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LIBERAL AND ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY LIBERAL AND ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY

READINGS • Smith, Democracy, chs. 9 -11 • Modern Latin America, ch. 4 (Central READINGS • Smith, Democracy, chs. 9 -11 • Modern Latin America, ch. 4 (Central America) • NB: Optional paper due May 30

DETECTING ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY DETECTING ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY

The Rise of Electoral Democracy, 1972 -2004 The Rise of Electoral Democracy, 1972 -2004

THE CONCEPT OF ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY • Distinct Dimensions of Democracy: üFree and Fair Elections THE CONCEPT OF ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY • Distinct Dimensions of Democracy: üFree and Fair Elections üCitizen Rights • Systematic Curtailment of Citizen Rights

Journalists Killed in Latin America, 1990 -1999 Country___ Colombia Peru Mexico Brazil Haiti Argentina Journalists Killed in Latin America, 1990 -1999 Country___ Colombia Peru Mexico Brazil Haiti Argentina Guatemala Venezuela Chile Dominican Republic Honduras Paraguay Total __ N Killings__ 36 12 10 8 4 3 3 2 1 1 82 Source: Committee to Protect Journalists, Attacks on the Press in 1999 (New York: CPJ, 2000), 23.

Table 10 -2. Electoral Regimes and Freedom of the Press, 1990 s Press____ Not Table 10 -2. Electoral Regimes and Freedom of the Press, 1990 s Press____ Not Free Partly Free Totals _________Regime__________ Autocracy Semi-Democracy 1 5 2 1 26 51 0 0 47 2 31 100

CLASSIFYING CITIZEN RIGHTS (Freedom House scales for “Civil Liberties”) • FH scores of 1 CLASSIFYING CITIZEN RIGHTS (Freedom House scales for “Civil Liberties”) • FH scores of 1 -2 = Extensive • FH scores of 3 -4 = Partial • FH scores of 5 -7 = Minimal

Table 1. Democracy, Elections, and Citizen Rights: A Typology Citizen Rights Character of Elections Table 1. Democracy, Elections, and Citizen Rights: A Typology Citizen Rights Character of Elections Free and Fair Free not Fair None Expansive Liberal Democracy Liberal/Permissive Semidemocracy (Null) Limited Illiberal Democracy Illiberal/Restrictive Semidemocracy Moderate Dictablanda Minimal (Null) Repressive Semidemocracy Hard-Line Dictadura

1980 -1989 Civil Liberties___ Minimal Partial Extensive Totals ________Regime__________ Autocracy Semi-Democracy 15 59 1 1980 -1989 Civil Liberties___ Minimal Partial Extensive Totals ________Regime__________ Autocracy Semi-Democracy 15 59 1 1 30 4 0 41 39 75 35 80

1990 -2000 Civil Liberties___ Minimal Partial Extensive Totals _________Regime_________ Autocracy Semi-Democracy 3 4 0 1990 -2000 Civil Liberties___ Minimal Partial Extensive Totals _________Regime_________ Autocracy Semi-Democracy 3 4 0 0 53 2 0 109 38 7 55 147

Political Regimes in 1999: Countries and Population Regime Type___ N __Countries__ % __Population__ Liberal Political Regimes in 1999: Countries and Population Regime Type___ N __Countries__ % __Population__ Liberal Democracy 3 <5 Illiberal Democracy 11 60 Illiberal Semi-Democracy 5 33 Autocracy 1 2

Liberal and Illiberal Democracy, 1978 -2004 Liberal and Illiberal Democracy, 1978 -2004

Why Illiberal Democracy? • Protection of elite interests • Control of popular masses • Why Illiberal Democracy? • Protection of elite interests • Control of popular masses • Under rubric of free and fair elections

SO WHAT? CYCLES OF MASS POLITICS – Unfettered and “dangerous” democracy (e. g. , SO WHAT? CYCLES OF MASS POLITICS – Unfettered and “dangerous” democracy (e. g. , reformists + Allende) [1950 s-] – Military coups and authoritarian regimes [1960 s-] – Democracy contained [1980 s-]: • Neoliberal economics, Washington consensus • Institutional constraints (e. g. MRO) • Illiberal democracy – Rise of the “new Left” [1990 s-]

The End The End