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Look at the following sentences. Point out the verb, the subject and the object in each of these sentences and change them into passive voice. We keep food in the fridge. Food is kept in the fridge. The boy broke the glass. The glass was broken by the boy. You must close the windows and the door. The windows and the door must be closed.
What’s the difference between active voice and passive voice?
Tense The active voice do/does The simple present The present am/is/are doing continuous The present has/have done perfect The simple future be going to/will do The simple past did The past was/were doing continuous The past perfect had done The passive voice am/is/are done am/is/are being done has/have been done be going to/will be done was/were being done had been done
Point 1 Usually the doer of the action needn’t be mentioned in the passive sentence, but if it is needed, we use by to introduce the doer of the action. For example, How can it be used in other ways? ( It is difficult to say who the doer is. ) Upon reaching the top of the mountain, a feeling of happiness and a sense of achievement will be experienced. ( It is not necessary to mention the doer. )
Point 2 When a verb is followed by two objects, either of the objects can be used as the subject in the passive sentence. However, you should know the difference between using the person and the thing as the subject. For example: Our teacher often tells us some interesting stories in English. → We are often told some interesting stories in English. Some interesting stories are often told to us in English.
My friends gave me some nice presents on my birthday. → I was given some nice presents on my birthday by my friends. Some nice presents were given to me on my birthday by my friends. My mother will make us a cake this Saturday. → We will be made a cake by my mother this Saturday. A cake will be made for us by my mother this Saturday.
Point 3 When an infinitive is used as an object complement after some verbs, such as make, let, notice, observe, see, watch, or hear, in the active voice, the infinitive maker to should be omitted, but if the sentence is changed into the passive voice, to should be used before the infinitive. More examples: I often hear the girl play the piano in the afternoon. → The girl is often heard to play the piano in the afternoon.
The teacher makes his students write a composition every week. → The students are made to write a composition every week.
Point 4 Get can also be used in the passive voice instead of be. For example, My bike got stolen last night. You’d better get changed quickly, for the party will begin soon. This window seems to have got broken.
Point 5 Some verbs used in the active give a passive meaning. For example, This sweater washes well. The pen writes smoothly.
Point 6 Some transitive verbs cannot be used in the passive voice, for these verbs indicate states not actions. For example, I like pop songs and often listen to them. He has a big house near the river. You can depend on her to deal with the situation.
There are two special sentence patterns which can be used in the passive voice. It is hoped/believed/reported/thought/… that…. or Sb. is hoped/believed/reported/thought/… to do sth. (1) 人们希望他的身体很快会好起来. It is hoped that he will be better soon. He is hoped to be better soon.
(2) 据报道, 下个月又一颗人造卫星将会被发送到月球上. It is reported that another manned satellite will be sent into the moon next month. Another manned satellite is reported to be sent into the moon next month. (3) 人们认为这三个失踪的海员已经淹死了. It is believed that the three missing sailors have drowned. The three missing sailors are believed to have drowned.
Complete the report according to the given Information on Page 49. are being Some interesting technologies (1) ______ developed at the moment. The first is a jacket created by (2) Electric Wear ______. The smart jacket has been developed _______ this year. It includes a built-in mobile phone and an MP 3 player. It has been worn by (4) teenagers ____, who found it comfortable and very “cool”. The second is a power-free fridge. was invented It (5) _______ by a farmer from Nigeria. To keep fruit and vegetables
fresh for three weeks, only two clay pots and are used some wet sand (6) _____ ----it is totally power-free. Scientists responsible for soya bean plastic say that studies into natural plastic have been completed (7) _______, and that various plastic materials will be produced (8) ________ soon. The natural will be plastic (9) _______ made of soya beans, meaning less rubbish. Last but not least is the Sonic Washer. At last year’s Tech Expo, the development was announced of a new kind of washing machine (10) ______. was This year, the Sonic Washer (11) ____ shown finally _______.
Clothes (12) _____ without liquid soap are cleaned or washing power. These new technologies will be on display throughout the week at Tech Expo.
Modal verbs in the passive voice in the present and the past tenses: Go over Parts 1 and 2 on page 50. Complete the following report by referring to the information given on Page 50.
It has been suggested that travel sickness can be reduced (1)_______ by using virtual reality (VR). This could be of great benefit to people and will be researched further. 200 volunteers will take part in our study. For 20 days, a must be taken virtual car trip (2) ______ every day by each should be made volunteer. The trips (3) ______ to last between must be worn 20 and 30 minutes. A VR headset (4) ______ by the volunteers. Over time, volunteers (5)may become used to the feeling of motion. In this _____ way, their need for travel sickness pills ought to be reduced (6)________. Hopefully, travel sickness might be cured (7) _______ in some sufferers.
Complete some sentences by choosing one of the two words given. The child are getting ____ about the coming holiday. (exciting; excited) Don’t you get ____ of arguing about the same thing all the time? (tiring; tired) Joan isn’t very good at Physics, so everyone was ___ when she passed the exam. (surprising; surprised)
All of us were very ___ last Saturday because our team lost the game. (disappointing; disappointed) It was snowing last night. So everything is ___ with snow this morning. (covering; covered) My parents are quite ___ with my best results. (pleasing; pleased) Both of them are ___ with the arrangement. (satisfying; satisfied)
Complete the article on Page 51.
Notes: (1)Not all transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. Such verbs usually refer to states, not actions, such as have, want, like and lack. They have a nice house with a small beautiful garden. This pair of shoes doesn’t fit me. I would like you to go swimming with me. We want you to be in charge of the work. (2) Not all prepositional verbs, that is, verb + a preposition, can be used in the passive voice
All of the people at the meeting agreed with me. The dog belongs to my cousin. After getting off his car, he walked into the house. (3) In some situations, a past /present participle should be used after be. I’m tired of doing the same thing day after day. The job is really tiring. I didn’t think the story was frightening, but Helen was frightened by it.
Practice: 1. All the employees except the manager _____to work online at home. （04广东） A. encourages B. encourage C. is encouraged D. are encouraged 2. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____to eat more fruit and vegetables. （04上海） A. persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded
3. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____by 2008. （ 04 北京) A. has been completed B. has completed C. will have been completed D. will have completed
4. More patients _____in hospital this year than last year. （04江苏） A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated 5. No permission has _____ for anybody to enter the building. (MET 88) A. been given B. given C. to give D. be giving
6. The police found that the house _____and a lot of things____. (MET 90) A. has broken into, has been stolen B. had broken into, had been stolen C. has been broken into, stolen D. had been broken into, stolen
7. ---Have you moved into the new house? (MET 91) ---Not yet, the rooms _____. A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting 8. If city noises _____ from increasing, people _______ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. (MET 92) A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to
9. I don’t know the restaurant , but it’s __to be quite a good one. A. said B. told C. spoken D. talked. 10. --____the sports meet might be put off. --Yes, it all depends on the weather. A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C. I’m told D. I told
11. Cleaning women in big cities usually get __by the hour. (MET 98) A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 12. The hero’s story _______ differently in the newspaper. (05全国II) A. was reported B. was reporting C. reports D. reported 13. She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role _____ in making the earth a better place to live. A. to have played B. to play C. to be played D. to be playing
14. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you can’t have time to _______ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 15. According to the art dealer, the painting _______ to go for at last a million dollars. A. is expected B. expects C. expected D. is expecting
16. I can’t see any coffee in this cupboard___? • A. Has it all been finished • B. Was it all finished • C. Has it all finished • D. Did it all finish 17. After a fire broke out in the lab, a lot of equipment. (05北京春) A. is damaged B. had damaged C. damaged D. was damaged
18. ---- Don't you think it necessary that he _______ to Miami but to New York? ---- I agree, but the problem is ____ he has refused to. (05江苏) A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what
19. The policeman’s attention was suddenly caught by a small box which ______ placed under the Minister’s car. (05广东) A. has been B. was being C. had been D. would be
20. It was only with the help of the local guide ______. (05上海) A. was the mountain climber rescued B. that the mountain climber was rescued C. when the mountain climber was rescued D. then the mountain climber was rescued
• With the help of high technology， more and more new substances ______ in the past years. A. discovered • B. have discovered C. had been discovered • D. have been discovered
• The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ______ to eat more fruit and vegetables. A. persuade • B. will persuade • C. be persuaded • D. are persuaded
Paul doesn’t have to be made ______. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 在主动句中，感官动词see，watch，hear， listen to等和使役动词make，have后接不带 to的不定式作宾语补足语；但改为被动语态 后，要加上不定式符号to。
More attention should be paid ______ our education if possible. A. to developing • B. to development • C. to develop • D. for developing 有些短语动词相当于及物动词，可以有被动 语态，但短语动词是一个不可分隔的整体， 变为被动语态时不可去掉构成短语动词中的 介词或副词。
____from other continents for millions of years，Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated Australia与separate构成动宾关系，所以用被 动语态，并且separate这一动作发生在 谓语动作之前，故用现在分词的完成时的被动
• Energy drinks are not allowed ______ in Australia but are brought in from New Zealand. A. to make • B. to be made • C. to have been made • D. to be making
Leonardo da Vinci(1452 -1519)______ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. A. is said to be buying B. is said to have bought C. had said to buy D. has said to have bought
At the end of the meeting，it was announced that an agreement ______. A. has been reached B. had been reached C. has reached D. had reached 带有宾语从句的句子变成被动语态时，通常用 it来作为被动句的形式主语，宾语从句则 变成了主语从句。这种结构也可以改为“主语 +be+过去分词+动词不定式”形式。
• 在when，while，if，unless，though等引导的时 间、条件或让步状语从句中，如果从句的主语和 主句的主语一致，从句又含有be动词时，常可以 省略从句的主语和be动词。 The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ______ every day. A. watered B. watering C. water D. to water
The water ______ cool when I jumped into the pool for morning exercise. A. was felt B. is felt B. C. felt D. feels 表示状态特征的系动词look，feel， taste，sound，smell，seem， appear常接形容词或名词作表语
Books of this kind ______ well. A. sell B. sells C. are sold D. is sold 示主语的某种属性特征的动词，如：read， write，sell，open，shut，begin，wash， wear，cut，lock，pack，act，draw， iron，dry，eat，heat，clean等，与副词 well, smoothly，easily等连用时， 说明主语内在的“性能”、“特点” 常用主动代 替被动
As a result of the serious flood，twothirds of the buildings in the area_____. A. need repairing B. needs to repair C. needs repairing D. need to repair need，want，require，stand，bear， deserve等词后面常接主动的V-ing形式表示 被动意义。
With the rapid growth of the population，the city ______ in all directions in the past few years. A. spreads B. has spread C. has been spread D. had spread 不能用被动语态的动词及动词短语。如： cost，fit，suit，benefit，lack，happen to do sth，last，spread，belong to， break out，run out，go out，shut off， take place，work out，lose heart， consist of.
11. –Why do you look so sad? • --There are so many problems____. • A. remaining to settle • B. remained settling • C. remaining to be settled remained to be settled D.
Mr Green stood up in defense of the 16 -year-old boy，saying that he was not the one ______. A. blamed B. blaming C. to blame D. to be blamed 不定式to let，to seek，to blame（应 受责备），to decide on用主动形式 表示被动含义
Translation into English: 1. 我很困, 因为我被蚊子搅了一整夜。 I am sleepy becauseＩwas worried by mosquitoes all night. 2. 任务的所有准备 作已经就绪，我们已经 准备开始。 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3. 我有十分钟来决定是否拒绝那个提议。 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.
4. 据报道，到去年年底又一个体育馆在北京 竣 了。It was reported that another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing by the end of last year. 5. 一般说来，没人喜欢在众人面前被捉弄。 Generally speaking, no one likes being made fun of in public. 6. 昨天的会议一定被推迟了，因为恶劣的天 气使得许多专家无法及时赶到。 The meeting must have been put off yesterday because many specialists could not arrive in time/ because of/ due to the bad weather.