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Linguo-cultural Identity and National Character What is identity? Cultural identity and language Language and Linguo-cultural Identity and National Character What is identity? Cultural identity and language Language and national character National character is not a set of unique features only characteristic of this particular nation, but a unique combination of universal human traits.

Sources of information about national character • • Cultural tests, questionnaires and experiments International Sources of information about national character • • Cultural tests, questionnaires and experiments International jokes based on national stereotypes Folklore Linguistic data - Vocabulary: words and word-combinations - Dictionaries of quotations - Grammar

Vocabulary • • Foreign, foreigner French Dutch Privacy, private Родина vs motherland Правда How Vocabulary • • Foreign, foreigner French Dutch Privacy, private Родина vs motherland Правда How are you? Tea (or coffee)?

Patriotism through dictionaries of quotations England the English in the ODQ Up to 25% Patriotism through dictionaries of quotations England the English in the ODQ Up to 25% of the quotations are positive: England, with all thy faults, I love thee still – My country (William Cowper, English poet, 1785) About 17% of the quotations are negative: England’s not a bad country… It’s just a mean, cold, ugly, divided, tired, clapped-out, post-imperial slag-heap covered in polystyrene hamburger cartons (Margaret Drabble, English novelist, 1989)

America and the Americans in the ODAQ Over 40% of quotations are positive: • America and the Americans in the ODAQ Over 40% of quotations are positive: • I would go to hell for my country (Thomas Jefferson, 3 d US president, 1785) • Let our object be, Our Country, our whole Country, and nothing but our Country (Daniel Webster, American lawyer and politician, 1825) • America… it is the only place where miracles not only happen, but where they happen all the time (Thomas Wolfe, American writer, 1935) • U. S. A. – Love It or Leave It (Anonymous, bumper sticker, c. 1970) • Columbus did not find out America by chance, but God directed him at that time to discover it; it was contingent to him, but necessary to God (Robert Burton, English writer, 1621) • The happy union of these states is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of liberty throughout the world (James Madison, 4 th US president, 1829) • We Americans are the peculiar, chosen people - the Israel of our time; we bear the ark of the liberties of the world (Herman Melville, American novelist, 1850) • I, in my own mind, have always thought of America as a place in the divine scheme of things that was set aside as a promised land (Ronald Reagan, 40 th US president, 1952). About 20% of the quotations are negative: • The United States is…a warning rather than an example to the world (Lydia Maria Child, 1857) • I don’t see much future for the Americans. In my view, it’s a decayed country (Adolf Hitler, 1942) • The United States always does the right thing, after exploring every other course of action (Winston Churchill, quoted by President Bill Clinton in Santiago, Chile, 1998)

Russia and the Russians in Dushenko’s dictionaries Up to 25% of the quotations are Russia and the Russians in Dushenko’s dictionaries Up to 25% of the quotations are positive: • Я буду воспевать / Всем существом в поэте / Шестую часть земли / С названьем кратким «Русь» (С. А. Есенин, Русь советская, 1924) • Но мы еще дойдем до Ганга, / Но мы еще умрем в боях, Чтоб от Японии до Англии / Сияла Родина моя (П. Д. Коган, 1939 -1941) • Кремлевские звезды над нами горят – / Повсюду доходит их свет! / Хорошая родина есть у ребят, / И лучше той родины / Нет! (С. В. Михалков, 1944) • Надежда мира, сердце всей России, / Москва-столица, моя Москва (Е. А. Долматовский, Ленинские горы, 1948). • Была бы наша Родина богатой да счастливою, / А выше счастья Родины нет в мире ничего! (М. Л. Матусовский, 1949) About 23% of the quotations are negative: • Я предпочитаю бичевать свою родину, предпочитаю огорчать ее, предпочитаю унижать ее, только бы ее не обманывать (П. Я. Чаадаев, Отрывки и афоризмы) • Правление в России есть самовластие, ограниченное удавкою (А. С. Пушкин, Заметки по русской истории ХVIII века, 1822) • Я конечно презираю отечество мое с головы до ног – но мне досадно, если иностранец разделяет со мною это чувство (А. С. Пушкин, письмо П. А. Вяземскому от 27 мая 1826) • Русская история до Петра Великого сплошная панихида, а после Петра Великого – одно уголовное дело (Ф. И. Тютчев)

Grammar • Pronouns: I – you and Вы – ты • Diminutive and affectionate Grammar • Pronouns: I – you and Вы – ты • Diminutive and affectionate suffixes • The use of the exclamation mark - ! • Syntax: word order • Syntax: sequence of tenses in English We know that he prepared his presentation himself. - Мы знаем, что он подготовил презентацию самостоятельно. We knew that he had prepared his presentation himself. – Мы знали, что он подготовил презентацию самостоятельно. • Syntax: Russian impersonal and indefinite sentences Покурить бы… - I feel like smoking. Надо узнать побольше. – We’ve got to find out more about it. Его убило молнией. - He was killed by lightning. • Articles