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Maintenance and Construction Planning Gunnar Tunkrans Maintenance and Construction Planning Gunnar Tunkrans

Common Situations in Road Sectors (world wide) ü ü ü Road Network in Poor Common Situations in Road Sectors (world wide) ü ü ü Road Network in Poor Condition Lack of Financial Resources Irregular and Unpredictable Financing Undesired Environmental Impacts Many Local Regulations Increasing Costs Low Efficiency/Capacity in the Sector Limited Experience in Different Parts of the Sector Limited Development of New Methods Limited (International) Competition Increasing Traffic Load Illegal Traffic

Significances for ”Upgrading” Nations ü Transport mode change: Towards Air and Road ü Vehicle Significances for ”Upgrading” Nations ü Transport mode change: Towards Air and Road ü Vehicle type change: Single-axle trucks > multi-axle trucks > ü ü ü ü ü articulated trucks, light commercial vehicles. High motor vehicle use but slowing growth, metro / inter-city emphasis. Population change: Age distribution. Network development emphasis: Upgrading existing roads for capacity & safety. Road funding requirements: High. Dominates share of transport demand between modes: logistics / heavier vehicles Political: Regional & community issues, public transport issues Environmental: Vehicle intrusiveness, air quality, noise Social: Travel demand, gender equity Economic: Higher standards for safety and capacity Private sector involvement: consulting, design & construction, maintenance, financing

Challanges Challanges

More Challanges More Challanges

And More And More

Level of Standard (The never ending question) Standard to whom, when funding is limited? Level of Standard (The never ending question) Standard to whom, when funding is limited? ü Customer friendly standards Today's customers, right now ü Standards from strategic perspective Tomorrow’s customers considering a sustainable development in all means ü Standard from an economic perspective Minimizing cost now and/or in the long-range - LCC ü Technical standard Usually sophisticated and expensive standards

Performance Measures ü ü ü Road user satisfaction Road user costs Safety Environment Road Performance Measures ü ü ü Road user satisfaction Road user costs Safety Environment Road asset value & condition Programme development, delivery & achievement

Albanian Roads 28 700 km 2 - 3. 2 million inhabitants GDP total, Million Albanian Roads 28 700 km 2 - 3. 2 million inhabitants GDP total, Million € 10 000 GDP per capita, € 3 100 Government revenue, Million € 2 400 3 200 km of Main Roads 4 300 km of Regional Roads 10 500 km of Other Roads How much can Albania afford to spend on the road/transport sector?

Albanian Roads Constr Replac costs Road life Yearly constr % of cc €/m M€ Albanian Roads Constr Replac costs Road life Yearly constr % of cc €/m M€ 3 200 km Nat. Roads 1 800 5 800 60 96 1 58 4 300 km Regional Roads 1 200 50 95 1. 2 62 700 7 400 40 184 1. 5 110 10 500 km Other Roads Total 18 000 km Roads Years 18 400 M€ Yearly maintenance 375 M€ 230

Anbania continue ü The road sector has a need for minimum 600 Million € Anbania continue ü The road sector has a need for minimum 600 Million € yearly to keep the roads in the country up to date and in reasonable condition. ü This corresponds to 5 % of the GDP in Albania or 25 % of the government revenue. Is this realistic?

Value for Money ü Efficiency: Cost of each unit of output or To do Value for Money ü Efficiency: Cost of each unit of output or To do the things right ü Effectiveness: Contribution of output to achievement of desired outcome or To do the right Things ü Allocation methods (Upgrade) – Maintenance - on basis of optimised network (strategic) level needs analysis – Improvements – projects selected on basis of economic evaluation allowing for environmental & social issues

Historic and International comparisons Road Network Development in Australia The collected information is analysed Historic and International comparisons Road Network Development in Australia The collected information is analysed and the trends are observed. Comparisons are made with other countries – Benchmarking.

International comparisons Paved km/mill. inhabitants 50000 Albania 5000 50 30000 Gross National Income Low International comparisons Paved km/mill. inhabitants 50000 Albania 5000 50 30000 Gross National Income Low income Lower mid. income Upper mid. income Higher income

20 years ago Sweden started to look for a new long-term road safety strategy 20 years ago Sweden started to look for a new long-term road safety strategy • Already one of the safest countries in the world (6. 5 killed/100 000 inhab. ). • Traditional strategy: fighting speeding, drunk driving, promoting safe driving, seat-belts etc. . • More of the same – or?

Vision Zero: a Safe Traffic Concept History On October 9, 1997 the Road Traffic Vision Zero: a Safe Traffic Concept History On October 9, 1997 the Road Traffic Safety Bill founded on "Vision Zero" was passed by a large majority in the Swedish Parliament. This represents an entirely new way of thinking with respect to road traffic safety. Goal The long term goal is that no-one shall be killed or seriously injured within the Swedish road transport system.

New approach to responsibilities • Historically main responsibility on the road user (blame the New approach to responsibilities • Historically main responsibility on the road user (blame the victim approach) • Vision Zero suggests a shared responsibility Claes Tingvall 17 Swedish Road Administration

Vision Zero Safety philosophy • The chain of events behind a serious accident can Vision Zero Safety philosophy • The chain of events behind a serious accident can be cut at many places • Inspiration from other areas ( i. e. occupational health and safety) • People make errors, mistakes and misjudgements • There are biomechanical tolerance limits 18 Swedish Road Administration

Vision Zero philosophy Integration and Separation 1. Vulnerable road users should not be exposed Vision Zero philosophy Integration and Separation 1. Vulnerable road users should not be exposed to motorised vehicles at speeds exceeding 30 km/h 2. Car occupants should not be exposed to other motorised vehicles at speeds exceeding 50 km/h in 90 degree crossings 3. Car occupants should not be exposed to oncoming traffic (other vehicles of approximately same weight) at speeds exceeding 70 km/h or 50 km/h (if the weights are considerably different) 4. Car occupants should not be exposed to the road side in speeds exceeding 70 km/h or 50 km/h (if road side contains trees or other objects) 19

Fatalities in road traffic and cars in use in Sweden 1950 -2010 6000 1250 Fatalities in road traffic and cars in use in Sweden 1950 -2010 6000 1250 5000 1000 4000 750 3000 500 2000 250 1000 0 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 1500 Fatalities Number of cars (1000) 0

Road Traffic Death Rate Road Traffic Death Rate

In Depth Analyses In Depth Analyses

Multi sector approach Politicians Police Engineers Vehicle inspectors Driving Testers ROAD SAFETY PROBLEM Safety Multi sector approach Politicians Police Engineers Vehicle inspectors Driving Testers ROAD SAFETY PROBLEM Safety publicity Legislators Medical Emergency services Educators Researchers Private sector Non Government Organisations

S ni wed a & en He Sl ov Ir rz. . ak ela S ni wed a & en He Sl ov Ir rz. . ak ela Re nd p Co ub st lic a Ri Au ca M st ac ria ed o Hu nia ng Cz Sl ary ec ov h en R Ne ep ia w ub Ze lic al an Se d Ar rbia m Lit eni hu a an i La a t Bu via lg a Al ria ba n Cr ia oa Ja tia m ai Gr ca e M ece ol do Tu va ni Ge sia or gi Om a an Bo s International comparison 40 35 Road Fatalities / 100, 000 inhab. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Ire en la Ne L nd w atv Ze ia al Hu and ng Ire en la Ne L nd w atv Ze ia al Hu and ng Sl ary ov Lit eni hu a an Cz ec Au ia Sl h R str ov e ia ak pu Re blic Bo sn Co pub ia st lic & a He Ric r a M zeg ac ov ed. on Gr ia e Ja ece m ai c Se a rb Om ia Cr an oa Al tia ba Bu nia lg a Ge ria o M rgi ol a d Ar ova m en Tu ia ni sia ed Sw ed Ne Ire en w la Ze nd al a Au nd s Sl ov Slo tria a v Cz k R eni ec ep a h ub Re lic p Lit ubl hu ic an Gr ia e Hu ece ng ar La y Bu tvia Bo lg sn a ia Cr ria & He oat rz ia eg o Se v. Co rb s ia M ta R ac ic ed a M oni ol a do Al va b Ar ania m e Ja nia m a Ge ica or g Tu ia ni s Om ia an Sw International comparison 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 Road Fatalities / 10, 000 vehicles 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Road Fatalities / Road Lenght

STA is committed to a safe transport system • Adjustment of road traffic speed STA is committed to a safe transport system • Adjustment of road traffic speed – adjusting to road traffic safety standards • More than 1, 000 traffic safety cameras are located on the most dangerous roads • Work on influences: alcohol/drugs, seat belt use, keeping to the speed limit, safety on and near railway tracks, and bicycle helmet use • 4200 km of multi-lane, bidirectional highways • Suicide on roads and rail reduced through preventative measures

Asset Management A systematic process of maintaining, upgrading and operating assets, combining engineering principles Asset Management A systematic process of maintaining, upgrading and operating assets, combining engineering principles with sound business practice and economic rationale and providing tools to facilitate a more organized and flexible approach to making the decisions necessary to achieve the public’s expectations OECD Definition 2000

AM - based on strategic view ü Policy based o options and consequences are AM - based on strategic view ü Policy based o options and consequences are considered in terms of o consistency with adopted goals and objectives ü Performance driven o options and consequences are considered in terms of ü ability to achieve desired outcomes ü Comprehensive looking o all aspects of a problem and considering options and consequences ü Long term o over the life cycles of the assets

HDM 4 HDM 4

The collected information is analysed and the trends are observed. Comparisons are made with The collected information is analysed and the trends are observed. Comparisons are made with other countries – Benchmarking. Description of Condition (Collection of Relevant Information) National Road Data Bas (all roads in Sweden incl. Municipal and private roads) • Route number, surface, width, traffic regulations etc State Road Data Bas (supplement to the NRDB) • Administrative information like maintenance responsibility Traffic Information System Crash Data Bank Bridge and Tunnel Management System Pavement Management System And some other systems

Individual Road Type of Road Contract Maintenance Planning EXAMPLES Public s Delivery Quality Eff Individual Road Type of Road Contract Maintenance Planning EXAMPLES Public s Delivery Quality Eff ect res asu Me Co nd itio ns Services Type of Road Type of Construction Contract Individual Road f to r en ktu gem tru na fras Ma ad In Ro Periodic Maint. • Reinvestment • Pavement Targets of nt me m ge na ste Ma ad Sy Ro Routine Maint. • Traffic information • Electricity supply • Tunnels, ferries

Four Levels of Maintenance Planning Base Level; The existing level of supply grades shall Four Levels of Maintenance Planning Base Level; The existing level of supply grades shall be maintained. High Level; Higher levels on selected delivery qualities. Low Level; Lower levels on selected delivery qualities. Master Plan Level (in case it doesn´t correspond to base level)

Examples of indicators Grooves depth IRI Examples of indicators Grooves depth IRI

Travel time - variation Travel time - variation

Environmental Objectives Environmental Objectives

Change in delivery qualities of the road during the period 2014 -2016 Big cities Change in delivery qualities of the road during the period 2014 -2016 Big cities Trunk Roads Commuting Roads import. Low traffic to Business Punctuality → → → ↘ → Capacity ↗ → → Robustness → → → ↘ → Punctuality → → → Security → → → Environment → Health → →

Physical Planning and Design 7 -12 4 -7 Years before commencement of construction 2 Physical Planning and Design 7 -12 4 -7 Years before commencement of construction 2 -4 • Initial Study – describes problems/needs and possible measures to meet the needs. • Feasibility – clear out what solution/corridor that should be chosen to meet the needs, including general environmental assessment and cost/benefit calculation • Detaild Design – shows the alignment including environmental examination. The land that is needed for the construction is made clear and established by law. Appeal can be made to the Government • Procurement –contractors are chosen after open competition

4 Step Principle The Swedish Transport Administration has developed what we call the 4 4 Step Principle The Swedish Transport Administration has developed what we call the 4 -step principle. Shortly it means that; 1. Measures that have effect on the demand for transport and the choice of transport mean. 2. Measures that give a more effective use of the existing road network. 3. Improvement of the existing roads. 4. New investment or mayor reconstruction.

Successive calculation The Lichtenberg Method Successive calculation The Lichtenberg Method

Road related laws Road Act Land Accusation Act Environmental Acts Procurement Acts Budget Act Road related laws Road Act Land Accusation Act Environmental Acts Procurement Acts Budget Act Land Use Act

Possible Planning Process üTransport Policy adopted by the Parliament (Strategy and Policy of Transport Possible Planning Process üTransport Policy adopted by the Parliament (Strategy and Policy of Transport Development in Albania) üLong Term Plan (recurrent) • Government Vision on Infrastructure including Objectives and Financial Frames • Adoption by the Parliament • Government Bodies (MPWT and/or ARA) are given the task of preparing Preliminary Long Term Plans • The Preliminary Plans are referred for Consideration to National, Regional and Local Authorities and Others • With the given opinions in mind The Government make relevant adjustments and adopts the Proposal • After 4 -6 years the Plan should be revised and extended

Hypothetic Budget Procedure April MPWT together with ARA presents basis for next year budget Hypothetic Budget Procedure April MPWT together with ARA presents basis for next year budget based on the funding for the current year. The consequences shall be described if the funding will be lower and the possibilities if the funding will be higher. September The Government presents plans and a budget proposal/bill for the coming year to the Parliament. For mayor investments funding should cover the whole construction period. November The Parliament decides upon the budget for coming year. December MPWT gives ARA Appropriation Directions, setting out the goals the Administration is to achieve, how much money it has at its disposal and how the money is to be divided among the different activities. Reports Quarterly progress report from ARA to the Government and Annual Report by the end of February the following year. Review Running review by the National Audit Office.

The Role of the Ministry ü Prepare bill for Transport Policy to be adopted The Role of the Ministry ü Prepare bill for Transport Policy to be adopted by the Parliament ü Follow the traffic development and make forecasts and lay down ü ü ü a Government Vision for Transport Give Government Bodies the tasks and guidelines for preparation of preliminary Long Term Plans Merge the Plans and after consideration adopt the New Long Term Plans Yearly, as part of the Government, prepare budget proposal for decision in the Parliament Give the Authorities instructions and budget frames for next year Follow the performance of the Authorities through quarterly reports and independent audits

The Role of the PE Roads of Albania üIn line with given instructions prepare The Role of the PE Roads of Albania üIn line with given instructions prepare a preliminary Long Term Plan üGive basis for next year budget to the Ministry üOut of given instructions prepare detailed budget for next year üEngage contractors to carry out the planed activities üSupervise and follow up the accomplishment on the roads üReport to the Ministry every quarter about the progress and the effect on the Transport Policy Objectives, including economic result so far and prognosis for the whole year/project

Back to the Never Ending Question What Level of Standard is relevant? Back to the Never Ending Question What Level of Standard is relevant?