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“Living together with the Other” Education & Religion in a European Context Robert Jackson “Living together with the Other” Education & Religion in a European Context Robert Jackson Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit Coordinating Group for Religious Education in Europe (Co. GREE) Conference, Berlin, October 2005

Political and Social Context Events – global and local n Sept 11, 2001 in Political and Social Context Events – global and local n Sept 11, 2001 in USA n Afghanistan and Iraq wars n Bali, Casablanca, Jakarta, Madrid, London etc n Israel/Palestine and other ‘ethnic’ conflicts n Civil disorder in northern UK towns in 2001 – economic & demographic factors

Context of Late/Post Modernity n Traditional plurality n n n Modern/postmodern plurality n n Context of Late/Post Modernity n Traditional plurality n n n Modern/postmodern plurality n n n religious and ethnic diversity stereotyping and boundaries instant communication globalisation multiple influences on identity erosion of cultural boundaries responses to relativity and truth Interaction of ‘modern’ and ‘traditional’ plurality

Cultural Discourse n ‘Dominant discourse’ reifies cultures ‘communities’ defined by ethnic and religious identity Cultural Discourse n ‘Dominant discourse’ reifies cultures ‘communities’ defined by ethnic and religious identity n ‘Demotic discourse’- the language of cultural interaction ‘on the ground’ n ‘Culture’ as both a possession of an ethnic or religious ‘community’ n a dynamic process relying on personal agency n

Religious Education in England Wales n Agreed Syllabuses n n Partnership of teachers, faiths, Religious Education in England Wales n Agreed Syllabuses n n Partnership of teachers, faiths, politicians National Framework Informs AS conferences n A national syllabus? n Towards a National Strategy n Teacher training and professional development n

National Framework for Religious Education n Religious education actively promotes the values of truth, National Framework for Religious Education n Religious education actively promotes the values of truth, justice, respect for all and care of the environment. It places specific emphasis on: n pupils valuing themselves and others n the role of family and the community in religious belief and activity n the celebration of diversity in society through understanding similarities and differences n sustainable development of the earth n Religious education also recognises the changing nature of society, including n changes in religious practice and expression n and the influence of religion in the local, national and global community

Pedagogy: The Warwick Interpretive Approach n Representationreligions and ‘cultures’ of showing their diversity n Pedagogy: The Warwick Interpretive Approach n Representationreligions and ‘cultures’ of showing their diversity n individuals, groups, traditions – n Interpretation n comparing and contrasting unfamiliar concepts n ‘culture’ debate familiar and Reflexivity n Pupils relating learning to their own concerns n constructive criticism at a distance n critique of study methods used n Start anywhere : with examples; with pupils. . .

Warwick RE Project: Bridges to Religions n n Source material is ethnographic studies of Warwick RE Project: Bridges to Religions n n Source material is ethnographic studies of children in family and school Children in class compare and contrast their concepts, experiences and beliefs

Warwick RE Project: Bridges to Religions Texts deal with similarity and difference n Diversity Warwick RE Project: Bridges to Religions Texts deal with similarity and difference n Diversity of views of children in class is recognised (meat eating, vegetarianism, special diets) n

Interpretation, Dialogue, Reflexivity n n n Students listed questions raised by zakah developed drama Interpretation, Dialogue, Reflexivity n n n Students listed questions raised by zakah developed drama pieces out of their questions dramas prompted discussion about situations that poor people can be in Muslim boy spoke about what zakahmeant to him students tried to relate zakahto their own moral and spiritual concerns

Pedagogy: A Dialogical Approach Ipgrave § Levels of dialogue § § § Primary (acceptance Pedagogy: A Dialogical Approach Ipgrave § Levels of dialogue § § § Primary (acceptance of plurality) Secondary (openness to difference ) Tertiary (pupil interaction) § Use of children’s religious language § Provide opportunities for structured dialogue (children's involvement) § Children negotiate viewpoints § Project development § Phase 1 in one school § Phase 2 between schools in Leicester § Phase 3 e. Bridges project

From e. Dialogue to Meeting n Children from East Sussex and Leicester meet for From e. Dialogue to Meeting n Children from East Sussex and Leicester meet for a residential weekend at Pyke House, Battle, Sussex, December 2003

How can RE contribute to living together? RE teachers should work with other educators: How can RE contribute to living together? RE teachers should work with other educators: n Council of Europe project ‘intercultural education and the challenge of religious diversity and dialogue’ n Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, Teaching Tolerance Project (Values Education, Peace Education, Human Rights etc) n Proliferation of citizenship programmes in Europe

Spectrum of Citizenship Education in Europe (Mc. Laughlin 1992) MINIMAL exclusive elitist civics ed Spectrum of Citizenship Education in Europe (Mc. Laughlin 1992) MINIMAL exclusive elitist civics ed formal content led knowledge-based didactic transmission easier MAXIMAL inclusive activist citizenship ed participative process led values based interactive interpretation more difficult

Religion in Education: a contribution to Dialogue or a factor of Conflict in transforming Religion in Education: a contribution to Dialogue or a factor of Conflict in transforming societies of European Countries (REDCo) 1 University of Hamburg 2 University of Warwick 3 Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes / Sorbonne EPHE 4 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Free University Amsterdam) 5 University of Stavanger 6 University of Tartu 7 Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster (University of Münster) 8 Deutsches Orient Institut (German Institute for Middle East Studies) 9 Russian Christian Academy for Humanities (St. Petersburg) 10 Universidad de Granada