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Luther Leads the Reformation Chapter 1 Section 3
Main Ideas Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches. n Nearly one-fifth of the Christians in today’s world are Protestants. n
Introduction n Roman Catholic Church dominated religious life in Northern & Western Europe by the tenth century. n However, Church did not have universal approval. n Many felt leaders were too busy trying to get rich or powerful. n People continued to criticize the Church, which ultimately led to a rebellion.
Causes of the Reformation n Renaissance emphasized the secular & individual worlds. Renaissance ideas challenged Church authority. n The printing press spread secular ideas. n Northern merchants resented paying taxes to Rome. n
Criticisms of the Catholic Church n n n Corrupt leaders Extravagant spending Popes too busy with worldly affairs, not spiritual duties. Priests and monks were poorly educated. Some priests married, drank and gambled. EX: Pope Alexander VI fathered several children.
Early Calls for Reform People expected higher standards of conduct from priests and church leaders. n Erasmus & More also criticized the Church. n Many Europeans were reading religious works and forming their opinions about the Church. n By 1500, atmosphere had perfect conditions for reform. n
Luther Challenges the Church Monk & teacher n Taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg, in the German state of Saxony. n Wanted to be a good teacher, not lead a religious revolution. n
95 Theses n n Indulgence – pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin. Luther wrote his 95 Theses attacking “pardonmerchants”, like Johann Tetzel persuaded people to believe they could buy their way to heaven. October 31, 1517 – Luther posted theses on the door of the castle church and welcomed debate. Someone copied theses and spread Luther’s word all over Germany. n Led to the Reformation (movement for religious reform). n Led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept pope’s authority.
Luther’s Teaching Luther soon wanted a full reform of the Church. n Three main ideas: n Salvation could be achieved only by belief in God’s forgiveness. n All Church teachings should be based on the words of the Bible. n All people with faith were equal. n
Response to Luther n n n Luther’s actions were seen as a way to challenge Church control. Luther suggested that the pope be removed. n Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther when he did not back down. Emperor Charles V summoned Luther to stand trial because he opposed his teachings. n Luther refused to take back his statements. n Charles declared Luther an outlaw & a heretic. n Ordered people to refuse shelter & food to Luther, burned his books.
Response to Luther (cont. ) Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther for a year. n When Luther returned to Wittenberg, found that people still practiced his ideas, and formed a new religious group – Lutherans. n
Peasant’s Revolt n n n Some people took Luther’s revolutionary ideas about Church and applied them to society. Peasants wanted their own freedom and many revolted. Luther opposed the revolt. He wrote a pamphlet to German princes urging them to be hard on the peasants. The princes’ armies ended the revolt, but killed 100, 000 people in doing so. Many peasants now rejected Luther & his ideas.
Germany at War n n n Many German princes supported Luther’s teachings. n Some genuinely liked his ideas. n Others just wanted independence from Charles V and to take Church property. Princes loyal to the pope agreed to fight against Luther’s ideas. Princes loyal to Luther signed a protest against agreement. n Became known as Protestants.
England Becomes Protestant n Henry VIII wants an heir to the throne. n Problems? n Wife, Catherine (Charles V’s aunt), was getting too old to have children. n Catholic Church did not allow divorces. n Wanted an annulment but the pope refused because he did not want to upset the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. n Solution? n Had Parliament pass laws that ended Pope’s power in England. n Secretly married Anne Boleyn, and Parliament legalized Henry’s divorce.
Act of Supremacy n n Completed Henry’s break from the pope. People had to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry as head of England’s Church, not the pope. n Thomas More refused. n Arrested, imprisoned in Tower of London, found guilty of treason and executed.
Consequences of Henry’s Changes n Anne Boleyn gave birth to a daughter. n Fell out of Henry’s favor. n n Married Jane Seymour – gave birth to a son, Edward. n n n Died two weeks later. Married three more times. n n Same fate as Thomas More No more children. Henry had a total of three children, two girls and a boy. No girl had ever headed England at this point.
Consequences of Henry’s Changes (cont. ) n Edward became King at the age of 9. n n Constantly ill, reigned for 6 years with the help of Protestant advisors. Mary next took the throne. Catholic and returned Church to Pope. n Efforts were resisted…had Protestants executed. n Died 1558 n Elizabeth, youngest daughter, took the throne. n
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism n n n 1559, Parliament followed Elizabeth I’s wishes and set up the Church of England, a/k/a Anglican Church. Elizabeth was the head of the Church. Moderate Approach - wanted a state church that appealed to both Protestants and Catholics. n Protestants – allowed priests to marry, sermons delivered in English, not Latin. n Catholics – wore rich robes & revised services to be acceptable to Catholics.
Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges n n n Protestants wanted more reform. Catholics wanted to overthrow Elizabeth. Money n Solution – build an empire in America for a new source of income. n This helped England’s economy but not queen directly. n Financial problems would not be solved during Elizabeth’s reign.
Exit Slip Name 4 Renaissance artists (TMNT) n Why was the printing press so important to the Renaissance? n What is an indulgence? n What was one reason Luther wanted to reform the churches? n What did the Catholic church not allow that made Henry VIII break away? n