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LOGO Video Compression NPUST-MINAR Professor : Sheau-Ru Tong Student : Chih-Ming Chen http: //minarlab. LOGO Video Compression NPUST-MINAR Professor : Sheau-Ru Tong Student : Chih-Ming Chen http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MINAR

Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 2 Review of basics of image and video compression Object-based video coding (MPEG-4) http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Review of Image Compression Original Signal RGB to YUV Block DCT Quantization Compressed Bitstream Review of Image Compression Original Signal RGB to YUV Block DCT Quantization Compressed Bitstream Runlength &Huffman Coding v Coding an image (single frame): § § § RGB to YUV color-space conversion Partition image into 8 x 8 -pixel blocks 2 -D DCT of each block Quantize each DCT coefficient Runlength and Huffman code the nonzero quantized DCT coefficients Basis for the JPEG Image Compression Standard JPEG-2000 uses wavelet transform and arithmetic coding 3 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Video Compression v Main addition over image compression: § Exploit the temporal redundancy v Video Compression v Main addition over image compression: § Exploit the temporal redundancy v Predict current frame based on previously coded frames v Three types of coded frames: § I-frame: Intra-coded frame, coded independently of all other frames § P-frame: Predicatively coded frame, coded based on previously coded frame § B-frame: Bi-directionally predicted frame, coded based on both previous and future coded frames 4 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MC-Prediction and Bi-Directional MC-Prediction (P- and B-frames) v Motion compensated prediction: Predict the current MC-Prediction and Bi-Directional MC-Prediction (P- and B-frames) v Motion compensated prediction: Predict the current frame based on reference frame(s) while compensating for the motion v Examples of block-based motion-compensated prediction (Pframe) and bi-directional prediction (B-frame): Previous Frame 5 P-Frame Previous Frame B-Frame Future Frame http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example Use of I-, P-, B-frames: MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) v Arrows show Example Use of I-, P-, B-frames: MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) v Arrows show prediction dependencies between frames 6 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Summary of Temporal Processing v Use MC-prediction (P and B frames) to reduce temporal Summary of Temporal Processing v Use MC-prediction (P and B frames) to reduce temporal redundancy v MC-prediction usually performs well; In compression have a second chance to recover when it performs badly v MC-prediction yields: § Motion vectors § MC-prediction error or residual Code error with conventional image coder v Sometimes MC-prediction may perform badly § Examples: Complex motion, new imagery (occlusions) § Approach: 1. Identify blocks where prediction fails 2. Code block without prediction 7 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Basic Video Compression Algorithm v Exploiting the redundancies: § Temporal: MC-prediction (P and B Basic Video Compression Algorithm v Exploiting the redundancies: § Temporal: MC-prediction (P and B frames) § Spatial: Block DCT § Color: Color space conversion v Scalar quantization of DCT coefficients v Zigzag scanning, runlength and Huffman coding of the nonzero quantized DCT coefficients 8 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example Video Encoder 9 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR Example Video Encoder 9 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example Video Decoder 10 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR Example Video Decoder 10 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 11 Review of basics of image and video compression Object-based video coding (MPEG-4) http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Motivation for Scalable Coding Basic situation: 1. Diverse receivers may request the same video Motivation for Scalable Coding Basic situation: 1. Diverse receivers may request the same video § Different bandwidths, spatial resolutions, frame rates, computational capabilities 2. Heterogeneous networks and a priori unknown network conditions § Wired and wireless links, time-varying bandwidths When you originally code the video you don’t know which client or network situation will exist in the future Probably have multiple different situations, each requiring a different compressed bitstream Need a different compressed video matched to each situation v Possible solutions: 1. Compress & store MANY different versions of the same video 2. Real-time transcoding (e. g. decode/re-encode) 3. Scalable coding 12 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scalable Video Coding v Scalable coding: § Decompose video into multiple layers of prioritized Scalable Video Coding v Scalable coding: § Decompose video into multiple layers of prioritized importance § Code layers into base and enhancement bitstreams § Progressively combine or more bitstreams to produce different levels of video quality v Example of scalable coding with base and two enhancement layers: Can produce three different qualities 1. Base layer 2. Base + Enh 1 layers 3. Base + Enh 1 + Enh 2 layers Higher quality v Scalability with respect to: Spatial or temporal resolution, bit rate, computation, memory 13 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example of Scalable Coding v Encode image/video into three layers: v Low-bandwidth receiver: Send Example of Scalable Coding v Encode image/video into three layers: v Low-bandwidth receiver: Send only Base layer v Medium-bandwidth receiver: Send Base & Enh 1 layers v High-bandwidth receiver: Send all three layers v Can adapt to different clients and network situations 14 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scalable Video Coding (cont. ) v Three basic types of scalability (refine video quality Scalable Video Coding (cont. ) v Three basic types of scalability (refine video quality along three different dimensions): § Temporal scalability Temporal resolution § Spatial scalability Spatial resolution § SNR (quality) scalability Amplitude resolution v Each type of scalable coding provides scalability of one dimension of the video signal § Can combine multiple types of scalability to provide scalability along multiple dimensions 15 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scalable Coding: Temporal Scalability v Temporal scalability: Based on the use of B-frames to Scalable Coding: Temporal Scalability v Temporal scalability: Based on the use of B-frames to refine the temporal resolution § B-frames are dependent on other frames § However, no other frame depends on a B-frame § Each B-frame may be discarded without affecting other frames 16 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scalable Coding: Spatial Scalability v Spatial scalability: Based on refining the spatial resolution § Scalable Coding: Spatial Scalability v Spatial scalability: Based on refining the spatial resolution § Base layer is low resolution version of video § Enh 1 contains coded difference between upsampled base layer and original video § Also called: Pyramid coding 17 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scalable Coding: SNR (Quality) Scalability v SNR (Quality) Scalability: Based on refining the amplitude Scalable Coding: SNR (Quality) Scalability v SNR (Quality) Scalability: Based on refining the amplitude resolution § Base layer uses a coarse quantizer § Enh 1 applies a finer quantizer to the difference between the original DCT coefficients and the coarsely quantized base layer coefficients 18 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Summary of Scalable Video Coding v Three basic types of scalable coding: § Temporal Summary of Scalable Video Coding v Three basic types of scalable coding: § Temporal scalability § Spatial scalability § SNR (quality) scalability v Scalable coding produces different layers with prioritized importance v Prioritized importance is key for a variety of applications: § Adapting to different bandwidths, or client resources such as spatial or temporal resolution or computational power § Facilitates error-resilience by explicitly identifying most important and less important bits 19 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 20 Review of basics of image and video compression Object-based video coding (MPEG-4) http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Motivation for Standards v Goal of standards: § Ensuring interoperability: Enabling communication between devices Motivation for Standards v Goal of standards: § Ensuring interoperability: Enabling communication between devices made by different manufacturers § Promoting a technology or industry § Reducing costs 21 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

What do the Standards Specify? Encoder Bitstream Decoder (Decoding Process) v Not the encoder What do the Standards Specify? Encoder Bitstream Decoder (Decoding Process) v Not the encoder Scope of Standardization v Not the decoder v Just the bitstream syntax and the decoding process (e. g. use IDCT, but not how to implement the IDCT) Enables improved encoding & decoding strategies to be employed in a standard-compatible manner 22 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Current Image and Video Compression Standards Standard Application Bit Rate JPEG Continuous-tone still-image compression Current Image and Video Compression Standards Standard Application Bit Rate JPEG Continuous-tone still-image compression H. 261 Video telephony and teleconferencing over ISDN p x 64 kb/s MPEG-1 Video on digital storage media (CD-ROM) 1. 5 Mb/s MPEG-2 Digital Television 2 -20 Mb/s Video telephony over PSTN 33. 6 -? kb/s H. 263 MPEG-4 Object-based coding, synthetic content, interactivity JPEG-2000 Improved still image compression H. 26 L 23 Improved video compression Variable 10’s to 100’s kb/s http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Comparing Current Video Compression Standards v Based on the same fundamental building blocks § Comparing Current Video Compression Standards v Based on the same fundamental building blocks § § Motion-compensated prediction (I, P, and B frames) 2 -D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Color space conversion Scalar quantization, runlengths, Huffman coding v Additional tools added for different applications: § Progressive or interlaced video § Improved compression, error resilience, scalability, etc. v MPEG-1/2/4, H. 261/3/L: Frame-based coding v MPEG-4: Object-based coding and Synthetic video 24 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 v MPEG-1 (1991) § Goal: Compression for digital storage media (e. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 v MPEG-1 (1991) § Goal: Compression for digital storage media (e. g. CD-ROM) § Achieves VHS quality video and audio at ~1. 5 Mb/s v MPEG-2 (1993) § Goal: Superset of MPEG-1 to support higher bit rates, higher resolutions, and interlaced pictures. § Original goal to support interlaced video from conventional television; Eventually extended to support HDTV § Provides: Field-based coding and scalability tools 25 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example Use of I-, P-, B-frames: MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) v Arrows show Example Use of I-, P-, B-frames: MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) v Arrows show prediction dependencies between frames 26 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) Structure v Composed of I, P, and B frames MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP) Structure v Composed of I, P, and B frames v Arrows show prediction dependencies v Periodic I-frames enable random access into the coded bitstream v Parameters: (1) Spacing between I frames, (2) number of B frames between I and P frames 27 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG Structure v MPEG codes video in a hierarchy of layers. The sequence layer MPEG Structure v MPEG codes video in a hierarchy of layers. The sequence layer is not shown. GOP Layer Picture Layer Slice Layer 28 Macroblock Layer Block Layer http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG-2 Profiles and Levels v Goal: To enable more efficient implementations for different applications MPEG-2 Profiles and Levels v Goal: To enable more efficient implementations for different applications (interoperability points) § Profile: Subset of the tools applicable for a family of applications § Level: Bounds on the complexity for any profile Level HDTV: Main Profile at High Level ([email protected]) High DVD & SD Digital TV: Main Profile at Main Level ([email protected]) Main Low Profile Simple 29 Main High http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Goals of MPEG-4 v Primary goals: compression) § § § New functionalities (not just Goals of MPEG-4 v Primary goals: compression) § § § New functionalities (not just better Object-based or content-based representation Separate coding of individual visual objects Content-based access and manipulation Integration of natural and synthetic objects Interactivity Communication over error-prone environments v Includes frame-based coding techniques from earlier standards 30 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Comparing MPEG-1/2 and H. 261/3 with MPEG-4 v MPEG-1/2 and H. 261/H. 263: Algorithms Comparing MPEG-1/2 and H. 261/3 with MPEG-4 v MPEG-1/2 and H. 261/H. 263: Algorithms for compression § Basically describe a pipe for storage or transmission § Frame-based § Emphasis on hardware implementation v MPEG-4: Set of tools for a variety of applications § § 31 Define tools and glue to put them together Object-based and frame-based Emphasis on software Downloadable algorithms (not encoders or decoders) http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 Outline 1 2 Scalable video coding 3 Overview of current video compression standards 4 32 Review of basics of image and video compression Object-based video coding (MPEG-4) http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Comments on Object-based Processing v Basic goal: Separate encoding/decoding of separate objects in a Comments on Object-based Processing v Basic goal: Separate encoding/decoding of separate objects in a scene v Separate processing of each object enables: § Identification and selective decoding and/or processing of object of interest § Facilitates interactivity and manipulation of content § Processing of content in the compressed domain § Possible w/o decoding or segmentation at decoder v Used for many years in authoring/production § Video: bluescreening, e. g. weather-news § Audio: individual processing of each voice v MPEG-4 also enables end-user to have object-based processing 33 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Different Parts of MPEG-4 v Video § Coding and expression of natural and synthetic Different Parts of MPEG-4 v Video § Coding and expression of natural and synthetic video objects v Audio § Coding and expression of natural and synthetic speech and audio objects v Systems § Scene Description: Composition of different audio and video objects in the scene § BIFS: Binary Format for Scene Description § Buffering, multiplexing, timing § Interaction v Delivery (Delivery of MM Integration Framework, DMIF) § Setup of connection (broadcast, interactive) § Network is transparent to application 34 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scene Description v Scene description: § Describes the spatio-temporal positioning of the individual audio Scene Description v Scene description: § Describes the spatio-temporal positioning of the individual audio & video (AV) objects to compose the scene § AV Objects: audio, video, natural, synthetic, 2 -D, 3 -D v Transmitted separately from object bitstreams § Scene description info is a property of scene’s structure rather than individual objects Enables scene modification without decoding objects v Can be dynamically altered 35 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example of MPEG-4 Scene [MPEG Committee] 36 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ Example of MPEG-4 Scene [MPEG Committee] 36 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Scene Description (cont. ) v Hierarchical, tree structure: § Leaf nodes: individual AV objects Scene Description (cont. ) v Hierarchical, tree structure: § Leaf nodes: individual AV objects § Other nodes: meaningful grouping [MPEG Committee] 37 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example MPEG-4 Decoding Process [MPEG Committee] 38 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ Example MPEG-4 Decoding Process [MPEG Committee] 38 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Object-based Processing in the Compressed Domain v Each video or audio object coded into Object-based Processing in the Compressed Domain v Each video or audio object coded into a separate bitstream v Scene description contains all non-coded information v Possible operations: § Add/delete an object: Add/discard bitstream, e. g. individual instruments in an orchestra § Manipulate (e. g. move) object: Alter visual/audio scene composition Many object-based operations can be performed without requiring decoding 39 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG-4 Natural Video MPEG-4 has two primary goals for natural video coding: v High MPEG-4 Natural Video MPEG-4 has two primary goals for natural video coding: v High compression efficiency coding § § Rectangular frames High coding efficiency (64 -384 kb/s), low latency, low complexity Error resilience against packet loss, burst errors on wireless links Applications include: Video streaming over the Internet, video over 3 G cellular systems v Object-based coding § § 40 Content-based functionalities Arbitrarily shaped visual objects Separate encoding & decoding of each object Greatly improved content creation capabilities, as well as interactivity with different objects at the client http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Frame-based coding MPEG-4 Coding of Natural Video Classes of video to represent: v Rectangular Frame-based coding MPEG-4 Coding of Natural Video Classes of video to represent: v Rectangular images § Shape (rectangle) does not change with time § Code motion and amplitude information § Use conventional coding methods, e. g. MPEG-1/2 Object-based coding v Arbitrarily shaped (non-rectangular) image regions 41 § Shape usually changes with time § Must code motion, amplitude (texture) and shape Arbitrary & time-varying shape complicates coding § Also describe how objects are composed to form scene (scene description) § Separate encoding and decode of each object http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MPEG-4 Natural Video Coding v Extension of MPEG-1/2 -type algorithms to code arbitrarily shaped MPEG-4 Natural Video Coding v Extension of MPEG-1/2 -type algorithms to code arbitrarily shaped objects Frame-based Coding Object-based Coding [MPEG Committee] Basic Idea: Extend Block-DCT and Block-ME/MC-prediction to code arbitrarily shaped objects 42 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Coding of Arbitrarily Shaped Video Objects v Following slides briefly discuss different aspects of Coding of Arbitrarily Shaped Video Objects v Following slides briefly discuss different aspects of coding arbitrarily shaped video objects: § § Coding of texture (amplitude) information MC-prediction I, P, B coding of objects Coding of shape information v Goal: To give brief, conceptual overview (Not covered on problem sets or quiz) v Key points to take away: 1. Different attributes to code for arbitrarily shaped video objects Texture, motion, & shape information 2. MPEG-4 extends block-based coding to code arbitrarily shaped objects (Not an elegant solution, but it works) 43 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Example of Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Arbitrarily shaped 2 -D object (image region): § Example of Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Arbitrarily shaped 2 -D object (image region): § Video object plane (VOP) in MPEG-4 [MPEG Committee] 44 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Comments on Segmentation v Segmentation of video into objects is not standardized (part of Comments on Segmentation v Segmentation of video into objects is not standardized (part of encoder) v Different segmentations scenarios: § Sometimes segmentation is available, e. g. synthetically generated content § Sometimes it is relatively easy, e. g. bluescreening or videoconferencing § Usually it is very difficult 45 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Coding the Texture of an Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Texture (amplitude) coded by Block-DCT Coding the Texture of an Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Texture (amplitude) coded by Block-DCT adapted for arbitrarily shaped support 1. 2. Embed VOP in rectangle Separate processing of each 8 x 8 block a) Interior ® Conventional Block-DCT b) Exterior ® Discard c) Boundary ® Extrapolate then Block-DCT [MPEG Committee] 46 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MC-Prediction for Texture Coding of Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Block-based ME/MC-P adapted for arbitrarily MC-Prediction for Texture Coding of Arbitrarily Shaped Object v Block-based ME/MC-P adapted for arbitrarily shaped support: 1. 2. Extrapolate arbitrarily shaped object to fill rectangle Perform conventional block-based ME/MC-P • Error metric computed only over object’s support in current frame v Also: Parametric motion models (e. g. affine, perspective) [MPEG Committee] 47 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

MC-Prediction for Video Object Planes: I, P, and B VOP’s v MC-Prediction for VOP’s: MC-Prediction for Video Object Planes: I, P, and B VOP’s v MC-Prediction for VOP’s: § I-VOP: Intra-coded VOP (no prediction) § P-VOP: Predicted VOP § B-VOP: Bi-directionally predicted VOP 48 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Binary Shape Coding v Opaque objects: Each pixel either inside or outside support § Binary Shape Coding v Opaque objects: Each pixel either inside or outside support § Shape given by binary alpha map (bitmap or binary mask) v Many possible approaches for lossless and lossy shape coding e. g. Describe shape by chain code, polynomials, splines, bitmap v MPEG-4: Block-based Context-based Arithmetic Coding (CAE) 1. 2. Embed support in rectangle Separate processing of 16 x 16 blocks a) Interior (opaque) blocks (completely within object) b) Exterior (transparent) blocks (completely outside object) c) Boundary blocks CAE v Also motion compensated CAE 49 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Binary Shape Coding: Block-based Shape Coding v Different 16 x 16 blocks: § Interior, Binary Shape Coding: Block-based Shape Coding v Different 16 x 16 blocks: § Interior, boundary, and exterior 50 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Binary Shape Coding: Block-based CAE (cont. ) v Coding of boundary blocks using CAE: Binary Shape Coding: Block-based CAE (cont. ) v Coding of boundary blocks using CAE: v Intra-shape coding § Context defined by 10 -pixel template v Inter-shape coding § MC-shape using shape motion vector § Context defined by 9 -pixel template from current and previous frames Previous Frame 51 Current Frame http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Sprite Coding (Background Prediction) v Sprite: Large background image § Hypothesis: Same background exists Sprite Coding (Background Prediction) v Sprite: Large background image § Hypothesis: Same background exists for many frames, changes resulting from camera motion and occlusions v One possible coding strategy: 1. 2. Code & transmit entire sprite once Only transmit camera motion parameters for each subsequent frame v Significant coding gain for some scenes 52 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Sprite Coding Example Foreground Object Sprite (background) Reconstructed Frame 53 [MPEG Committee] http: //minarlab. Sprite Coding Example Foreground Object Sprite (background) Reconstructed Frame 53 [MPEG Committee] http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

Related MPEG Standards (non-compression) v MPEG-7 “Multimedia Content Description Interface” § Goal: A method Related MPEG Standards (non-compression) v MPEG-7 “Multimedia Content Description Interface” § Goal: A method for describing multimedia content to enable efficient searching and management of multimedia. v MPEG-21 “Multimedia Framework” § Goal: To enable the electronic commerce of digital media content. 54 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

References and Further Reading General Video Compression References: v J. G. Apostolopoulos and S. References and Further Reading General Video Compression References: v J. G. Apostolopoulos and S. J. Wee, ``Video Compression Standards'‘, Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , New York, 1999. v V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and Video Compression Standards: Algorithms and Architectures, Boston, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. v J. L. Mitchell, W. B. Pennebaker, C. E. Fogg, and D. J. Le. Gall, MPEG Video Compression Standard, New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997. v B. G. Haskell, A. Puri, A. N. Netravali, Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG-2, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1997. MPEG web site: v http: //drogo. cselt. stet. it/mpeg 55 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR

References and Further Reading (cont. ) Video Compression Standards Documents v Video codec for References and Further Reading (cont. ) Video Compression Standards Documents v Video codec for audiovisual services at px 64 kbits/s, ITU-T Recommendation H. 261, International Telecommunication Union, 1990. v Video coding for low bit rate communication, ITU-T Recommendation H. 263, International Telecommunication Union, version 1, 1996; version 2, 1997. v ISO/IEC 11172, Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1. 5 Mbits/s. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1993. v ISO/IEC 13818. Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1996. v ISO/IEC 14496. Coding of audio-visual objects. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1999. 56 http: //minarlab. mis. npust. edu. tw/A MVS/ MINAR