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Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 3. Design Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 3. Design

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Development

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 5. Evaluation Chapter 3. Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 5. Evaluation Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Development

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Literature Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 5. Evaluation Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Development

Thesis Structure n n n Consider these as “logical chapters”, that is to say Thesis Structure n n n Consider these as “logical chapters”, that is to say they might represent a number of physical chapters or a single section For example, “Chapter 2”, the Literature Review chapter might consist of a chapter on Knowledge Management, a separate chapter on Knowledge Elicitation Or for example, “Chapter 5”, the Evaluation Chapter might just exist as a section in the Conclusions and Future Work chapter.

Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Literature Thesis Structure Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 5. Evaluation Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Development

Mirroring of Chapters Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Mirroring of Chapters Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work Chapter 2. Literature Review Chapter 5. Evaluation Chapter 3. Design Chapter 4. Development

Mirroring of Chapters n n n All of the main points raised in the Mirroring of Chapters n n n All of the main points raised in the Introduction chapter should be addressed in the Conclusions chapter. All of the main sections in the Research Method (or Design) chapter should appear in the Data Analysis (or Experiment) chapter. All of the main sections in the Literature Review chapter should be re-discussed in the Data Findings (or Reflections) chapter.

Introduction to Literature Introduction to Literature

Introduction n Finding out what is happening in your area of research is a Introduction n Finding out what is happening in your area of research is a vital step along your journey to discovery, to find and understand how leading researchers in your field have tackled similar problems and the results they obtained, shortcomings they observed and methodologies they employed are the goals of the literature review process.

Introduction n Additionally the literature reviews serves other purposes; ¡ It shares the reader Introduction n Additionally the literature reviews serves other purposes; ¡ It shares the reader with other studies closely related to your work ¡ It relates your work to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature ¡ It shows how your study is filling in gaps and extending prior studies. ¡ It provides a framework for establishing the importance of your study ¡ It provides a benchmark for comparing the results of your study with other findings

Introduction . . . in other words. . . Introduction . . . in other words. . .

Introduction . . . the literature review. . . Introduction . . . the literature review. . .

Introduction . . . is really, really important. Introduction . . . is really, really important.

2 D Analysis n The objective of this process is to systematically analyse the 2 D Analysis n The objective of this process is to systematically analyse the existing research and classify it in one of two dimensions. ¡ ¡ The breadth of the review is concerned with ‘setting the scene’, in terms of describing the foundational research in this particular domain, there will be research mentioned from each of the areas you have included in your spider diagram. The depth of the research concerns itself with the particular topic work that your research will be built upon. There should be approximately the same number of research papers covered in the depth and breath of the research review.

Examples n Let’s look at three examples ¡ ¡ ¡ Knowledge Management Information Technology Examples n Let’s look at three examples ¡ ¡ ¡ Knowledge Management Information Technology Assistive Technology

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Elicitation Decision Support

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Elicitation Breadth of Domain Decision Support

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Sharing Agile Methods Web 2. 0 Elicitation Decision Support Breadth of Domain Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and you know where your specific topic fits into the domain

Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Web 2. 0 Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Web 2. 0

Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management Web 2. 0

Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Example Probst Nonaka Bhatt Ruggles Davenport Eppler Wiig Prusak Gurteen Knowledge Management O’Reilly Web 2. 0 Mc. Afee Miller Eggers Knorr Grossman

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Web 2. 0 Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Web 2. 0

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Sharing

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Knowledge Maps

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Elicitation Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Elicitation

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Agile Methods Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Agile Methods

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Decision Support Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Decision Support

Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Decision Support Elicitation Web 2. 0 Agile Methods Knowledge Knowledge Management Example Knowledge Management Decision Support Elicitation Web 2. 0 Agile Methods Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Maps

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research

Information Technology Example Information Technology Information Technology Example Information Technology

Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Agent Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Agent Development

Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Breadth Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Breadth of Domain Agent Development

Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Agent Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Computer Architecture Networks Databases Assistive Technology Agent Development Breadth of Domain Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and you know where your specific topic fits into the domain

Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Technology

Information Technology Example Information Technology Databases Information Technology Example Information Technology Databases

Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Technology Databases

Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Information Technology Example Knuth Wirth Naur Hoare von Neumann Dijkstra Turing Moore Boehm Information Technology Databases Date Codd Gray Boyce Pipes Epstein

Information Technology Example Information Technology Databases Information Technology Example Information Technology Databases

Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis Information Technology Example Information Technology Image Synthesis

Information Technology Example Information Technology Networks Information Technology Example Information Technology Networks

Information Technology Example Information Technology Agent Development Information Technology Example Information Technology Agent Development

Information Technology Example Information Technology Comp Architecture Information Technology Example Information Technology Comp Architecture

Information Technology Example Information Technology Assistive Tech Information Technology Example Information Technology Assistive Tech

Information Technology Example Information Technology Agent Development Assistive Tech Databases Networks Comp Architecture Image Information Technology Example Information Technology Agent Development Assistive Tech Databases Networks Comp Architecture Image Synthesis

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC MPT Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC MPT

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC Breadth of Domain Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC Breadth of Domain MPT

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC MPT Breadth of Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Accessibility Usability Universal Design AAC MPT Breadth of Domain Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and you know where your specific topic fits into the domain

Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Universal Design Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Universal Design

Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology Universal Design

Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology Assistive Technology Example Schaff Cain Lahm Lee Meyer Rose Swann Adlam Scherer Assistive Technology Universal Design Mace Story Ostroff Mueller Dolan Preiser

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Universal Design Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Universal Design

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Hardware

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Usability Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Usability

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology MPT Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology MPT

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Accessibility Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology Accessibility

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology AAC Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology AAC

Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology MPT AAC Universal Design Usability Accessibility Hardware Assistive Technology Example Assistive Technology MPT AAC Universal Design Usability Accessibility Hardware

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts:

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey Literature Comprehension

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey Literature Comprehension Literature Review

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey Literature Comprehension Literature Review Collecting the literature

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey Collecting the literature Literature Comprehension Understanding the literature Literature Review

The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into The Literature Review n To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into three parts: Literature Survey Collecting the literature Literature Comprehension Understanding the literature Literature Reviewing the literature

The Literature Survey The Literature Survey

Literature Survey n n The literature survey is the process of identifying and acquiring Literature Survey n n The literature survey is the process of identifying and acquiring the research papers, textbooks, web-sites, theses, etc. that you will require to get a comprehensive overview of the research that has been done in the area that you are investigating. A focused survey technique is recommended to ensure you ‘hit the ground running’ and using this technique you are almost immediately in a position to implement experiments.

Literature Survey n n Recording the papers you have found and read is also Literature Survey n n Recording the papers you have found and read is also of vital importance, and techniques and software available for these tasks are also covered in this section. If you know the exact domain of your research it makes sense to initially focus your search on papers that relate (almost) exactly to your own research, rather than spending a great deal of time reading every paper under the sun that seems remotely relevant.

Literature Survey n A vital step is to identify KEYWORDS Literature Survey n A vital step is to identify KEYWORDS

Literature Survey n n e. g. you are doing research on Communities of practice Literature Survey n n e. g. you are doing research on Communities of practice What other keywords do we need to look out for?

Literature Survey n n e. g. you are doing research on Communities of practice Literature Survey n n e. g. you are doing research on Communities of practice What other keywords do we need to look out for? ¡ ¡ ¡ Network of practice Virtual community Virtual Ethnography Virtual team Community-driven knowledge management

Literature Survey n n You need to get a notebook that you carry with Literature Survey n n You need to get a notebook that you carry with you, and list all the keywords in there. Use that to record ideas you have about your research. Use it to record details of meetings with your supervisor. Insert any useful newspaper articles, pictures, etc. that help.

Literature Survey n n Using these keywords, go to the library and go online Literature Survey n n Using these keywords, go to the library and go online and look for journal papers, books, conference papers, etc. that are relevant. Just using Google is insufficient, you need to search in the real world as well.

Literature Survey n What does peer-reviewed mean? ¡ ¡ When you submit a research Literature Survey n What does peer-reviewed mean? ¡ ¡ When you submit a research paper, a number of people will read the paper and give feedback/corrections on it. The people who review it will be as expert as you are in the field of research (and as such are your peers). Some conferences only get one person to review a paper, others get two, others more – the more people that review conference papers, the more prestigious the conference is, since the papers in it are bound to be of very quality. Journal papers are normally reviewed by several people, and are considered very credible.

Good Sources ? n n n n Journal Papers Conference Papers Textbooks Other Books Good Sources ? n n n n Journal Papers Conference Papers Textbooks Other Books Company Whitepapers Company Websites Blogs Wikis

Literature Survey n What are some good journals? Literature Survey n What are some good journals?

Who are ACM ? n The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, is a Who are ACM ? n The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, is a learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and educational computing society. Its membership is more than 92, 000 as of 2009. ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting new innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters.

ACM SIGs n n n n n SIGACCESS - Accessible Computing SIGACT - Algorithms ACM SIGs n n n n n SIGACCESS - Accessible Computing SIGACT - Algorithms and Computation Theory SIGAda - Ada Programming Language SIGAPP - Applied Computing SIGARCH - Computer Architecture SIGART - Artificial Intelligence SIGBED - Embedded Systems SIGCAS - Computers and Society SIGCHI - Computer-Human Interaction SIGCOMM - Data Communication SIGCSE - Computer Science Education SIGDA - Design Automation SIGDOC - Design of Communication SIGecom - Electronic Commerce SIGEVO - Genetic and Evolutionary Computation SIGGRAPH - Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques SIGIR - Information Retrieval n n n n n SIGITE - Information Technology Education SIGKDD - Knowledge Discovery in Data SIGMETRICS - Measurement and Evaluation SIGMICRO - Microarchitecture SIGMIS - Management Information Systems SIGMM - Multimedia SIGMOBILE - Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and Computing SIGMOD - Management of Data SIGOPS - Operating Systems SIGPLAN - Programming Languages SIGSAC - Security, Audit and Control SIGSAM - Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation SIGSIM - Simulation and Modeling SIGSOFT - Software Engineering SIGSPATIAL - SIGSPATIAL SIGUCCS - University and College Computing Services SIGWEB - Hypertext, Hypermedia and Web

Who else ? n n Another significant group are IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Who else ? n n Another significant group are IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) called “eye-triple-e” is a professional organization for the advancement of technology, it also publishes a number journals, including IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering

IEEE Transactions n n n n n IEEE Computational intelligence and AI IEEE Transactions IEEE Transactions n n n n n IEEE Computational intelligence and AI IEEE Transactions on Computers IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence IEEE Transactions on Services Computing IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing IEEE Transactions on Haptics IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing IEEE Transactions on Multimedia IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking

Literature Survey n And any good research sites ? Literature Survey n And any good research sites ?

Google Scholar Google Scholar

http: //arxiv. org/archive/cs http: //arxiv. org/archive/cs

Web. Lens http: //www. weblens. org/scholar. html Web. Lens http: //www. weblens. org/scholar. html

INFOMINE INFOMINE

DBLP DBLP

Gartner Gartner

Literature Survey n Searching the Web Literature Survey n Searching the Web

Literature Survey n n But remember: If you just search for “Community of practice” Literature Survey n n But remember: If you just search for “Community of practice” you will miss out on: ¡ ¡ ¡ Network of practice Virtual community Virtual Ethnography Virtual team Community-driven knowledge management

hyponyms antonyms acronyms pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms neologisms phraseologism hypernyms PROBLEMS WITH USING A hyponyms antonyms acronyms pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms neologisms phraseologism hypernyms PROBLEMS WITH USING A SEARCH ENGINE AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF INFORMATION quasi-synonyms, or near-synonyms Crossreferences collocation polysemy single-concept principle tautonyms synonyms abbreviations monosemy

Finding Research online n n Effective Searching Let us consider searching for information relating Finding Research online n n Effective Searching Let us consider searching for information relating to 'Project-Based Learning' The Hyphen The first thing to note is the hyphen between the words 'Project' and 'Based', will every web-page relating to this subject have the hyphen in it, or will some just leave it out. If you just leave it out the search engines will find the phrase with or without the hyphen.

Finding Research online n So the first search to try is ¡ n if Finding Research online n So the first search to try is ¡ n if this returns 10, 000 links then try ¡ ¡ ¡ n "Project Based Learning" "Ph. D Thesis" "Project Based Learning" "Masters Thesis“ “Project Based Learning” “Masters Thesis” Declaration this may return Ph. D or Masters thesis on the subject you require information on.

Finding Research online n To find other 'good' pages relating to your subject matter, Finding Research online n To find other 'good' pages relating to your subject matter, try ¡ "Project Based Learning Link*" n ¡ "Project Based Learning Portal*" n ¡ for "PBL Portal" or "PBL Portal Page" "Project Based Learning Webring*" n ¡ for "PBL Links" or "PBL Link Page" for "PBL Webring" or "PBL Webrings" "Project Based Learning FAQ*" n for "PBL FAQ"or "PBL FAQs" or "PBL FAQL"or "PBL FAQLs"

Finding Research online n If you are looking for papers relating to Finding Research online n If you are looking for papers relating to "Project Based Learning", try ¡ ¡ ¡ n "Project Based Learning" Bibliography "Project Based Learning" Literature Review "Project Based Learning" Literature Survey "Project Based Learning" Overview "Project Based Learning" “A Roadmap” Unlike the previous section where we were looking for 'good' pages and put the entire phrase in double quotes, in this section we are only putting the subject matter we are investigating in quotes and the rest of the terms are free text, in this way we can find pages which may not be titled, for example, "Project Based Learning Bibliography", but may be a bibliography which contain references to Project Based Learning.

Finding Research online n If you are looking for a more specific topic, for Finding Research online n If you are looking for a more specific topic, for example, "The Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning", try ¡ ¡ ¡ "Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning" (unlikely) "Project Based Learning" overview web "Project Based Learning" survey web "Project Based Learning" review web "Project Based Learning" assessment web

Finding Research online n n n n Also consider web-sites which will be using Finding Research online n n n n Also consider web-sites which will be using the acronym for "Project Based Learning" so try "PBL" "P. B. L. " Consider the acronym for "Virtual Learning Environments", it could be "VLE"or "VLEs"or "V. L. Es", so try "VLE*" "V. L. E*"

Literature Survey n Here is a good tip: Literature Survey n Here is a good tip:

Literature Survey n Find an up-to-date thesis that is closely related to your research Literature Survey n Find an up-to-date thesis that is closely related to your research question (your supervisor should be able to help you with this, if not, search the web) and use this as a launch pad to your research This is a very useful starting point since it will give you an immediate overview of your research field.

Some Considerations When Using A Thesis As A Starting Point Regional Variations : Different Some Considerations When Using A Thesis As A Starting Point Regional Variations : Different countries, different regions and even different universities have differing standards for their dissertations, so, whilst the dissertation is a useful starting point, it can only be considered as such, and is not a template for your own work. Correspondence of Research : The dissertation that you are using should have a significant overlap with your own research, but there are bound to be differences, therefore, your own literature review will be very different to the one you have found, since yours is aimed at highlighting the ‘gap’ that you wish to address. Quality of Research : The quality of the dissertation is something you will need to consider, how comprehensive is this person’s work ? Have they missed any important papers or major blocks of research ?

Literature Survey n Bibliography Software: Literature Survey n Bibliography Software:

Zotero Free Zotero Free

Bib. Te. X Free Bib. Te. X Free

Pybliographer Free Pybliographer Free

Biblioscape Biblioscape

End. Note End. Note

Mendeley Mendeley

Qiqqa Qiqqa

Reference Manager Reference Manager

Literature Survey n When have you found enough papers? Literature Survey n When have you found enough papers?

Literature Survey n When have you found enough papers? n There is no hard-and-fast Literature Survey n When have you found enough papers? n There is no hard-and-fast rule, but my own suggestion is about 50 papers – you don’t have to review them yet, just have them printed out in a pile.

Literature Comprehension Literature Comprehension

Literature Comprehension n The literature comprehension is the process of reading and understanding the Literature Comprehension n The literature comprehension is the process of reading and understanding the research found in the survey process.

Literature Comprehension n You’ve found 50 papers, now what are you going to do Literature Comprehension n You’ve found 50 papers, now what are you going to do with them ?

Literature Comprehension n You’ve found 50 papers, now what are you going to do Literature Comprehension n You’ve found 50 papers, now what are you going to do with them ? n The first thing to do is to divide them into piles based on sub-topics within your research, so some papers might be about the overall themes and others might be about specific issues.

Literature Comprehension n Now start to read them, I suggest ten sittings, reading five Literature Comprehension n Now start to read them, I suggest ten sittings, reading five papers in each sitting.

Literature Comprehension n n You will be freaked out after reading the first five Literature Comprehension n n You will be freaked out after reading the first five papers, you will be deluged with new terminology, models and approaches. The important thing is to hang in there, don’t get overwhelmed by it all, just read them, and make a note of all new terms, models and approaches…

Literature Comprehension n …in your notebook Literature Comprehension n …in your notebook

Literature Comprehension n n Don’t get overwhelmed by it all, the more papers you Literature Comprehension n n Don’t get overwhelmed by it all, the more papers you read, the less new terms you will be encountering, the more of an expert you will become. You are also adding to your keyword search list.

Literature Comprehension n n The first ten papers are the worst, once you are Literature Comprehension n n The first ten papers are the worst, once you are over that hurdle, you will find the rest much easier. Also in your notebook write down any nice phrases used in the papers, any interesting approaches to the experiments and any nice display of results.

Literature Comprehension n n Also don’t be afraid to ask for help – from Literature Comprehension n n Also don’t be afraid to ask for help – from your supervisor or other people. The process of reading and trying to understand complex research can sometimes be a discouraging one, but a systematic approach to tackling this is best.

Literature Comprehension n n Part of the process might be that you have to Literature Comprehension n n Part of the process might be that you have to do a simple replica of an experiment described in the research to fully understand it. That’s alright, because with all the simulation and prototyping software now available, that’s not as hard as it used to be.

Literature Comprehension n n Active Reading: It is very important to read new research Literature Comprehension n n Active Reading: It is very important to read new research in an active manner, you shouldn’t just skim read the material, but understand what you are reading, as you are reading it. It may be necessary to re-read a sentence, one phrase at a time, or one word at a time until the meaning is evident. It may be the case that you will have to consult some reference source to confirm the meaning of terminology, this being the case, it is only logical to keep reference material close to hand (textbooks, the internet, dictionaries, etc. )

Literature Comprehension n n To help you in this process, I’ve created a checksheet Literature Comprehension n n To help you in this process, I’ve created a checksheet with some friends that have questions you should consider after reading a paper: http: //www. comp. dit. ie/dgordon/Check. Sheets/Science. Article. Check. Sheet. doc

Literature Comprehension n n n n THE QUESTIONS ARE: What type of article is Literature Comprehension n n n n THE QUESTIONS ARE: What type of article is it? What is the main issue/problem being discussed? Skim read – what could your dissertation gain by including this article? What is the article’s contribution to knowledge? How can this information be integrated into your review? Compare and contrast to similar articles – for or against/ or an extension of the literature? Are there recommendations for further research? Where is the article placed in your field? Famous author? Is the article well written, interesting and easy to read? Is there a clear research question – can it be tested? What methods are used to carry out research Is the design appropriate for testing the stated hypothesis? What are the limitations of the design/research methods? Are there aspects of the design that could be applied to your work? Are the results well displayed and clear? Are the results in keeping with the design? Are the implications of the study clear? Have the results been appropriately discussed?

Literature Review Research Question Results Experiment Literature Review Research Question Results Experiment

Literature Comprehension n A typical research paper (from a conference or journal) consists of Literature Comprehension n A typical research paper (from a conference or journal) consists of the following parts; ¡ ¡ ¡ Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methodology, Results and Bibliography.

Literature Comprehension n Literature Map You are going to have to put some structure Literature Comprehension n Literature Map You are going to have to put some structure on the literature, one suggestion is to create a literature map. Write the title of your research on top, and the main topics relevant to your research underneath, now associate the papers you are reading with each of the topics.

Literature Map Literature Map

Literature Map Literature Map

Literature Review Literature Review

Literature Review n The literature review is the process of consolidating the various strands Literature Review n The literature review is the process of consolidating the various strands of past research into a single narrative describing the evolution of the research domain.

Literature Review n There are checklists provided to assist you in this task, one Literature Review n There are checklists provided to assist you in this task, one that deals with the evaluation of a research paper we ave already seen, and the other which deals with questions to reflect upon regarding the overall structure of the literature review chapter in a dissertation.

Literature Review n Literature Review Chapter n http: //www. comp. dit. ie/dgordon/Check. Sheets/Lit. Review. Literature Review n Literature Review Chapter n http: //www. comp. dit. ie/dgordon/Check. Sheets/Lit. Review. Check. Sheet. doc

Literature Review n n n n n The questions of this checksheet are: Has Literature Review n n n n n The questions of this checksheet are: Has the student laid the foundations for his/her work– why it is important that they pursue their topic? Have they been able to show a gap in the literature (more important for Ph. Ds but still a good idea)? Is the nature/type of the research clear? Is the work well written, interesting and easy to read? Does the literature review read like a list of studies or does it build their point/arguments. Is the work simply a repeat or cut and paste of other’s work? Are key researchers and important works included? Examples of other good literature surveys? Have they set out orthogonal issues? Has research been examined for both content and methods? Have studies been compared and contrasted? Has the literature been extended? Has the student been critical in all areas of the research (design) and not just examined the results? Is it ‘a students’ literature review – aimed at supporting their research, rather than just being ‘a’ review of ‘the’ literature? Is each section important? Do they explain how that topic contributes to building a cohesive argument/point Has the work explored what methods are used to carry out research in other studies? Are the limitations of the design/research methods discussed? Are there recommendations for further research?

Literature Review n The underlying (or hidden) theme of the narrative is to show Literature Review n The underlying (or hidden) theme of the narrative is to show that there is a ‘gap’ in the existing research and how your work will address this problem.

Literature Review n The review itself is the final piece of the puzzle, it Literature Review n The review itself is the final piece of the puzzle, it is a matter of tying together all the previous research that you have found and reviewed, and producing an artifact that is not just all those reviews put together, but a coherent and cohesive narrative of the research to date, and a narrative that points to a ‘gap’ in the research that your work intends to fill. It also contextualises the work in the broader research scope.

Literature Review n n n The first step in this process is to consider Literature Review n n n The first step in this process is to consider each article that you have reviewed, is it significant enough to go into the review ? How do you evaluate that ? The answer is simple ; does it help build towards the ‘gap’ in the research you are identifying ? or to put it another way, could you take this article out and it wouldn’t make any difference ?

Literature Review n n n The articles should group together into research trends so Literature Review n n n The articles should group together into research trends so you should list the articles by this grouping and see which ones are important. Your literature map will help with identifying the key themes. The review does not have to be in chronological order, but rather in the order the most clearly shows the trends in this field.

Literature Review n n Remember that writing is not necessarily a linear process, write Literature Review n n Remember that writing is not necessarily a linear process, write what sections you know about, when you know about them. As with all of the writing that you will be doing for you dissertation, there will be many drafts of the literature review chapter, so it is best to write far too much first and then you can cut down, therefore you should include many of the questions for each article in the first draft of your work and chip away at it a piece at a time.

Literature Review n n n I recommend a “ 5 by 5” approach. Read Literature Review n n n I recommend a “ 5 by 5” approach. Read five papers, and the accompanying checksheets, now write five lines about each paper (note: not five sentences, five lines of font size 12 text). Do this ten times. Five by five

Literature Review n n The research should be seen as the zenith of the Literature Review n n The research should be seen as the zenith of the cumulative process of the scientific research that has already been done. Then the process becomes a matter of making these disparate stories into one single narrative, with one theme : there is something missing in the research to date that you are going to address.

Literature Review n The structure of the literature review will be the same as Literature Review n The structure of the literature review will be the same as that of any document, it has a ¡ ¡ ¡ beginning, middle and end.

Literature Review n The beginning or introduction will introduce the main research topics and Literature Review n The beginning or introduction will introduce the main research topics and provide definitions for key concepts that are important to your research – definitions that support your approach taken in the research.

Literature Review n The end or conclusion will be that there has been a Literature Review n The end or conclusion will be that there has been a great deal of work done in this area, but there is a gap in the work that your research will address.

Literature Review n The middle part of the literature review, can be presented in Literature Review n The middle part of the literature review, can be presented in a number of ways, depending on your personal preferences, the main research trends must be discussed, key researchers must be identified, and the work must spiral from its research beginnings towards the research gap that you are going to fill.

Literature Review n n The general research topics you discuss must lead logically to Literature Review n n The general research topics you discuss must lead logically to the specific research that you are undertaking. So if we go back to the T-Shaped structure:

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research

2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research Finding your “eye of the 2 D Analysis Breadth of Research Depth of Research Finding your “eye of the storm”

Literature Review n It may be the case that the trends in the research Literature Review n It may be the case that the trends in the research in your domain fall into two opposing camps, the for-and-against type paradigm, This being the case, whichever side your work is on, make sure that you present the merits of each side, this gives your readers a balanced view of the domain, and gives them the impression of a researcher who can take a sophisticated perspective on matters.

Literature Review n Let’s look at a simple example: Literature Review n Let’s look at a simple example:

Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done on the influence of Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done on the influence of movies on the public perception of hacking, researchers have investigated other topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and robotics and in particular how these movies help contribute to the general public’s behaviours to real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008) look at models of computer interfaces presented in movies, and considers the viability of such interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001) looks at how artificial intelligence has been represented in the movies and how this may impact on the public perception of artificial intelligences. In general the public perception of computer science is strongly influenced by movie representations. ” n REFERENCES: Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in proceedings of the CHI 2004 Workshop on Shaping Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna. Fisher, R. (2001) “AI and Cinema - Does Artificial Insanity Rule? ”, Twelfth Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland. Schmitz, M. , Endres, C. , Butz, A. (2008) "A Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in Science Fiction Movies", Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN ’ 08). January 8 -10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico. n n n

Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done on the influence of Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done on the influence of movies on the public perception of hacking, researchers have investigated other topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and robotics and in particular how these movies help contribute to the general public’s behaviours to real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008) look at models of computer interfaces presented in movies, and considers the viability of such interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001) looks at how artificial intelligence has been represented in the movies and how this may impact on the public perception of artificial intelligences. In general the public perception of computer science is strongly influenced by movie representations. ” n REFERENCES: Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in proceedings of the CHI 2004 Workshop on Shaping Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna. Fisher, R. (2001) “AI and Cinema - Does Artificial Insanity Rule? ”, Twelfth Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland. Schmitz, M. , Endres, C. , Butz, A. (2008) "A Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in Science Fiction Movies", Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN ’ 08). January 8 -10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico. Citations n n n

Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done the influence of movies Literature Review n TEXT: “Although little research has been done the influence of movies on the public perception of hacking, researchers have investigated other topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and robotics and in particular how these movies help contribute to the general public’s behaviours to real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008) look at models of computer interfaces presented in movies, and considers the viability of such interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001) looks at how artificial intelligence has been represented in the movies and how this may impact on the public perception of artificial intelligences. In general the public perception of computer science is strongly influenced by movie representations. ” n REFERENCES: Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in proceedings of the CHI 2004 Workshop on Shaping Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna. Fisher, R. (2001) “AI and Cinema - Does Artificial Insanity Rule? ”, Twelfth Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland. Schmitz, M. , Endres, C. , Butz, A. (2008) "A Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in Science Fiction Movies", Second International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN ’ 08). January 8 -10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico. Citations n n References n

How to cite n The correct way to cite ¡ ¡ ¡ n n How to cite n The correct way to cite ¡ ¡ ¡ n n one author is (Smith, 2005) two authors is (Smith and Jones, 2005) multiple authors is (Smith et al. , 2005) Please note: Since “et al. ” is an abbreviation of the phrase “et alia” the full stop is necessary. Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must always be in italics.

How to cite n Allow me to repeat that last bit, since no one How to cite n Allow me to repeat that last bit, since no one seems to do it correctly: n Please note: Since “et al. ” is an abbreviation of the phrase “et alia” the full stop is necessary. Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must always be in italics. n

Literature Review Literature Review