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Linguistic Profile of Indonesian Heritage Language Learners Juliana Wijaya UCLA jwijaya@humnet. ucla. edu Madison, Linguistic Profile of Indonesian Heritage Language Learners Juliana Wijaya UCLA [email protected] ucla. edu Madison, June 10, 2008

Age of Arrival & Exposure to the Language Student Place of Birth Indonesian Parents Age of Arrival & Exposure to the Language Student Place of Birth Indonesian Parents Home Language Exposure to HL outside home/family & class 1 California both English friends, trip to the country 2 California mother English, a little Indonesian trip to the country 3 California both English, Indonesian friends, church 4 California mother English trip to the country 5 California both English trip to the country 6 Indonesia: came at the age of 5 1/2 both English Indonesian none 7 England: came at the age of 5 both English Indonesian friends, trip to the country

HLs’ Self Assessment of Language Skills Student Listening Speaking Reading Writing 1 1 0 HLs’ Self Assessment of Language Skills Student Listening Speaking Reading Writing 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 3 3 2 2 7 4 3 2 1

Oral Proficiency: • ACTFL - Oral Proficiency Interview Novice, Intermediate, Advance, Superior • ILR Oral Proficiency: • ACTFL - Oral Proficiency Interview Novice, Intermediate, Advance, Superior • ILR – Interagency Language Roundtable Scales: 0+ 5 Measuring general ability and place learners/speakers on global scales

On ACTFL - ILR scale, a person’s oral proficiency of a specific language is On ACTFL - ILR scale, a person’s oral proficiency of a specific language is be rated against the following criteria : • • • Global Tasks and Functions Lexical Control Structural Control Sociolinguistic Competence Delivery Text Produced

ILR/OPI Speaking Ratings of HLs #1 -5: 0+ • Simple and basic sentence structures ILR/OPI Speaking Ratings of HLs #1 -5: 0+ • Simple and basic sentence structures • Individual words and phrases • Memorized words & phrases related to immediate survival needs • Sociolinguistic competence: very limited Perception & production differ greatly • Stress, intonation usually quite faulty

DLI/OPI Speaking Ratings of HLs #6 -7: 2+ • Sufficient to discuss high frequency DLI/OPI Speaking Ratings of HLs #6 -7: 2+ • Sufficient to discuss high frequency concrete topics. Imprecise for less common topics • Use of structural devices is flexible and elaborate • Speak effortlessly and smoothly when discussing common topics • Use of cultural references

What They Know: Lexicons HLs w/ Low Proficiency: HLs w/ Int. proficiency: • Greetings: What They Know: Lexicons HLs w/ Low Proficiency: HLs w/ Int. proficiency: • Greetings: - Apa kabar? ‘How are you? ’ - Terima kasih. ‘Thank you. ’ • Kitchen/Children Words: - Makan ‘to eat’ Minum ‘to drink’ - Bobo vs. Tidur ‘to sleep’ • Words/Phrases beyond greetings, kitchen and survival words • High-frequency words/phrases • Dialectical words/phrases • Full formed words: Beyond base words -Inflection/derivation

What They Know: Morphosyntax Low Proficient HLs: Intermediate HLs: • Basic Simple sentences: Memorized What They Know: Morphosyntax Low Proficient HLs: Intermediate HLs: • Basic Simple sentences: Memorized forms • No mastery of complex morphosyntax structures • Some knowledge of complex morphosyntax: Use of inflections and derivatives in highfrequency phrases & structures is usually accurate

Issues in Speaking Low Proficient HLs: • Pronunciation: - Unaspirated initial stops: p, t, Issues in Speaking Low Proficient HLs: • Pronunciation: - Unaspirated initial stops: p, t, k - Problem with initial & final glottal stops - Problem with ‘trill r’ - Stress on wrong syllables - Faulty intonation • No/little mastery of discourse particles E. g. Emphatic/mirativity marker loh and kok • No/little mastery of cohesive markers

Issues in Speaking Intermediate Proficient HLs: • No problem with pronunciation of high frequency Issues in Speaking Intermediate Proficient HLs: • No problem with pronunciation of high frequency words and common topics • Will be perceived as native speakers • Speak with certain dialects (spoken by parents & friends) • Good mastery of discourse particles and cohesive markers • Problem: Colloquialism

HLs’ Production: Writing (1) • Misspelling: vowels: a, i, u E. g. teman temen HLs’ Production: Writing (1) • Misspelling: vowels: a, i, u E. g. teman temen ‘friend’ sebenarnya sebenernya ‘actually’ • Silent ‘h’ E. g. tujuh tuju ‘seven’ (without final h it is the base of ‘destination/purpose’) bawah bawa ‘under’ (without final h it means to ‘bring’) sudah suda ‘already’ tahu tau ‘to know’

HLs’ Production: Writing (2) • Colloquialisms The use of colloquial expressions in formal writing HLs’ Production: Writing (2) • Colloquialisms The use of colloquial expressions in formal writing : - buat in the place of untuk ‘to/for’ - sama in the place of dan/dengan ‘and/with’ - bikin in the place of membuat ‘to make’ - situ in the place of sana ‘there’ • Inconsistent use of first person plural pronoun kami/kita ‘exclusive/inclusive we’

HLs’ Production: Writing (3) • HLs’ use of informal a ‘double’ genitive/possessive marker -nya HLs’ Production: Writing (3) • HLs’ use of informal a ‘double’ genitive/possessive marker -nya in their formal writing. (used mostly in colloquial spoken language) E. g. rumah dia ‘his/her house HLs & FLs rumahnya – preferable form rumahnya dia HLs • Int HLs’ use of colloq. verb Intransitive marker – in (dialectical) instead of –kan/-i (standard)

Intermediate HLs’ Strength in Writing: • Syntax: A more natural use of active and Intermediate HLs’ Strength in Writing: • Syntax: A more natural use of active and passive sentence structures • Morphosyntax: A more natural use of transtive and intransitive verb phrases • A more natural use of reduplications: plural markers, repeated actions, etc. Note: Basic/no metalinguistic knowledge

Implications: Instructions/Materials: • Low Proficient HLs grouped together with FLs: HLs’ share of socio-cultural Implications: Instructions/Materials: • Low Proficient HLs grouped together with FLs: HLs’ share of socio-cultural knowledge • Intermediate Proficient HLs: Different treatment & different instructional materials to develop their presentational skills & to bring them to advanced and educated native speakers’ levels.