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Look Who’s Behavin’ ALEXA POSNY, PH. D. ASSIS TANT SECRETAR Y OFFICE OF SPECIAL Look Who’s Behavin’ ALEXA POSNY, PH. D. ASSIS TANT SECRETAR Y OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES U. S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JUNE 28, 2012

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Warm-Up 4 You are driving along in your car on a wild, stormy night. Warm-Up 4 You are driving along in your car on a wild, stormy night. You pass by a bus stop, and you see three people waiting for the bus. 1. An old lady who looks as if she is about to die. 2. An old friend who once saved your life 3. The perfect man (0 r) woman you have been dreaming about. Which one would you choose to offer a ride to knowing that there could only be one passenger in your car?

Warm-Up 5 Give the car keys to the old friend and let him take Warm-Up 5 Give the car keys to the old friend and let him take the old lady to the hospital. You stay behind and wait for the bus with the man/woman of your dreams.

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary?

Are You Smarter than the Assistant Secretary? 7 According to Ann Landers, there are Are You Smarter than the Assistant Secretary? 7 According to Ann Landers, there are really only three types of people: • Those who make things happen • Those who watch things happen, and • Those who ask “what happened? ” True or False

Are You Smarter than the Assistant Secretary? 8 According to Ann Landers, there are Are You Smarter than the Assistant Secretary? 8 According to Ann Landers, there are really only three types of people: • Those who make things happen • Those who watch things happen, and • Those who ask “what happened? ” True or False

Moving Upstream: A Story of Prevention and Intervention 9 Moving Upstream: A Story of Prevention and Intervention 9

She replied… 10 “It occurred to me that someone ought to go upstream and She replied… 10 “It occurred to me that someone ought to go upstream and find out why so many kids were falling into the river. What I found is that the old wooden bridge had several planks missing, and when some children tried to jump over the gap, they couldn’t make it and fell through into the river. So I got someone to fix the bridge. ”

Reacting…Rules for Teachers 11 You will not marry during the course of your contract. Reacting…Rules for Teachers 11 You will not marry during the course of your contract. You are not to keep company with men. You may not loiter downtown in ice cream stores. You may not dress in bright colors. You may under no circumstances dye your hair. You must wear at least two petticoats.

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Expectations (Not Rules) for Students 13 Expectations (Not Rules) for Students 13

What does it mean to us? 14 “If a child doesn’t know how to What does it mean to us? 14 “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach. ” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. ” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. ” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach. ” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we teach? . . . punish? ” ~John Herner, Counterpoint (1998, p. 2) Prevent instead of React

What We Know 15 “Children are eager and capable learners. . . ” What We Know 15 “Children are eager and capable learners. . . ”

Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 16 Words heard per hour Professional family child Affirmatives Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 16 Words heard per hour Professional family child Affirmatives per hour Negatives per hour 2, 153 32 5

Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 17 Words heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Negatives Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 17 Words heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Negatives per hour Professional family child 2, 153 32 5 Working class child 1, 251 12 7

Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 18 Words heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Negatives Research (Hart & Risley, 1995) 18 Words heard per hour Affirmatives per hour Negatives per hour Professional family child 2, 153 32 5 Working class child 1, 251 12 7 Child living in poverty 616 5 11

Why 19 “Early learning begets later learning and early success breeds later success…The later Why 19 “Early learning begets later learning and early success breeds later success…The later in life we attempt to repair early deficits, the costlier remediation becomes…” ~James Heckman, Nobel Prize-Winner, Economics, 2000

20 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions 20 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

What We Know… 21 “There is a greater tragedy than being labeled a slow What We Know… 21 “There is a greater tragedy than being labeled a slow learner– and that is being treated as one. ”

Students Change 22 Students Change 22

Students Change 23 Students Change 23

Students Change 24 Students Change 24

Students Change 25 Students Change 25

A Decade of Change 26 A longitudinal study of over 400 students found that A Decade of Change 26 A longitudinal study of over 400 students found that 74 percent of the children whose disability in reading was first identified at nine years of age or older continued to read in the lowest quintile throughout their middle and high school years.

What We Know… 27 • The earlier school staff can identify students’ difficulties, the What We Know… 27 • The earlier school staff can identify students’ difficulties, the quicker and less expensive the task is to help them catch up • The longer a student goes without assistance, the longer the remediation time and the more intense the services must be

28 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions 28 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 29 Students were asked to identify things Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 29 Students were asked to identify things that they find “really helpful” to their learning. Of the following, what did they select as their top rated method for learning best? a)Getting feedback from my peers b)Asking lots of questions c)Getting feedback from my teacher d)Doing hands-on tasks

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 30 Students were asked to identify things Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 30 Students were asked to identify things that they find “really helpful” to their learning. Of the following, what did they select as their top rated method for learning best? a)Getting feedback from my peers b)Asking lots of questions c)Getting feedback from my teacher d)Doing hands-on tasks

How do YOU learn best? 31 Percentage How do YOU learn best? 31 Percentage

10 Ways to Engage Students 32 1. Make it personal 7. Explain the 2. 10 Ways to Engage Students 32 1. Make it personal 7. Explain the 2. Require student consequences 8. Sneak important topics in through the back door 9. Explain how to make change happen 10. Use catchphrases often 3. 4. 5. 6. interaction Arouse fear Use humor Paint a picture in words Keep it in the present

33 Paint a Picture with Words… 33 Paint a Picture with Words…

34 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions 34 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

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What We Know… 36 Students must know what is expected of them Behavior is What We Know… 36 Students must know what is expected of them Behavior is learned Schools must provide safe, learning conducive and predictable environments We must teach students what positive behaviors look like

How… 37 By intentionally designing and redesigning resources to match student needs Ensuring that How… 37 By intentionally designing and redesigning resources to match student needs Ensuring that every leader is responsible for planning, implementing and evaluating Using academic and behavioral data to inform instructional/behavioral decisions Including educators, families and community members as part of effective problem-solving and instructional decision making Creating an empowering culture that maintains collective responsibility for every child’s success

38 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions 38 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

39 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions 39 Response to Intervention Early Intervening Services Universal Design for Learning Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

What We Want… 40 All students achieving to high standards by being provided sufficient What We Want… 40 All students achieving to high standards by being provided sufficient time and support All low performing students being provided focused instruction All teachers teaching students to high standards by being given the right conditions and assistance All teachers intervening in the learning process when there is an indication of a failure to learn All teachers focusing early intervention resources on the early years of schooling Leadership Compass, Fall 2006, National Association of Elementary School Principals

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 41 What does MTSS stand for? • Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 41 What does MTSS stand for? • Multi-Tiered System of Support • Multi-Tiered Systems of Support • Multi-Tier System of Supports • Multi-Tiered Support Systems

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 42 What does MTSS stand for? • Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 42 What does MTSS stand for? • • • Multi-Tier System of Supports •

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 43 What is MTSS? • A three-tiered Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 43 What is MTSS? • A three-tiered approach with tier 3 as special education • Response to Intervention in disguise • A way to delay identifying students as being in need of special education • A special education initiative • A systemic approach to helping all students learn.

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 44 What is MTSS? • A three-tiered Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 44 What is MTSS? • A three-tiered approach with tier 3 as special education • Response to Intervention in disguise • A way to delay identifying students as being in need of special education • A special education initiative • A systemic approach to helping all students learn.

Multi-Tier System of Support 45 Early Intervening Services (EIS) 45 Multi-Tier System of Support 45 Early Intervening Services (EIS) 45

Shared Responsibility 46 “Reforming our schools to deliver a worldclass education is a shared Shared Responsibility 46 “Reforming our schools to deliver a worldclass education is a shared responsibility…to support innovative approaches to teaching and learning; to bring lasting change to our lowest-performing schools; and to investigate and evaluate what works…” — A Blueprint for Reform: The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

The big “BIG” idea of MTSS 47 1. Deciding what is important for students The big “BIG” idea of MTSS 47 1. Deciding what is important for students to know 2. Teaching what is important for students to know 3. Keeping track of how students are doing 4. Making changes according to the results collected Dave Tilly, Iowa 2005

What MTSS is… 48 1. Focused on every child’s achievement and behavior 2. Individual What MTSS is… 48 1. Focused on every child’s achievement and behavior 2. Individual child problem solving 3. Evidence-based practices for every child 4. High quality, differentiated 5. Screening 6. Progress monitoring 7. Data-based decision making 8. Timely, informative, systematic

MTSS Framework 49 Leadership Identified Teams Buy-In/Consensus Communication Professional Development Empowering Culture Professional Development MTSS Framework 49 Leadership Identified Teams Buy-In/Consensus Communication Professional Development Empowering Culture Professional Development Initial Training Support for Implementation Monitoring for Fidelity Providing ongoing Support Empowering Culture Involving all Staff Involving Parents Informing All

MTSS Framework 50 Assessment Screening Diagnostic Progress Monitoring Outcomes Curriculum Core Supplemental Intensive Instruction MTSS Framework 50 Assessment Screening Diagnostic Progress Monitoring Outcomes Curriculum Core Supplemental Intensive Instruction Core Supplemental Intensive

MTSS Framework 51 All (Core) Core Curriculum Core Instruction Screening Assessment Some (Supplemental) Protocol MTSS Framework 51 All (Core) Core Curriculum Core Instruction Screening Assessment Some (Supplemental) Protocol Based Curriculum Protocol Based Instruction Diagnostic Assessment Progress Monitoring Assessment Problem Solving Teams Few (Intensive) Problem Solving Teams Intensive, Customized Supports

Multi-Tier System of Supports 52 Multi-Tier System of Supports 52

Advantages of MTSS 53 • Provides instructional and behavioral assistance in a timely fashion Advantages of MTSS 53 • Provides instructional and behavioral assistance in a timely fashion (e. g. , not a wait to fail model) • Helps to ensure a student’s poor academic performance is not due to: • poor instruction • inappropriate curriculum • lack of expectations • Informs teachers and improves behavior and/or instruction because data are collected and closely linked to interventions.

What Does Data Show? 54 Junction City, KS: 10 th largest Kansas district Military What Does Data Show? 54 Junction City, KS: 10 th largest Kansas district Military connected students = 44% Free/reduced lunch students = 38. 9% ELL = 3% SPED = 13. 3% Ethnic demographics White

Impact and Influence: Math 55 100 JCHS Longitudinal Math Results by Disaggregated Groups % Impact and Influence: Math 55 100 JCHS Longitudinal Math Results by Disaggregated Groups % at standard, compared to target (line) 90 All 80 Low SES 70 Afr-AM 60 Multcult 50 Hispanic 40 30 White 20 Sped 10 Target 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Impact and Influence: Reading 56 100 JCHS Longitudinal Reading Results by Disaggregated Groups % Impact and Influence: Reading 56 100 JCHS Longitudinal Reading Results by Disaggregated Groups % at standard, compared to target (line) 90 All 80 Low SES 70 Afr-AM 60 Multcult 50 Hispanic 40 30 White 20 sped 10 Target 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

How Has MTSS Worked? 57 Hillsboro Elementary and Middle, KS: Median size Kansas district How Has MTSS Worked? 57 Hillsboro Elementary and Middle, KS: Median size Kansas district 28% free/reduced lunch students 13% SPED Median income below state average

How Has MTSS Worked? 58 90 % of Students on Benchmark Over Time 79. How Has MTSS Worked? 58 90 % of Students on Benchmark Over Time 79. 4 85. 3 80 67. 6 70 60 50 41. 2 40 30 2006 -2007 -2008 -2009 24. 2 20 10 0 1 2

How Has MTSS Worked? 59 Hillsboro, KS: In 2003, Hillsboro found 28 students to How Has MTSS Worked? 59 Hillsboro, KS: In 2003, Hillsboro found 28 students to be eligible for special education services In 2008, Hillsboro found 1 student to be eligible for special education services

Kansas Reading Scores 40% Gain 60 Source: Kansas State Department of Education Kansas Reading Scores 40% Gain 60 Source: Kansas State Department of Education

Kansas Math Scores 38% Gain 61 Source: Kansas State Department of Education Kansas Math Scores 38% Gain 61 Source: Kansas State Department of Education

How Has MTSS Worked? 62 60% reduction in Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) at Lincoln How Has MTSS Worked? 62 60% reduction in Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) at Lincoln Elementary, Parsons (200708 to 2008 -09) 33% decrease in ODRs at Highland Park, Topeka 2, 000 fewer ODRs at Salina Central High School during the first implementation year

63 Prior to PBS Year 1 PBS Year 2 63 Prior to PBS Year 1 PBS Year 2

64 PBS Year 1 PBS Year 2 64 PBS Year 1 PBS Year 2

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 65 What confounds MTSS? • Providing timely Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 65 What confounds MTSS? • Providing timely instructional assistance • Lacking fidelity of implementation • Limiting the number of tiers • Informing teachers and improving instruction

Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 66 What confounds MTSS? • Providing timely Are You Smarter Than the Assistant Secretary? 66 What confounds MTSS? • Providing timely instructional assistance • Lacking fidelity of implementation • Limiting the number of tiers • Informing teachers and improving instruction

What Will Success Look Like? 67 An overarching framework that guides improvement processes and What Will Success Look Like? 67 An overarching framework that guides improvement processes and planning An integrated systemic approach that includes early identification and rapid response to the needs of all students The establishment of positive, proactive environments as the norm The creation of strong, resourceful, empowered districts, schools, and staff

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To Ensure That Ten Years From Now… 70 We have helped— o every 20 To Ensure That Ten Years From Now… 70 We have helped— o every 20 th child, who drops out o every 10 th child, who has multiple risk factors o every 8 th child, who is mentally or physically challenged o every 7 th child, who is Hispanic o every 6 th child, who is black o every 5 th child, who is poor EVERY CHILD 70

Bonus Question! 71 What convention group has the most number of attendees falling into Bonus Question! 71 What convention group has the most number of attendees falling into the water at the San Antonio River Walk?

Bonus Question! 72 What convention group has the most number of attendees falling into Bonus Question! 72 What convention group has the most number of attendees falling into the water at the San Antonio River Walk? • Librarians