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Making Comparisons in English By, G. Javier Burgos Making Comparisons in English By, G. Javier Burgos

Who do you think is MORE ATTRACTIVE? Who do you think is MORE ATTRACTIVE?

 The Ant Responded: “ Yes, the giraffe is taller than me but I The Ant Responded: “ Yes, the giraffe is taller than me but I am SEXIER than her” The Giraffe says. “I am TALLER THAN that ant”

We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things. Here is an example: 1. Javier´s house is bigger than Anita´s. 2. Anita´s house is smaller than Javier’s. 3. Javier’s house is more expensive and prettier than Anita’s house.

The comparative forms from the previous example are: -bigger than -smaller than -More expensive The comparative forms from the previous example are: -bigger than -smaller than -More expensive than -Prettier than So. . . When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more? ”

How many syllables are the words: “big” and “small? ” 1 For 1 -syllable How many syllables are the words: “big” and “small? ” 1 For 1 -syllable adjectives, JUST add “er” to the end. Example: Tom is smarter than Joe. *If the 1 -syllable adjective ends with the letter “e, ” JUST add “r” to the end. Examples: nicer wiser **If the 1 -syllable adjective has a C-V-C pattern, Double the consonant and add “er. ” Examples: San Francisco is San Diego is wetter than San Diego. bigger than San Francisco.

For adjectives that end with the letter “y, ” DROP the “y” and add For adjectives that end with the letter “y, ” DROP the “y” and add “ier. ” Examples: Adjective = ugly house. Anita´s house is Uglier than Javier´s Adjective = pretty FECYT faculty is prettier than CC. SS. Faculty Adjective = friendly Angelina is friendlier than Fiona.

How many syllables is the word: beautiful ? 4 (more than 1) For adjectives How many syllables is the word: beautiful ? 4 (more than 1) For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables, use “more” + the adjective to make the comparative form. Examples: Adjective = beautiful Mery ’s face is more beautiful than Javier´s face. Adjective = comfortable This armchair is more comfortable than that chair.

Irregular comparatives: You MUST memorize these! Examples: good bad = = better than worse Irregular comparatives: You MUST memorize these! Examples: good bad = = better than worse than far = Adjective = good My grades are better than Michael’s. farther (further) than

Examples: · good = better · bad = worse · far = farther (further) Examples: · good = better · bad = worse · far = farther (further) · well = better · badly = worse · little = less Many/much/ a lot of/lots of/ few/ a few = more/less

Grammar Rule: Never use both MORE and “ER!” Incorrect: Lisa’s job is more better Grammar Rule: Never use both MORE and “ER!” Incorrect: Lisa’s job is more better than mine. Correct: Lisa’s job is better than mine.

Using “less than” Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than. ” To Using “less than” Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than. ” To do this, use LESS + adjective + THAN When using “less than, ” the adjective DOES NOT CHANGE Examples: He is LESS energetic than my other teacher. This class is LESS crowded than the other one. New York City is LESS polluted than Los Angeles.

Rule. . . ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE 1. Adjectives with one syllable: add “er” old big Rule. . . ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE 1. Adjectives with one syllable: add “er” old big cheap older than bigger than cheaper than 2. Adjectives that end in “Y”: drop “Y”, add “ier” friendly busy easy friendlier than busier than easier than 3. Adjectives with two or more syllables: use “more” polite beautiful important more polite than more beautiful than more important than 4. Irregular forms: (memorize) good bad far better than worse than farther/further than 5. Less Than quiet crowded less quiet than less crowded than

There a few exceptions with comparative grammar. . . These are adjectives that don’t There a few exceptions with comparative grammar. . . These are adjectives that don’t follow the basic rules or that have more than one acceptable form. To learn these, you must memorize them. 1. “fun” We say: more fun 2. “simple” We say: more simple funner OR simpler 3. “narrow” We say: more narrow OR narrower 4. “quiet” more quiet We say: OR quieter

Try these examples. Use the comparative form. 1. I think Social Studies is _________ Try these examples. Use the comparative form. 1. I think Social Studies is _________ (interesting) than Math. 2. San Diego is a _______ (pretty) city than L. A. 3. A dog is usually ________ (friendly) than a cat. 4. It is _______ (hot) today than it was yesterday. 5. My cousin is _______ (rich) than I am. 6. USE LESS: Some people think that Spanish is _________ (difficult) than English.

Superlatives RULE # 1 Use THE and add -est Examples: · smart = the Superlatives RULE # 1 Use THE and add -est Examples: · smart = the smartest · young = the youngest · fast = the fastest

Superlatives RULE # 2 If the adjective has a CVC pattern, double the consonant Superlatives RULE # 2 If the adjective has a CVC pattern, double the consonant and add -est. Don't forget THE! Examples: · wet = the wettest · big = the biggest · sad = the saddest

Superlatives RULE # 3 Change the Y to I and add -est. Don't forget Superlatives RULE # 3 Change the Y to I and add -est. Don't forget to use THE! Examples: · pretty = the prettiest · happy = the happiest · busy = the busiest

Superlatives RULE # 4 Adjectives or adverbs with two or more syllables (not ending Superlatives RULE # 4 Adjectives or adverbs with two or more syllables (not ending in Y): Use THE MOST Examples: · famous = the most famous · interesting = the most interesting · carefully = the most carefully

IRREGULAR SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Examples: · good = the best · bad = the worst IRREGULAR SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Examples: · good = the best · bad = the worst · far = the farthest (the furthest) · well = the best · badly = the worst · little = the least Many/much/ a lot of/lots of/ few/ a few = The most/ the least

Who has the widest mouth in the world? His name is Francisco Domingo, . Who has the widest mouth in the world? His name is Francisco Domingo, . He is from Angola.

Where was the largest bikini parade held? Where was the largest bikini parade held?

Hundreds of Women stood at Hundreds of Women stood at

Where is the smallest man in the world from? He is from Nepal Where is the smallest man in the world from? He is from Nepal

His name is Chandra Dangi and he is 67 cm tall. His name is Chandra Dangi and he is 67 cm tall.

Who is the tallest man in the world? He is from «Alpachaca» His name Who is the tallest man in the world? He is from «Alpachaca» His name is Sultan Kosen Burgos, he is my cousin

Which man has the longest fingernails in the world? His name is Melvin Boothe Which man has the longest fingernails in the world? His name is Melvin Boothe

Who has the smallest waist in the world? Her name is Cathie Jung Who has the smallest waist in the world? Her name is Cathie Jung

Who has the biggest natural breasts in the world? Under breasts: 109. 22 cm Who has the biggest natural breasts in the world? Under breasts: 109. 22 cm Chest-over-nipple: 177. 8 cm Her name is Annie Turner

How big is the largest Mining Truck ? Volume: 470. 4 cubic metres Density How big is the largest Mining Truck ? Volume: 470. 4 cubic metres Density of : 0. 86 tons/ m 3

Who is the hairiest teenager in the world? She is from Ibarra and studies Who is the hairiest teenager in the world? She is from Ibarra and studies “Enfermeria” at UTN. The true fact: She is from Thailand Her name is Supatra Nat

Who has the largest rifle in the world? Measurement: 10. 18 m James De. Who has the largest rifle in the world? Measurement: 10. 18 m James De. Caine. U. S. A.

It is simple, I Could you do Teacher can do it. this? Javier can It is simple, I Could you do Teacher can do it. this? Javier can do it easily.

He is as strong as the Teacher. He is as strong as the Teacher.

Check for the most amazing recordsin the world • http: //www. guinnessworldrecords. com/size / Check for the most amazing recordsin the world • http: //www. guinnessworldrecords. com/size / • http: //www. guinnessworldrecords. com/extr a-ordinary/ • http: //www. guinnessworldrecords. com/worl d-records/size/smallest-dog-living

SUMMARY: COMPARATIVE VS SUPERLATIVES Rule 1 - one syllable adjectives or adverbs: Comparatives Superlatives SUMMARY: COMPARATIVE VS SUPERLATIVES Rule 1 - one syllable adjectives or adverbs: Comparatives Superlatives Simply add -er Use THE and add -est Examples: · smart = smarter · smart = the smartest · young = younger · young = the youngest · fast = faster · fast = the fastest

Rule 1 B - One syllable adjectives with a Consonant-Vowel-Consonant Pattern: (Review Consonants and Rule 1 B - One syllable adjectives with a Consonant-Vowel-Consonant Pattern: (Review Consonants and Vowels) If the adjective has a CVC pattern, double the consonant and add - double the consonant and add er. est. Don't forget THE! Examples: · wet = wetter · wet = the wettest · big = bigger · big = the biggest · sad = sadder · sad = the saddest Practice comparatives with one- Practice superlatives with onesyllable words.

Rule 2 - two syllable adjectives ending in Y Change the Y to I Rule 2 - two syllable adjectives ending in Y Change the Y to I and add - Change the Y to I and add er est. Don't forget to use THE! Examples: · pretty = prettier · pretty = the prettiest · happy = happier · happy = the happiest · busy = busier · busy = the busiest Practice comparatives ending in Y. Practice superlatives ending in Y.

Rule 3 - Adjectives or adverbs with two or more syllables (not ending in Rule 3 - Adjectives or adverbs with two or more syllables (not ending in Y): Use THE MOST Use MORE Examples: · famous = more famous · famous = the most famous · interesting = more interesting · interesting = the most interesting · carefully = more carefully · carefully = the most Practice comparatives with carefully 2 or more syllables. Practice superlatives with 2 or more syllables.

Rule 4 These are the irregular words. There is no system or pattern here, Rule 4 These are the irregular words. There is no system or pattern here, so you'll just have to remember them. Fortunately, there are only a few. . . Examples: · good = better · good = the best · bad = worse · bad = the worst · far = farther (further) · far = the farthest (the furthest) · well = better · well = the best · badly = worse · badly = the worst · little = less · little = the least Practice irregular comparatives. Practice irregular superlatives.

Thanks! You are the best! elt@gmx. us Javier Burgos E. L. T. Thanks! You are the best! [email protected] us Javier Burgos E. L. T.