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Li-Ion Myth-Buster Poking holes into some common beliefs about Li-Ion cells and Li-Ion BMSs. Li-Ion Myth-Buster Poking holes into some common beliefs about Li-Ion cells and Li-Ion BMSs. Davide Andrea Battery Power Conference 2010, 1,

Myths A) Cells B) Batteries C) BMS D) Balancing Battery Power Conference 2010, 2, Myths A) Cells B) Batteries C) BMS D) Balancing Battery Power Conference 2010, 2,

A: cell myths A: Cell myths Group A: Myths about Li-Ion cells - Cell A: cell myths A: Cell myths Group A: Myths about Li-Ion cells - Cell capacity myths - Cell swelling myths Battery Power Conference 2010, 3,

A: cell myths Charge efficiency Myth A 1: A: cell myths Charge efficiency Myth A 1: "A cell puts out less charge than you put into it" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 4,

A: cell myths Charge efficiency Li-Ion charge efficiency = 100 %: Every electron that A: cell myths Charge efficiency Li-Ion charge efficiency = 100 %: Every electron that goes in can come back out (Though, energy efficiency is < 100 %) Battery Power Conference 2010, 5,

A: cell myths Charge efficiency 1 A in for 1 hour, 1 A out A: cell myths Charge efficiency 1 A in for 1 hour, 1 A out for 1 hour SOC: 100 %, to 0 %, back to 100 %: charge efficiency is 100 % Charge voltage is higher than OCV, lower during discharge Charge power is more than discharge power Energy doesn't go back down to 0: energy efficiency is < 100 % Battery Power Conference 2010, 6,

A: cell myths Capacity vs rate Myth A 2: A: cell myths Capacity vs rate Myth A 2: "Cell capacity depends on rate of discharge" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 7,

A: cell myths Capacity vs rate Yes, at high discharge a fixed cutout will A: cell myths Capacity vs rate Yes, at high discharge a fixed cutout will stop discharge sooner Battery Power Conference 2010, 8,

A: cell myths Capacity vs rate But the rest is still there; you can A: cell myths Capacity vs rate But the rest is still there; you can still get it out, with a constant voltage load. Battery Power Conference 2010, 9,

A: cell myths Capacity vs rate But the rest is still there; you can A: cell myths Capacity vs rate But the rest is still there; you can still get it out, with a lower cutout Battery Power Conference 2010,

A: cell myths Capacity vs cycles Myth A 3: A: cell myths Capacity vs cycles Myth A 3: "Cell capacity decreases with number of cycles" MIX Battery Power Conference 2010, 11,

A: cell myths Capacity vs cycles Degradation = capacity loss Higher resistance + fixed A: cell myths Capacity vs cycles Degradation = capacity loss Higher resistance + fixed cutoffs = unused capacity Battery Power Conference 2010, 12,

A: cell myths Cell swelling Myth #A 5: A: cell myths Cell swelling Myth #A 5: "Cells swell due to charging" Myth #A 6: "Cells swell due to heat" Myth #A 7: "With a cell cooling system, there's no need for cell retention" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 13,

A: cell myths Cell swelling Internal pressure: high at ~ 100 % SOC, whether A: cell myths Cell swelling Internal pressure: high at ~ 100 % SOC, whether sitting on a shelf or in use. It's not the process of charging It's not the temperature, not the I 2 R power It's the state of being fully charged. Battery Power Conference 2010, 14,

A: cell myths Cell swelling MUST use retention plates on prismatic or pouch cells. A: cell myths Cell swelling MUST use retention plates on prismatic or pouch cells. Battery Power Conference 2010, 15,

B: Battery myths Group B: Myths about batteries - Reliability myths Battery Power Conference B: Battery myths Group B: Myths about batteries - Reliability myths Battery Power Conference 2010, 16,

B: Battery myths Paral. strings are better Myth B 1: B: Battery myths Paral. strings are better Myth B 1: "It's better to use multiple strings, connected in parallel" vs. MIX Battery Power Conference 2010, 17,

C: BMS myths Group C: C: BMS myths Group C: "I don't need a BMS" myths - Cutoff myth - Small SOC range myth - Extra cells myth Battery Power Conference 2010, 18,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff C 1: C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff C 1: "I don't need a BMS my charger has a high voltage limit" C 2: "I don't need a BMS my load has a low voltage cut-off" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 19,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff There's no way of knowing C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff There's no way of knowing the state of individual cells from the pack voltage. 13. 2 Vtot 3. 3 V 3. 8 V 2. 9 V 3. 3 V 1. 8 V 4. 5 V 3. 3 V 3. 8 V 2. 9 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 20,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Top balancing won't help Fully C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Top balancing won't help Fully charged, Top balanced 14. 4 Vtot Discharged. All same capacity Discharged. One has low capacity 11. 2 Vtot = LV cutoff 3. 6 V 2. 8 V 3. 2 V 3. 6 V 2. 8 V 1. 6 V 3. 6 V 2. 8 V 3. 2 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 21,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Yes: a CCCV will protect C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Yes: a CCCV will protect a topbalanced pack: when the pack voltage is at the max, all the cell voltages will be equally at the max. However, when discharging without a BMS, the voltage of the least capacity cell will drop too far and be damaged. Battery Power Conference 2010, 22,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Bottom balancing won't help Fully C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Bottom balancing won't help Fully discharged, Bottom balanced Charged. All same capacity Charged. 1 has low capacity 12. 0 Vtot 14. 4 Vtot = Charger CV 3. 0 V 3. 6 V 3. 3 V 3. 0 V 3. 6 V 4. 5 V 3. 0 V 3. 6 V 3. 3 V Battery Power Conference 2010, 23,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Yes: a LV cutoff will C: BMS myths No BMS: I use a cutoff Yes: a LV cutoff will protect a bottom-balanced pack: when the pack voltage is low, all the cell voltages will be equally low. However, when charging without a BMS, the voltage of the least capacity cell will go too high. And that's a fire danger! Battery Power Conference 2010, 24,

C: BMS myths No BMS: I mind the SOC Myth #C 3: C: BMS myths No BMS: I mind the SOC Myth #C 3: "I'll won't use the entire SOC range, so I don't need a BMS" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 25,

C: BMS myths Nice and easy: no BMS The assumptions are that: 1) The C: BMS myths Nice and easy: no BMS The assumptions are that: 1) The pack SOC is known 2) All the cells are at that same SOC Not so. Without a BMS, the pack SOC is not known (and even a BMS doesn't always know the SOC) Battery Power Conference 2010, 26,

C: BMS myths More cells: no BMS Myth #C 4: C: BMS myths More cells: no BMS Myth #C 4: "Extra cells are cheaper than a BMS" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 27,

C: BMS myths More cells: no BMS The assumption is that a pack without C: BMS myths More cells: no BMS The assumption is that a pack without a BMS will simply slowly degrade. So, instead of buying a $ 1000 BMS, I'll buy 10 extra cells. Not so. A SINGLE overcharge or over-discharge event can kill a cell. And it will keep on happening after you replace that cell. Battery Power Conference 2010, 28,

D: balancing myths D: Balancing myths Group D: Myths about cell balancing - Balance D: balancing myths D: Balancing myths Group D: Myths about cell balancing - Balance purpose myths - Balance point myths Battery Power Conference 2010, 29,

D: balancing myths Balancing purpose D 1: D: balancing myths Balancing purpose D 1: "Balancing protects a battery" D 2: "Balancing compensates for variations in cell capacity" D 3: "Balancing allows use of the entire charge in a battery" FALSE Battery Power Conference 2010, 30,

D: balancing myths Balancing purpose The point of balancing is to maximize battery capacity. D: balancing myths Balancing purpose The point of balancing is to maximize battery capacity. Balancing brings all the cells to the same SOC at ONE point. The SOC is balanced. Battery Power Conference 2010, 31,

D: balancing myths Bottom balancing Myth D 4: D: balancing myths Bottom balancing Myth D 4: "Bottom balancing protects the cells" MIX Battery Power Conference 2010, 32,

D: balancing myths Bottom balancing No BMS & limited charge: bottom balance may work D: balancing myths Bottom balancing No BMS & limited charge: bottom balance may work Battery Power Conference 2010, 33,

D: balancing myths Bottom balancing Otherwise, only top balance makes sense Battery Power Conference D: balancing myths Bottom balancing Otherwise, only top balance makes sense Battery Power Conference 2010, 34,

Thank you Thank you "Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs" Davide Andrea book. Li. Ion. BMS. com elithion. com