc or planned comparison results • Typically only theoretically interesting comparisons are presented Factorial ANOVAs