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Lungteng English Reader 3 Lesson 4 Are You Inventive? Kaohsiung Municipal Hsin Chuang Senior Lungteng English Reader 3 Lesson 4 Are You Inventive? Kaohsiung Municipal Hsin Chuang Senior High School (高雄市立新莊高中) Presented by Ling, Yuling (凌玉玲) 1

Introduction n The reading begins with a number of questions to motivate the students. Introduction n The reading begins with a number of questions to motivate the students. The contrast created between the great inventions and the seemingly small ones well serves as a prelude to its main idea: everyone can be inventive as long as he keeps his mind active. By giving practical examples in the list of possible causes to inventions, the reading not only activates the students’ background knowledge but also proposes many possibilities for future inventions. Graphic Types: Brainstorming Web & Hierarchy Chart Focus of the Content: Classifying & Describing with Examples Grammar Focus: Transitional Words 2

Lesson Plan I. Background II. New Information III. Practice & Personalization IV. Extension Activities Lesson Plan I. Background II. New Information III. Practice & Personalization IV. Extension Activities & Application 3

I. Background 1. 1 Read the passages to establish background knowledge of the text. I. Background 1. 1 Read the passages to establish background knowledge of the text. 1. 2. The safety pin was invented while Walter. Hunt was twisting a piece of wire, trying to think of something that would help him pay off a fifteen dollar debt. On April 10, 1849, the safety pin was patented. Walter Hunt thought little of his safety pin as an invention and soon sold the patent for four hundred dollars. The first mechanical alarm clock Was invented by Levi Hutchins, of New Hampshire, in the U. S. , in 1787. This device he made only for himself, however, and it only rang at 4 AM in order to wake him for his job. The French inventor, Antoine Redier was the first to patent an adjustable mechanical alarm clock, in 1847. 4

1. 2 Work out the two graphs based on the established knowledge. Graph for 1. 2 Work out the two graphs based on the established knowledge. Graph for Passage I: Graph for Passage 2: Who: Walter Hunt Who: Levi Hutchins When: April 10, 1849 What: Why: When: What: Why: safety pin To pay off a $15 debt 1787 alarm clock To wake him up for job How: By twisting a piece of wire Where: the U. S. 5

II. New Information 2. 1 Text Analysis: Answer the modeling questions to analyze the II. New Information 2. 1 Text Analysis: Answer the modeling questions to analyze the text. Introduction 1. What are the five questions asked by the author to initiate the topic? 2. Who are the great inventors that have changed the way people live? 3. What are the two small inventions that have made people’s lives easier? Main Part 4. Which sentence introduces the list of three factors of invention? 6

Brainstorming 5. What is used as an example to explain that people have thought Brainstorming 5. What is used as an example to explain that people have thought of many solutions to solve problems they face in life? 6. What is the definition of “brainstorming”? Observation 7. Who is suggested as an example of inventing by observation? 8. What are the two examples of common problems that people might think of new ways to deal with? 7

Inventing with Odds and Ends 9. What are the examples of odds and ends Inventing with Odds and Ends 9. What are the examples of odds and ends found in a drawer or a box? 10. What is the device that is thought of with the odds and ends? Conclusion 11. What does the author suggest in the end? 8

2. 2 Graphic Organizer: Illustrate the text with graphs in order of the introduction, 2. 2 Graphic Organizer: Illustrate the text with graphs in order of the introduction, the main part, and the conclusion. Introduction Q 1: 4 big inventors who have changed the way people live 5 initiative questions Q 2: Q 4: Q 3: 2 small inventions that have made life easier Q 5: Main Part 9

Main Part Introductory Sentence: 3 Factors of Invention & Examples Factor 1: Example: Factor Main Part Introductory Sentence: 3 Factors of Invention & Examples Factor 1: Example: Factor 2: Example: Factor 3: Example: Concluding Sentence: 10

2. 2 Individual Graphs with Answers: Q 1: When you hear the word “invention, 2. 2 Individual Graphs with Answers: Q 1: When you hear the word “invention, ” what comes to mind? Q 2: Do you think inventions are new things that change how we live? Q 4: Are you inventive? 5 initiative questions Q 3: Do you believe that inventions can only be thought or created by famous people? Q 5: Do you think you might invent something new and useful some day? 11

4 big inventors who have changed the way people live the airplane the light 4 big inventors who have changed the way people live the airplane the light bulb The Wright Brothers Thomas Edison the telephone the modern steam engine Alexander G. Bell 2 small inventions that have made life easier James Watt the safety razor the safety pin 12

Main Part Introductory Sentence: Let’s take a look at how new inventions come into Main Part Introductory Sentence: Let’s take a look at how new inventions come into being. 3 Factors of Invention & Examples Brainstorming Observation Inventing with Odds and Ends the alarm clock James Watt & the steam engine the message delivery service Concluding Sentence: Just keep your mind active and let your imagination go. You may be more inventive than you think! 13

III. Practice and Personalization 3. 1 Some transitions are found in the text: however, III. Practice and Personalization 3. 1 Some transitions are found in the text: however, for example, at the very least, likewise, and then. Combine the sentences with a proper transition. 1. Lasers are widely applied in medicine. They are common in the treatment of eye diseases. Lasers are widely applied in medicine; for example, they are common in the treatment of eye diseases. 2. I have always enjoyed going to the beach. I never go there at midday. I have always enjoyed going to the beach; however, I never go there at midday. 14

3. San Francisco has a famous strait in the Golden Gate. Seattle has a 3. San Francisco has a famous strait in the Golden Gate. Seattle has a famous strait in Puget Sound. San Francisco has a famous strait in the Golden Gate; likewise, Seattle has a famous strait in Puget Sound. 4. The grounds crew mows the course first. They water it. The grounds crew water the course; then they mows it. 5. Helping others is something worth doing. You feel happy after helping others. Helping others is something worth doing; at the very least, you feel happy after doing it. 15

3. 2 Check the table of transitions and then fill in the blanks with 3. 2 Check the table of transitions and then fill in the blanks with proper transitions to complete the paragraph. To show Use the Expressions Addition in addition, also, besides, furthermore, moreover, what’s more Similarity in the same way, likewise, similarly Contrast in contrast, however, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, nevertheless, still, yet Emphasis of course, certainly, indeed, in fact, truly, above all Example for example, for instance, namely Generality in general, as a rule, on the whole, typically Cause & Effect as a result, consequently, hence, therefore, thus, accordingly, for this reason Conclusion finally, in conclusion, in short, in summary, in brief, to sum up Sequence to begin with, first, second, third, then, next, afterwards, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile 16

Complete the passage by filling in the blanks with proper transitions. In general, there Complete the passage by filling in the blanks with proper transitions. In general, there are several solutions to the worsening garbage pollution. (1) To begin with , littering should always be prohibited and fined. (2) Besides , people must sort their garbage and recycle such things as old newspapers and tins and glass bottles because they can be reused. (3) What’s more, the government should find build enough incinerators or find sanitary landfills to deal with the increasing amount of garbage. (4) Above all , people mustn’t create too much garbage; (5) otherwise , the earth will be covered with garbage. After all, there is only one earth to live on. 17

3. 3 Read the passage, create a graph based on its content, and complete 3. 3 Read the passage, create a graph based on its content, and complete the answers. Television has a great influence on our life. It is regarded as one of the most effective means of communication. To a high school student, it serves three main functions: education, information, and recreation. First of all, watching TV enables us to enlarge our knowledge in all respects. For example, by watching such channels as Discovery, National Geographic, Animal Planet, and the Public TV station, we can realize the importance of the natural environment, understand human history, and learn about new science. Besides, thanks to the all-day news stations and the sports relay network, watching TV keeps us informed of the latest big events happening in the world. What’s best, TV provides us with high quality entertainment without leaving the house or spending a lot of money. When we feel bored, the variety shows on TV can add fun to our life. Also, channels like HBO, Cinemax, AXN, Hollywood, and Star Movie play a wide variety of films for us to choose from. 18

A Suggested Graph on the Passage: 19 A Suggested Graph on the Passage: 19

The Graph with Answers: 20 The Graph with Answers: 20

IV. Extension Activities and Application 4. 1 Oral Report: The Great Invention Work in IV. Extension Activities and Application 4. 1 Oral Report: The Great Invention Work in groups and choose an invention to research. The oral report should include information about how the invention came into being as well as how it had changed the world. An Example of a Worksheet 21

Invention: The Credit Card History: The use of credit card originated in the U. Invention: The Credit Card History: The use of credit card originated in the U. S. during the 1920 s. At that time, the individual firms such as oil companies and hotel chains began to issue credit cards to their customers. Those credit cards were used directly between the company and its customers. Until 1938, many companies began to receive each other’s cards. Today people can use credit cards to buy things in countless stores. Some credit cards even allow their owners to borrow cash form the ATM. Influence: By using the credit card to make purchases, people will not have to carry a lot of money, especially when they are traveling abroad. Credit cards can help people avoid theft, robbery and inconveniences. People can now buy things and pay for it later. Therefore, they can enjoy before really paying the money. On the other hand, some people do not use their card smart and they get into trouble. To sum up, credit cards can be good tools or trouble-makers, it depends on how people use them. 22

4. 2 Writing: What’s Next? Work in a group, generate a list of possible 4. 2 Writing: What’s Next? Work in a group, generate a list of possible future invention needs and choose a need to fill by proposing a new invention. Sketch the invention and write an explanation of how it works and whom it will benefit. An Example of the List of Possible Invention Needs pollution transportation time travel aging energy sources health wildlife protection recreation human communication 23

An Example of Writing Problems & Needs: People from modern world are under great An Example of Writing Problems & Needs: People from modern world are under great pressure from everywhere of life. We can easily be annoyed or irritated by little things. Sometimes when we face difficulties and the result turn out as a disaster, we felt sorry for what we’ve done and the bad thoughts just stay in our mind, keeping us away from all the possibilities to success. Even nightmares can keep our mind in horror and distract from what we’re doing. I wonder if there will ever be a way to solve this kind of problem. The Invention: “The HCHS Memory Fixer”– a machine that can fix memories and nightmares, helping you forget what you’ve done so you can embrace the bright future. How the Invention Works: First of all, we need a person who suffers from bad dreams or who cannot get rid of the negative thoughts in his mind. We’ll have him wear a specially manufactured helmet and then lay him under the MF. The man will fall into a short period of sleep, during which the machine keeps on casting a kind of purified electrical wave, eliminating the bad thoughts and turning them into positive power. By the time the man comes to, what he will remember is the happiness and the accomplishments he has, which can encourage him to work harder and have a happier life. 24

A Sketch of the HCHS Memory Fixer 1 2 z 3 z z 4 A Sketch of the HCHS Memory Fixer 1 2 z 3 z z 4 25

An Advertisement to Promote the HCHS Memory Fixer Bad Memories Bothering You? Unforgettable Nightmares? An Advertisement to Promote the HCHS Memory Fixer Bad Memories Bothering You? Unforgettable Nightmares? LET US HELP YOU! The HCHS Memory Fixer will take all your bad memories away. Just give us a call at (07) 343 -3618 Free if the first time. 26

Complement I. The text lists three factors of invention. Read the stories and decide Complement I. The text lists three factors of invention. Read the stories and decide what factors are involved in the process of invention. 1. One cold December day in 1873, to protect his ears from freezing while ice skating, 13 -year-old Chester Greenwood found a piece of wire, and with his grandmother's help, padded the ends. In the beginning, his friends laughed at him. However, when they realized that he was able to stay outside skating long after they had gone inside freezing, they stopped laughing. Instead, they began to ask Chester to make ear covers for them, too. At age 17 Chester applied for a patent. For the next 60 years, Chester's factory made earmuffs, and earmuffs made Chester rich. Factors involved include brainstorming & inventing with odds and ends. 27

2. The idea of electric lighting was not new, and a number of people 2. The idea of electric lighting was not new, and a number of people had worked on and even developed forms of electric lighting. But up to that time, nothing had been developed that was remotely practical for home use. Edison's eventual achievement was not just an incandescent electric light but also an electric lighting system that contained all the elements necessary to make the incandescent light practical, safe, and economical. After one and a half years of work, success was achieved when an incandescent lamp with a filament of carbonized sewing thread burned for thirteen and a half hours. Factors involved include observation & brainstorming. 3. At the turn of the century, Mrs. Earl Dickson, an inexperienced cook, often burned and cut herself. Mr. Dickson, a Johnson and Johnson employee, got plenty of practice in hand bandaging. Out of concern for his wife's safety, he began to prepare bandages ahead of time so that his wife could apply them by herself. By combining a piece of surgical tape and a piece of gauze, he fashioned the first crude adhesive strip bandage. Factors involved include brainstorming & observation. 28

II. Here are some rules for brainstorming: no criticism, work for quantity, hitchhiking welcome, II. Here are some rules for brainstorming: no criticism, work for quantity, hitchhiking welcome, and freewheeling encouraged. Read each the paragraph and decide which rule it relates to. (1) Alex Osborn stated that "Quantity breeds quality. " People must experience a "brain drain“ before innovative, creative ideas can surface; therefore, the more ideas are proposed, the more quality ideas are to be generated. (2) Outrageous, humorous, and seemingly unimportant ideas should be recorded. It is not uncommon for the most off-the-wall idea to turn out workable and valuable. work for quantity freewheeling encouraged 29

(3) Neither positive nor negative comments are allowed. Either type inhibits the free flow (3) Neither positive nor negative comments are allowed. Either type inhibits the free flow of thought and requires time which interferes with the next rule. Write each spoken idea down as it is given and move on. (4) This occurs when one member's idea produces a similar idea or an enhanced idea in another member. All ideas should be recorded. no criticism hitchhiking welcome 30