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Lumina Urban Transfer Research Network Findings & Questions for Discussion
Four Research Questions that Guided the Lumina Transfer Research Study • What pathways through community college and university lead to or hinder successful baccalaureate completion? • How do transfer and degree attainment rates of various sub-groups differ? • What are the major contributors to discrepancies in attainment rates? • How are the patterns similar or different across sites, and how do state, regional or institutional policy contexts contribute to those differences?
Research Design • Focused on students who begin at local-area community colleges and exhibit characteristics and behavior consistent with preparing for transfer to a baccalaureate-granting institution • Supplemented with faculty, staff, administrator, and student interviews at both PSU and urban community colleges in Oregon.
Summary of Findings • Enrolling as close to full-time as possible is a positive predictor of success. • Students who enroll in developmental credits during Year 1 are less likely to transfer. • Efficacy of swirling depends on type of swirling and discipline area. • Associate degree facilitates transfer, but not baccalaureate completion. • Asian students are most likely to transfer; Hispanic/Latino students are least likely to transfer.
Predictors of Transfer and Bachelor’s Attainment Total Terms FT CC Credits/Term CC Type of Credits Transfer (1 = Transferred to Univ 0 = No Transfer) Transfer/Other Degree Bachelor’s Degree Enrl Pattern (1 = Univ Degree 0 = No Univ Degree) Note: Covariates include age, gender, need-based aid
Factors Contributing to Transfer Factor Total Terms FT CC & Average Credits/Term + Year 1 Dev Credits - Year 1 Prof/Tech Credits - Year 1 Transfer Credits + Year 1 Other Credits - Earned Transfer Degree + Earned Other Assoc + Transfer module only NA Received CC Need-Based Aid - Age - Hispanic/Latino - Black/African American NS Native American NS Asian Female v. Male + NS
Factors Contributing to Bachelor’s Degree for Transfer Students Factor Total Terms FT CC & Average Credits/Term Year 1 Dev Credits Year 1 Transfer Credits + NS + Year 1 Other Credits NS Earned Transfer Degree NS Earned Transfer Module Only NA Structured Swirl v. Linear + Received CC Need-Based Aid - Age + Hispanic/Latino & Native American & Asian NS Black/African American NS Female v. Male NS
Findings: Course Taking Behavior • Students who take more lower-division college credits during Year 1 are associated with greater success • Students who take more developmental credits are associated with lower rates of success
Questions to Consider • How do the findings from this study help inform us about ways to improve outcomes for transferoriented students? • How will the findings impact future interinstitutional communication and relationships between community colleges and universities? • How can the CCs and OUS institutions work together to improve student completion and persistence in Oregon?
Policy Questions: Course Taking Behavior • What can CC/OUS institutions offer to reduce the time or amount of developmental education courses that prepare students for lower-division transfer courses? • What math completion level at the community college would best serve transfer-bound students? • What math completion level should be required for transfer-bound students with majors in nonmath intensive disciplines/fields?
Findings: Financial Aid • Financial Aid information was available for approximately 20% of community college students (the rest did not apply for financial aid) • Despite earning more credits during year one, students who receive need-based aid at the community college (31%) are less likely to transfer than other students (35%)
Policy Questions: Financial Aid • What can CC/OUS institutions do to discourage loan debt prior to transferring to a four-year college or university? • What state-level policy discussions need to occur to reduce students/family reliance on student loans?
Findings: Enrollment & Degree Pathways • Most students (79%) never leave their home community college Based on Logistic Regression: • Students who are able who take more credits per term are more successful • Taking more lower-division college credits during Year 1 is associated with greater success • Structured pathways are the most productive pathways to baccalaureate success
Policy Questions: Enrollment & Degree Pathways • How long should students stay at a community college prior to transfer and how can transfer policy encourage them to earn some kind of valuable credential prior to transfer? • Should Oregon community college students be encouraged/required to earn the Oregon Transfer Module (OTM) prior to being admitted to the Oregon University System?
Findings: Attainment of Associate Degree • Most students (87%) do not earn an associate degree at the community college • Most students (81%) who transfer have not earned an associate degree • Few students (6% ) earned a transfer degree • Based on logistic regression, earning a transfer degree facilitates transfer, while other types of associate degrees do not.
Policy Questions: Attainment of Associate Degree • What can Oregon do to improve Associate’s degree completion rates? • What can Oregon learn from the Arizona findings? • How can enrollment in dual credit courses in high school improve degree/certificate completion rates in Oregon?