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Making policy reform work Understanding the politics for better advocacy Alexandre Cote SIEMPRE, DEC. 2008, Tirana (updated april 2010) Alexandre. [email protected] com
Policy reform • • We talk a lot about it but… We rarely seems it coming to an end… Are we really aware of what it means? … Are we really taking it as seriously as we should? … • Are we naïve or idealist or cynical? … • DO WE BELIEVE? . . . • DO WE TRUST? ….
Basic rules of the game NOTHING IS OBVIOUS IT S NOT DONE UNTIL IT’S DEFINITELY FINISHED UNTIL YOU GAVE EVERYTHING, YOU GOT NOTHING SOMETIMES GIVING EVERYTHING IS NOT ENOUGH And …. .
3 KEY WORDS EVERYTHING IS POLITICS
Chapters • What are we talking about? – What is public policy? – From politics to change in people’s lives – Who is involved and for what? • Multi stakeholders: public-ngos partnership, what kind of relationship • Tools for political analysis of policy reform • Advocate, advocate: some lessons learned
PUBLIC POLICY: WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?
Needs, rights, resources and policy? Local legislation Rights International binding legal instruments Public Policy Social innovation Governance Needs Survival Resources Full Participation State Community Public policy, social innovation and good governance are ways to allocate often scarce resources to enforce rights and entitlements that respond to needs.
What is Public Policy? • • A set of defined or at least definable values; A clear vision of a desirable future that is based on these values that should foresee positive change in life of population Appropriate strategies that can be implemented in order to realize that vision. Implementation package includes: – – – – Legislation Adequate Procedures Enforcement body Implementation plan Dedicated resources Staff training Monitoring and Evaluation • Public policy is the output of politics and is most of the time the results of strong negotiation whether we talk a bout legislative, budgetary issues… • The interaction between policy and politics can be defined as policy making
Every level has its relevance • International policy / agenda : EU/ WB. Accession process, structural adjustment, aid conditionality • National Agenda: PRSP… • National Disability Strategy • National specific policy (health care, education, employment, child protection…) • Local level (community development, local disability action plan , agenda 22…)
A process and a system… Polity : The rules and the stakeholders People’s lives : Politics : Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. The impact of politics and output of policy The political power play. Ideology and interest Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field? The outcome of politics and output of policy Policy : The output of the politics.
Brings people’s life in Polity : The rules and the stakeholders People’s lives : Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. The impact of politics and output of policy Politics : The political power play. Ideology and interest From cons to lob ultation bying Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field? The outcome of politics and output of policy Policy : The output of the politics.
Support policy development Polity : The rules and the stakeholders People’s lives : Politics : Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. The impact of politics and output of policy The political power play. Ideology and interest Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field? The outcome of politics and output of policy Policy : The output of the politics. Te c hn ic al a ss is ta nc e
Bring policy to practice Polity : The rules and the stakeholders People’s lives : Politics : Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. The impact of politics and output of policy The political power play. Ideology and interest Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field? The outcome of politics and output of policy Policy : The output of the politics.
Bring innovation in people s life Polity : The rules and the stakeholders Politics : People’s lives : The political power play. Ideology and interest on novati ery rt to in Suppo service deliv rt to Suppo Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field Policy : The outcome of the politics.
Scale up good practice to policy Polity : The rules and the stakeholders Politics : People’s lives : The political power play. Ideology and interest Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. Policy making Practice : How does it work on the field Policy : The outcome of the politics.
SUMMARY…. . Polity : The rules and the stakeholders People’s lives : Politics : Level of autonomy, quality of life Degree of participation in the community life. The impact of politics and output of policy The political power play. Ideology and interest on novati rt to in o Suppo rt t Suppo ivery e del servic Support to DPOs Surveys/s upport to multi sta keholder s proces s Practice : How does it work on the field? The outcome of politics and output of policy Policy making ent Policy : implem The output of the politics. Scale u p Te c hn to ica m l a in ss is is tri ta es nc e
Stakeholders involved… International organisation National authorities Local authorities Civil sector Interest groups Disabled people organistaion ? ? ? Private sector Social Service providers
MULTI STAKEHOLDERS? OPINION MAKERS POLICY MAKERS ? ? ? USERS / CITIZENS ? ? DONORS ? SERVICE PROVIDERS
Stakeholders involved Opinion makers -National and local media -Think tank -Human rights ngos Supply side Demand side Policy makers -NGOs -School -Primary health care -Youth centers -Centers for Social Work (CSW)…. -Parents -Children -Adults with disabilities -Ministries -High council… -Governors -Directorate -District authorities -DONORS?
PUBLIC-NGOS PARTNERSHIP WHAT KIND OF RELATIONSHIP? Based on : Kelly Teamey, 2007 “Literature Review on Relationships between Government and Non-state Providers of Services”, International Development Department , University of Birmingham
What are we talking about? • • Contracting? Purchasing? Cooperation? Subordination? Mutual benefit? Trust? Sharing resources?
Mutuality*Identity • Mutuality (interdependence and commitment between partners, equality in decision-making and rights and responsibilities) • Organisational identity (the maintenance of each partner’s own identity, mission, beliefs, core values and constituencies). • The primary driver of a partnership is to access key resources needed to reach objectives. (Brinkerhoff, 2002)
Mutuality*Identity Mutuality Co-optation and gradual absorption Extension Partnership Contracting Organisational identity
Power and institutional pluralism (Coston, 1998)
Goal*strategies (Najam 2002) Goal = - Complementarity Confrontation - Cooperation Co-optation = Strategy
So who plans, regulates, delivers, finances, advocates…? WHO SHOULD? WHO CAN? WHO WANT? Central authorities? Local authorities? Community? DPOs? NGOs?
Always think about stakeholders will and capacity … WILL VALUES STAKES RESOURCES CONSTRAINTS CAPACITY
WHETHER DUTY BEARERS ARE WILLING AND ABLE TO DO IT? CAPACITY (based on DFID “improving services delivery in difficult environment” 2001 ) Direct or indirect Influence towards policy makers Non state mechanisms to develop policies Supporting Users’ awareness raising and advocacy activities SUPPORTING THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND THE MONITORING BY PEOPLE CONCERNED Advocacy towards Donors to bring resources Direct or indirect substitution to duty bearers Capacity building of providers Strategy for supporting empowerment of users Advocacy and awareness raising Advocacy towards Donors to bring resources Capacity building of policy makers and service providers Supporting advocacy by users - beneficiaries WILL
TOOLS FOR POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL POLICY REFORM Based on: - Joan M. Nelson 2003, “The Politics Of Social Sector Reforms”, ODI Washington, DC - Grindle M and Thomas J “Implementing reform: Arena, stakes and resources. Public choices and policy change: the political economy of reform in developing countries” Baltimore, john Hopkins university Press.
Difficult social service reforms. . • No technical consensus • Require active collaboration of many stakeholders • Takes years to implement from legislation to staff training. . • No cost in delaying action • Different motivation of service providers (public private non profits) • Competition between social sectors for scarce resources (middle class/poor – availability/universality/diversity /quality)
Thinking policy reform • • • Values Vision Legislation Adequate Procedures Enforcement body Implementation plan budget Staff training Monitoring and Evaluation
Working groups (examples from the Balkans region) • Gate keeping reform based on ICF for adults with disability merging all status and impairements • Increase of the Disability allowance • Community services / de-institutionalisation social services delivery reform • Inclusive education
Which ambition for the reform? From Joan M. Nelson, THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL SECTOR REFORMS, 2002 Advantages Drawbacks Broad functional scope * mobilizes wider interest, more potential allies * less likely than narrow reforms to be defeated by system inertia * may attract more donor support * mobilizes broad opposition * difficult to launch quietly * hard to administer, high risks of mistakes Radical depth * may draw stronger support from those dissatisfied with old system * attracts attention, interest * mobilizes intense opposition Speed * allows reformers to seize favorable moments * lets reformers keep ahead of growing opposition * helps maintain momentum * limits consultation, reduces perceived legitimacy * risks mistakes in implementation Wide geographic spread * may be technically necessary for some reforms * spreads leadership and supervision thin * reduces opportunities to let progressive localities move ahead, provide models for laggards
Political analysis From Joan M. Nelson, THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL SECTOR REFORMS, 2003 LOW HIGH Concentration of cost (who is impacted ? How important this is ) A wide part of population is impacted just few groups are impacted Concentration of benefits (who benefit ? How important it is ) A wide part of population will benefit Only a small group will benefit No complexity High technicalities and require expertise Not many people and stakeholder have to be mobilized A lot of stakeholders need to contribute Short term reform from agenda to implementation Long process Technical content Level of participation Duration
Different politics for different reforms? From grindle Merilee and john thomas (1991) Characteristic of reform Features of reforms in the bureaucratic arena, requiring bureaucratic compliance Features of reforms in the public arena, requiring political support and stability Dispersal of the costs Costs focus on government institutions Costs have wide impact among the population Dispersal of the benefits Benefits are not immediately felt by bureaucracy and only in long term by public Benefits are focused on government Technical and administrative complexity Reforms are administratively complex Reforms have low administrative content and can be done quickly Level of public participation Reforms require limited public involvement and are ‘invisible’ Reforms require wide public involvement and are ‘visible’ Duration and visibility of reform process Reforms require sustained effort with few immediate visible returns Reforms can be achieved quickly and are visible
Working groups • Gate keeping reform based on ICF for adults with disability merging all status and impairements • Increase of the Disability allowance • Community services / de-institutionalisation social services delivery reform • Inclusive education
Routes to policy reform • Multiple institutional options for policy reform, each with its own pros and cons – “Long routes” • Lead by central government bureaucracy • Lead by sub-national governments – “Short routes” • • By special agencies Donors supported reform teams By nonstate providers (for-profit and non-profit) With community participation • Successful service delivery reforms (esp. short routes) are plenty, but. . .
Can they be sustained or scaled up? – The State matters • Short-route innovations are difficult to institutionalize and sustain • Are difficult to replicate/scale up • And are prone to capture due to lack of accountability – Private/civil sector delivery with its own pitfalls • Need for effective compensatory policies and strong regulation (geographic distribution, discriminatory access)
Managing the reform process (gov) From Joan M. Nelson, THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL SECTOR REFORMS, 2002 1. ) Getting on the agenda 2) Reaching agreement with the Executive a. Recognizing views b. Wining top support 3) Winning Legislative Approval a. Reducing or neutralizing opposition from vested interests. b. Building Alliances c. Modling public opinion 4) Implementation a. Smooth launch b. Rapid problem solving
Which tactics • • Public education and media campaign Consultation with stakeholders Compensation with potential “looser” Dividing opponents Avoiding confrontation Creating linkage between different reforms Building alliances with early winners
TACTICS POLITICAL TASK getting in the agenda reaching agreement winning legislative approval a reducing vested interest building alliances modling public opinion Implementation Launching sustaining public education consultation compensation dividing opponent avoiding confrontation linkage early winners
It’s complex, so what? • Alone we cannot solve problem neither public administration nor NGOs • We can give ourselves the illusion that we can • But at the end, we need to work together which doesn’t mean we are friends • Nobody say it will be easy….
ADVOCATE, ADVOCATE…. Lessons learned from POLIO PLUS team, Macedonia, about their national advocacy campaign “My signature is the law”
II. Decision of public response Advoc acy Lobbyi ng I. Identify needs, issues, rights Advoc acy Lobbyi ng Advocate advocate…. Advocacy Aimed at recognizing the lack of solution and the need for action or policy Advoca cy Lobbying V. Implementing policy (budget) Advoc acy Lobbyi ng VI. Monitoring the implementation of the policy/law III. Develop, formulate policy (through consultation) IV. Official adoption of policy
Lessons learned from Polio Plus campaign “my signature is the law” by Polio Plus Team , Skopje, Macedonia 1. Include! • Never even think that all interested parties have already been included in the process. There is always someone who, if is not included, might became enemy of your idea. We experienced that on our own skin. 2. Educate! • No matter how many educated and aware people join you, never overestimate their knowledge for such a specific issue. The earlier you start with their education, the less problems you will have once the work has entered in its crucially important phase.
Lessons learned 3. Be aware of the invisible enemy! • Your opponents will never publicly state that they are against the rights of people with disabilities. But, as all is a matter of interest, might happen that yours and their interests are completely opposed. 4. Do not travel alone! • The old African proverb says: “If you want to travel fast - go alone, but if you want to get far- walk with the others”. Maybe, we understood this ancient wisdom a bit too late. 5. Individual vs. Frontal • To have a real distinction of all the “mess” which you faced you need strong individuals and “clean” opinion makers. So, don’t “burn” them during the process. You must protect them frontal impact with back-up support of legitimate groups, organizations and institutions.
Lessons learned 6. Far away is (simply) closer… • Extend the process to the maximum. Only then you will provide enough time for more knowledge, and enough space for more people take ownership over the process. Educated “boss” will not give up from what they think is theirs. 7. The closer you get –more resistance you face! • Go carefully with fundamental interventions in the existing systems. Each system (even the worst and the weakest one), has its own mechanisms for self-protection. The more you touch their inner core, the greater becomes the resistance and you will just improve their cohesive forces of their dummy disconnection and disorganization. 8. You can never get enough of media support! • In all systems with “indirect“ democracy, the only tool to “articulate” your voice and “your truth” is through direct communication. As clearer your message is, more accurately it will be transferred to the general public. Use the media wisely, with wisdom, be present, but not tedious, be clear, but not rude; be worried, but not frustrated. Finally, help the people from the media. They will know how to show appreciation.
Lessons learned 9. Politicians will always be just politicians! • Politics does not always (and for everything) have to be in accordance with your position. The priorities change on daily basis, and political regrouping may happen in a flash. The events not always go in line with your time schedule. As much as the very next day, your main supporter might be disfavored by the establishment or the public opinion. Do not bind yourself to the political positions of any group. Make the groups (in their strategy, programs and personal relations and presentations) to bind themselves to your cause. 10. The invisibles are your visibility • Discover, inspire and mind the “little” activists, volunteers, members … You will be surprised how big support, visibility and sustainability you can get.