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LOMONOSOV MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY, SKOBELTSYN INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS Multi-particle photodisintegration of heavy nuclei LOMONOSOV MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY, SKOBELTSYN INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS Multi-particle photodisintegration of heavy nuclei A. N. Ermakov, B. S. Ishkhanov, I. M. Kapitonov, I. V. Makarenko, V. N. Orlin [email protected] sinp. msu. ru

GDR QD GDR QD

Experimental complex A compact accelerator with maximum electron energy of 70 Me. V, built Experimental complex A compact accelerator with maximum electron energy of 70 Me. V, built with the use of permanent magnets based on rare-earth magnetic materials. It can be used as a source of bremsstrahlung with maximum γ-quanta energy of up to 70 Me. V. Electron racetrack microtron RTM-70 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University • • • Electron accelerator microtron RTM-70 Canberra HPGe detector with efficiency of 30% Automated system for collecting and analysis of γ-spectra Nuclear data bases GEANT Monte-Carlo simulation Theoretical models of multi-particle photonuclear reactions

CDFE The Centre for Photonuclear Experiments Data of the Moscow Lomonosov State University http: CDFE The Centre for Photonuclear Experiments Data of the Moscow Lomonosov State University http: //www. cdfe. sinp. msu. ru CDFE is the member of the Nuclear Reaction Data Centres Network (NRDCNW), a world-wide cooperation of nuclear data centers from various countries under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The CDFE is responsible for compilation, analysis and evaluation of photonuclear data and dissemination of nuclear data

209 Bi(γ, 4 n)205 Bi Channel identification: • γ-transition energy Eγ • γ-transition relative 209 Bi(γ, 4 n)205 Bi Channel identification: • γ-transition energy Eγ • γ-transition relative intensity Iγ • half-life T 1/2 These quantities were compared to tabular ones This method allows to determine photonuclear reaction channels definitely

Microtron RTM-70 Electron energy 67. 7 Me. V Current: 4 -5 m. A Pulse Microtron RTM-70 Electron energy 67. 7 Me. V Current: 4 -5 m. A Pulse duration: 4 μs Pulse frequency: 10 Hz HPGe detector Canberra GC 3019 Resolution: 0. 9 ke. V (122 ke. V), 1. 9 ke. V (1332 ke. V). Comparing of irradiated 209 Bi sample residual activity spectrum (curve 1) and background spectrum (curve 2). Spectra were measured during 2 h

Relative method Use of relative methods is the most effective when investigated and monitor Relative method Use of relative methods is the most effective when investigated and monitor reactions cross sections are measured in the same target and at the same geometry. The method allows to investigate up to 10 reactions simultaneously at the same experimental conditions. This increases relative accuracy of reactions yields determination.

Reaction Final nucleus threshold, half-life Me. V 209 Bi(γ, n)208 Bi 7. 46 3. Reaction Final nucleus threshold, half-life Me. V 209 Bi(γ, n)208 Bi 7. 46 3. 68∙ 105 y 209 Bi(γ, 2 n)207 Bi 14. 35 32. 9 y 209 Bi(γ, 3 n)206 Bi 22. 45 6. 243 d 209 Bi(γ, 4 n)205 Bi 29. 48 15. 31 d 209 Bi(γ, 5 n)204 Bi 37. 95 11. 22 h 209 Bi(γ, 6 n)203 Bi 45. 15 11. 76 h 209 Bi(γ, 7 n)202 Bi 54. 03 1. 71 h Irradiation duration: 4. 3 h. 314 series of γ-spectra measurement were made Sample exposition: 245 d Bremsstrahlung γ-spectrum for the max electron energy Еe = 67. 7 Me. V. Reaction thresholds in 209 Bi nucleus

Reaction yield (E) reaction cross section W(E, Em) number of bremsstrahlung photons with energy Reaction yield (E) reaction cross section W(E, Em) number of bremsstrahlung photons with energy E in elementary energetic interval that are produced by monochromatic electrons Ее Ет Ет –γ-quanta max energy M – total number of scattering centers in the irradiated part of the target The following factors are taken into account: • detector efficiency energy dependence • self-absorption in investigated sample • time factors (dependence on irradiation, decay, and measurement time) Sγ –γ-peak area εγ –HPGe detector efficiency Iγ – γ-transition relative intensity λ – decay constant of final nucleus ti, td, tm – irradiation, decay, and measurement time relatively

Photonuclear reactions yields in 209 Bi Reaction (γ, 2 n) (γ, 3 n) (γ, Photonuclear reactions yields in 209 Bi Reaction (γ, 2 n) (γ, 3 n) (γ, 4 n) (γ, 5 n) (γ, 6 n) (γ, 7 n) Exp. yield (rel. un. ) 1. 00 ± 0. 05 0. 15 ± 0. 03 0. 09 ± 0. 02 0. 017 ± 0. 003 0. 007 ± 0. 002 0. 00012 ± 0. 00006

Photonuclear reactions yields in 203, 205 Tl Reaction 203 Tl(γ, n)202 Tl + 205 Photonuclear reactions yields in 203, 205 Tl Reaction 203 Tl(γ, n)202 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 3 n)202 Tl Exp. yield (rel. un. ) 1. 00 ± 0. 03 0. 18 ± 0. 06 203 Tl(γ, 3 n)200 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 5 n)200 Tl 0. 029 ± 0. 003 203 Tl(γ, 4 n)199 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 6 n)199 Tl 0. 011 ± 0. 002 203 Tl(γ, 5 n)198 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 7 n)198 Tl 0. 004 ± 0. 001 203 Tl(γ, 6 n)197 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 8 n)197 Tl 0. 0012 ± 0. 0005 205 Tl(γ, pn)203 Hg 0. 0035 ± 0. 0012 203 Tl(γ, 5 n)198 Tlm + 205 Tl(γ, 7 n)198 Tlm 0. 0012 ± 0. 0004 203 Tl(γ, 2 n)201 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 4 n)201 Tl

1. 2. 3. 4. Levinger J. S. // Phys. Rev. 84, 43 (1951) Chadwick 1. 2. 3. 4. Levinger J. S. // Phys. Rev. 84, 43 (1951) Chadwick M. B. et al. // Phys. Rev. C 44, 814 (1991) Ishkhanov B. S. , Orlin V. N. // ЭЧАЯ, 38, 84 (2007) Ishkhanov B. S. , Orlin V. N. // Phys. At. Nucl. , 71, 517 (2008)

209 Bi Solid curves – reactions cross sections dashed curves – QD cross sections. 209 Bi Solid curves – reactions cross sections dashed curves – QD cross sections.

Photonuclear reactions yields in 203, 205 Tl Reaction 203 Tl(γ, n)202 Tl + 205 Photonuclear reactions yields in 203, 205 Tl Reaction 203 Tl(γ, n)202 Tl + 205 Tl(γ. 3 n)202 Tl 203 Tl(γ, 2 n)201 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 4 n)201 Tl 203 Tl(γ, 3 n)200 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 5 n)200 Tl 203 Tl(γ, 4 n)199 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 6 n)199 Tl 203 Tl(γ, 5 n)198 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 7 n)198 Tl 203 Tl(γ, 6 n)197 Tl + 205 Tl(γ, 8 n)197 Tl 205 Tl(γ, pn)203 Hg Exp. yield (rel. un. ) 1. 00 ± 0. 03 0. 18 ± 0. 06 0. 029 ± 0. 003 0. 011 ± 0. 002 0. 004 ± 0. 0012 ± 0. 0005 0. 0035 ± 0. 0012 Theor. Yield GDR+QD GDR (rel. un. ) 1. 0000 0. 21 0. 032 0. 013 0. 0008 0. 0040 1. 0000 0. 19 0. 006 0. 001 0. 0004 0. 0026

Photonuclear reactions yields in 209 Bi Reaction Exp. yield (rel. un. ) (γ. 2 Photonuclear reactions yields in 209 Bi Reaction Exp. yield (rel. un. ) (γ. 2 n) (γ. 3 n) (γ. 4 n) (γ. 5 n) (γ. 6 n) (γ. 7 n) 1. 00 ± 0. 05 0. 15 ± 0. 03 0. 09 ± 0. 02 0. 017 ± 0. 003 0. 007 ± 0. 002 0. 00012 ± 0. 00006 Theor. Yield GDR+QD (rel. un. ) 1. 00 0. 113 0. 051 0. 016 0. 0041 0. 00012 Theor. Yield GDR (rel. un. ) 1. 00 0. 080 0. 025 0. 007 0. 0020 0. 00007

Photonuclear reactions yields in 197 Au Reaction Exp. yield (rel. un. ) (γ, n) Photonuclear reactions yields in 197 Au Reaction Exp. yield (rel. un. ) (γ, n) (γ, 2 n) (γ, 3 n) (γ, 4 n) (γ, 5 n) (γ, 6 n) 1. 0000 0. 16 ± 0. 03 0. 023 ± 0. 002 0. 0074 ± 0. 0013 0. 0025 ± 0. 0002 0. 00050 ± 0. 00007 Theor. Yield GDR+QD (rel. un. ) 1. 0000 0. 2039 0. 0214 0. 0097 0. 0027 0. 0006 Theor. Yield GDR (rel. un. ) 1. 0000 0. 1940 0. 0141 0. 0043 0. 0010 0. 0002

Conclusions • A research complex for multiparticle photonuclear reactions investigation is used in Skobeltsyn Conclusions • A research complex for multiparticle photonuclear reactions investigation is used in Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University • New experimental data on the multinucleon photodisintegration of heavy nuclei in the energy region behind the maximum of the giant dipole resonance up to a photon energy of 67. 7 Me. V have been obtained by the method of gamma spectroscopy of residual beta-active nuclei. • This method has made it possible to observe, for the first time, the entire set of multineutron photonuclear reactions (γ, in) in heavy nuclei, where i ranges between one and seven. • It has been established that the data obtained in our experiment can be described only by simultaneously taking into account both photodisintegration mechanisms— that of the excitation (and decay) of a giant dipole resonance and that of quasideuteron photodisintegration. As the photon energy and the neutron multiplicity increase, the contribution of quasideuteron photodisintegration grows, becoming dominant for reactions involving the emission of not less than four neutrons.