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LOGO Rhetoric at Syntactic Level Guangdong Medical College LOGO Rhetoric at Syntactic Level Guangdong Medical College

Contents 1 Lead in 2 Theory: Parataxis 3 Theory: Hypotaxis 4 Samples and Assignments Contents 1 Lead in 2 Theory: Parataxis 3 Theory: Hypotaxis 4 Samples and Assignments end

1 Lead in 下雨了,我们回家吧。 It is raining, let's go home. Let’s go home as 1 Lead in 下雨了,我们回家吧。 It is raining, let's go home. Let’s go home as it is raining. What does this picture suggest of ?

Sentence Structures in English and Chinese 下雨了 我们回家吧 parataxis Let’s go home as it Sentence Structures in English and Chinese 下雨了 我们回家吧 parataxis Let’s go home as it is raining hypotaxis It is raining, let's go home. Comma Fault

What is parataxis? Parataxis (意合) means the arranging of clauses one after the other What is parataxis? Parataxis (意合) means the arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing the relation between them. 分句之间不靠关联词而依仗次序来体现相互关系。

2 Theory: Parataxis In Chinese there is no restrictions on the syntax framework which 2 Theory: Parataxis In Chinese there is no restrictions on the syntax framework which allows the noun phrases as well as verb phrases in line without link words. So the sentence arrangement is lineal based on time order, space order or logical order. Look at the following sketch. 汉语句子没有主谓语框架的语法限制,它可以几个动词结构连用, 几个名词短语连续平行铺排;也正是没有非谓语形式和定语从句,没 有发达的连接词,要表达复杂的思想时,只能借助自然词序,按动作 发生的顺序或因果逻辑关系来排列,分句之间只能以意相连,逐步交 代,层层铺开,一一道来,呈线性结构(竹竿型)。

More examples 【例 1】广东医学院依山傍水,是个读书的好地方。 No conjunctions to connect the two clauses 【例 2】他吃完饭,穿上鞋,披上大衣,散步去了。 No More examples 【例 1】广东医学院依山傍水,是个读书的好地方。 No conjunctions to connect the two clauses 【例 2】他吃完饭,穿上鞋,披上大衣,散步去了。 No conjunctions for sequences of successive verbs

3 Theory: Hypotaxis English enjoys rich prepositions, conjunctions as well as relative adverbs, relative 3 Theory: Hypotaxis English enjoys rich prepositions, conjunctions as well as relative adverbs, relative pronouns, participles and gerund which are absent in Chinese. So it can set aside the natural order and turns to space structure, scaffolding and tree structure. 英语有着极为丰富的介词、连词和汉语中没有的关系代词、关 系副词、分词、动名词等。它可以撇开按动作顺序造句的限制,而 依赖于从句结构和上述词类作为钩子着重在空间操作、搭架,形成 树型构造。见图:

Sentences Samples 1. 冬天已经来了, 春天还会远吗? (意合) If ___winter comes, can spring be far behind? Sentences Samples 1. 冬天已经来了, 春天还会远吗? (意合) If ___winter comes, can spring be far behind? (形合) 2. 前途是光明的, 道路是曲折的。(意合) _____ While the prospects are bright, the road has twists and turns. (形合) 3. 玩火自焚。(意合) _____plays with fire will perish by fire. ( 形合) Whoever

Examples Analysis v 这里,我想就中国纺织品出口的问题谈些看法, 希望有助于诸位对现状的了解。 v Here, I would like to make an account Examples Analysis v 这里,我想就中国纺织品出口的问题谈些看法, 希望有助于诸位对现状的了解。 v Here, I would like to make an account on the export of China’s textile products in the hope that ________all of you will have a clearer picture on the present situation.

Examples Analysis v 明清两个朝代,封建统治者实行闭关锁国政策, 阻碍了中国的进步和中外交流。 v During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the feudal Examples Analysis v 明清两个朝代,封建统治者实行闭关锁国政策, 阻碍了中国的进步和中外交流。 v During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the feudal rulers adopted a policy of seclusion, which _____hampered China’s progress and its exchanges with the outside world.

Examples Analysis v 中国是一个有五千年文明历史的国家,从历史文 化来了解和认识中国,是一个重要的视角。 v China is a country with 5, 000 years Examples Analysis v 中国是一个有五千年文明历史的国家,从历史文 化来了解和认识中国,是一个重要的视角。 v China is a country with 5, 000 years of civilization. _____, it is important to approach Therefore China from a historical and cultural perspective.

Examples Analysis v 对于 业化国家和发展中国家,这都是一个他们 日益关切的问题,切需国际合作。 v To both industrialized and developing countries, this Examples Analysis v 对于 业化国家和发展中国家,这都是一个他们 日益关切的问题,切需国际合作。 v To both industrialized and developing countries, this is an issue of growing concern in which ______international cooperation is essential.

Examples Analysis v 原打算五月份访华,后不得不推迟,深感失望。由于贵公 司的努力,访问这么快得以重新安排,非常高兴。 when v It was a keen disappointment_____I had to Examples Analysis v 原打算五月份访华,后不得不推迟,深感失望。由于贵公 司的努力,访问这么快得以重新安排,非常高兴。 when v It was a keen disappointment_____I had to which postpone the visit _______I had intended to pay to China when in May. I was delighted_______, as a result of the effort of your company, it proved possible to reinstate the visit so quickly.

Theory in Translation (1) He spoke so well that everybody was convinced of his Theory in Translation (1) He spoke so well that everybody was convinced of his innocence.  a. 他说得那么好听,以至于每一个人都相信他是 无辜的。 b. 他说的那样好听,谁都相信他是无辜的。 (2) If you turn to the left, you will find our institute at a distance.  a. 如果你向左转弯, 你就可以远远看到我们学校。 b. 向左转弯就可以远远看到我们学校。

(3) I can't trust him, because he is not honest.  a. 因为他不老实,所以我不相信他。 b. 他不老实, (3) I can't trust him, because he is not honest.  a. 因为他不老实,所以我不相信他。 b. 他不老实, 我不相信他。 (4) We took off and flew over the city and slowly gained height.  a. 我们起飞了并且飞过城市并且慢慢飞高。 b. 我们起飞了,飞过城市,慢慢飞高。 (5) The cat ate the mouse that ate the malt that lay in the corner of the house.  a. 猫吃了那只吃了放在房子角落里的麦芽糖的耗子。 b. 猫吃了耗子,耗子吃了放在房子角落里的麦芽糖。

Translation by hopotaxis His youth got him off. 由于他年轻, 他得到了宽恕。 A clear conscience laughs Translation by hopotaxis His youth got him off. 由于他年轻, 他得到了宽恕。 A clear conscience laughs at false accusations. 只要问心无愧,别人的指责可以一笑置之。 With all his shortcomings, he was a conscientious worker. 尽管他有缺点, 但 作却是勤勤恳恳的。

Sentence Tree by Hypotaxis : hierarchical Based on animal tests of nearly 1000 chemicals, Sentence Tree by Hypotaxis : hierarchical Based on animal tests of nearly 1000 chemicals, the data show that daily consumption of the average peanut-butter sandwich, which contains traces of aflatoxin(黄曲霉素)(a naturally occurring mold carcinogen (霉菌致癌物)in peanuts) is 100 times more dangerous than our daily intake of DDT from food and that a glass of the most polluted well water in the Silicon Valley is 1000 times less of cancer risk than a glass of wine or beer is.

Sample Analysis Object Clause No. 1 Adverbial clause Main Clause the data show Object Sample Analysis Object Clause No. 1 Adverbial clause Main Clause the data show Object Clause No. 2 and that a glass of the most polluted well water in the Silicon Valley is 1000 times less of cancer risk than a glass of wine or beer is. that daily consumption of the average peanutbutter sandwich, … is 100 times more dangerous than our daily intake of DDT from food 译文:以将近 1000种化学物质作的动物试验所得 到的数据表明,每日所消耗的普通花生酱三明治 中含有的微量黄曲霉素(花生中天然存在的一种 霉菌致癌物)比我们每日从食物中摄取DDT的危 险大 100倍。一杯硅谷最受污染的井水比一杯葡 萄酒或啤酒致癌的危险要小 1000倍。 Attributive Clause Based on animal tests of nearly 1000 chemicals, which contains traces of aflatoxin Appositive (a naturally occurring mold carcinogen in peanuts)

Example Television, the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change Example Television, the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world.

Sentence Tree Sentence Tree

Would you please draw a tree on the white board? Based on animal tests Would you please draw a tree on the white board? Based on animal tests of nearly 1000 chemicals, the data show that daily consumption of the average peanut-butter sandwich, which contains traces of aflatoxin( 黄曲霉素)(a naturally occurring mold carcinogen (霉菌致癌物)in peanuts) is 100 times more dangerous than our daily intake of DDT from food and that a glass of the most polluted well water in the Silicon Valley is 1000 times less of cancer risk than a glass of wine or beer is.

Sentence Expansion 【例1】In order to live a happy life, it is becoming important for Sentence Expansion 【例1】In order to live a happy life, it is becoming important for people to learn knowledge well. +adverbial: In order to live a happy life, it is becoming increasingly important for people to learn knowledge well.

Sentence Expansion 【例2】We saw a bear yesterday. +prep phrase Hiking through the woods yesterday, Sentence Expansion 【例2】We saw a bear yesterday. +prep phrase Hiking through the woods yesterday, we saw a bear.

4 Samples and Assignments The project turned out to be mostly low level findings. 4 Samples and Assignments The project turned out to be mostly low level findings. +parenthesis +Clause +modifiers The project turned out to be mostly low--level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes. Sad to say, the project turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes. Sad to say, the project that journalism credibility was surveyed turned out to be mostly low--level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes.

The revival continued for quite some time. The revival of the ancient world in The revival continued for quite some time. The revival of the ancient world in the Renaissance continued for quite some time. As many people know, the revival of the ancient world in the Renaissance continued for quite some time, and there is some truth in the assertion that the political thinkers of the 17 th and 18 th century were continuing the Renaissance and consciously trying to recreate the Roman republic. As many people know, the revival of the ancient world in the Renaissance continued for quite some time, and there is some truth in the assertion that the political thinkers of the 17 th and 18 th century (including the American founding fathers ) were continuing the Renaissance and consciously trying to recreate the Roman republic.

Summary Parataxis (意合) The arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing Summary Parataxis (意合) The arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing the relation between them. The sentence is lineal. Hypotaxis(形合) : The dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses with connectives. The sentence is hierarchical.

Assignments Sentence expansion 1) The debate invited anyone. 2) London had world’s foreign-exchange market. Assignments Sentence expansion 1) The debate invited anyone. 2) London had world’s foreign-exchange market. 3) The factory is more like a family. 4) Toronto is a city. Typical patterns v 1 patterns of reasoning v 2 patterns of emphasizing v 3 patterns of comparing and contrasting v 4 patterns of exemplification v 5 patterns of cause and effect

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