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Lessons learned and future directions of OECD work on agri-environmental indicators Kevin Parris, Agricultural Lessons learned and future directions of OECD work on agri-environmental indicators Kevin Parris, Agricultural Policies and Environment Division, OECD, Paris, France Presentation to the Joint Task Force on Environmental Indicators, UNECE Committee on Environmental Policy, Geneva, Switzerland, 31 October, 2012

OECD AND ITS GLOBAL PARTNERS Membership has expanded over OECD’s 50 year history to OECD AND ITS GLOBAL PARTNERS Membership has expanded over OECD’s 50 year history to embrace 34 countries and the European Union: §Australia §Austria §Belgium §Canada §Chile §Czech Republic §Denmark §Estonia §Finland §France §Germany §Greece §Hungary §Iceland §Ireland §Israel §Italy §Japan §Korea §Luxembourg §Mexico §Netherlands §New Zealand §Norway §Poland §Slovenia §Portugal §Slovak Republic §Spain §Sweden §Switzerland §Turkey §United Kingdom §United States OECD is currently in accession talks with: Russia and enhanced engagement with: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, South Africa OECD 2

OECD Work on Agri-environmental Indicators (AEIs): Past and Present Ø 1993 – 2001 Environmental OECD Work on Agri-environmental Indicators (AEIs): Past and Present Ø 1993 – 2001 Environmental Indicators for Agriculture: Volumes 1, 2, and 3 Ø 2001 – 2011 q 7 Expert Meetings: Biodiversity, Landscapes, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Erosion/Biodiversity, Land Conservation, Farm Management, and Water Use and Water Quality q Washington, D. C. , United States, Workshop (2007) q Environmental Performance of Agriculture in OECD Countries since 1990, summary At A Glance and Electronic Database (2008) q Leysin, Switzerland Workshop (March, 2010) q Zaragoza, Spain, Workshop on Water Information Systems (May 2010) q Working with OECD countries (e. g. Canada, Israel, Korea, Poland) OECD 3

Coverage of OECD agri-environmental indicators ØPolicy and market drivers impacting on env. performance of Coverage of OECD agri-environmental indicators ØPolicy and market drivers impacting on env. performance of agriculture ØAgricultural production, land use, organic farming and transgenic crops ØNutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus balances ØPesticides sales ØEnergy: on-farm energy consumption, biofuel production (agric. feedstocks) ØSoil – water and wind erosion ØWater resources: withdrawals, irrigated area and water application rates ØWater quality: nitrates, phosphorus and pesticides ØAmmonia emissions: acidification and eutrophication ØGreenhouse gas emissions: climate change ØMethyl bromide use: ozone depletion ØBiodiversity: farmland bird populations and agricultural land cover

Value of set of agri-environmental indicators 1. Describes driving forces, current state and trends Value of set of agri-environmental indicators 1. Describes driving forces, current state and trends of environmental conditions in agriculture 2. Highlights where ‘hot spots’ are emerging 3. Provides a tool to better explain the causes and effects of changes in environment 4. Compares trends in performance across countries and in relation to environment targets 5. Establishes a database for policy analysis: monitoring, evaluation and projection scenarios OECD 6

AEI limitations and areas to be developed 1. Definitions and methodologies for calculating indicators AEI limitations and areas to be developed 1. Definitions and methodologies for calculating indicators 2. Data availability, quality, comparability, and spatial aggregation 3. Trends and ranges relative to absolute levels 4. Agriculture’s contribution to env. impacts 5. Indicator baselines, threshold levels and targets 6. Time lags, often environmental outcomes can take a long time to appear (phosphorus -- groundwater) 7. AEIs in physical units, but if measured in monetary terms would be a common unit OECD 7

Viewing AEIs in a broader context 1. Work on establishing AEIs is relatively recent Viewing AEIs in a broader context 1. Work on establishing AEIs is relatively recent compared to other economic and social indicators 2. Complexity of trying to encapsulate very diverse biophysical and economic conditions 3. Many of the caveats and limitations to the AEIs apply to other socio-economic indicators (e. g. inflation rate, unemployment), but the biophysical element is key difference 4. Indicators are only part of policy analyst toolbox, not whole story OECD 8

Future Directions for OECD work on AEIs Ø Clear mandate from OECD Agriculture Ministerial Future Directions for OECD work on AEIs Ø Clear mandate from OECD Agriculture Ministerial meeting (Feb 2010) to focus more on agriculture and environment Ø Preparing 2 nd edition of OECD Compendium of Agrienvironmental indicators (forthcoming early 2013) Ø Greater use of AEIs in OECD policy analysis: climate change; water; agriculture and environment Outlooks; and country economic surveys and env. performance reviews Ø Fostering closer cooperation with Member countries, new (Chile, Estonia, Israel, Slovenia) and old (Canada, Korea) Ø Strengthening cooperation with International Organisations, (Eurostat, FAO, UNECE); agro-food chain; research community OECD 9

Key OECD wide AEI messages and challenges Ø AEIs are primarily to reveal the Key OECD wide AEI messages and challenges Ø AEIs are primarily to reveal the environmental performance of agriculture and provide one tool for policy monitoring, evaluation and outlook scenarios Ø Balance needed between simplicity and timeliness (policy advisors, public) and robustness (scientific soundness) Ø Challenge of budget constraints for new data collection and evaluation initiatives Ø National indicators mask pressure points spatially, but also consider issue of leading economic indicators Ø Thinking beyond pressure, state or response framework toward green growth indicators OECD 10

Gross nitrogen balance Ø UNECE: The balance between all nitrogen added to an agricultural Gross nitrogen balance Ø UNECE: The balance between all nitrogen added to an agricultural system and nitrogen removed from the system (kg/year/hectare) Ø Phosphorus balance ? OECD 11

Main elements in the gross nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) balance calculation Main elements in the gross nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) balance calculation

Water use intensity by agriculture UNECE indicator presented as: (i) Total irrigable area. (ii) Water use intensity by agriculture UNECE indicator presented as: (i) Total irrigable area. (ii) Irrigable area by type of crops grown with the aid of full or supplementary irrigation. (? ) (iii) Share of irrigable area in the total utilized agricultural area. OECD 13

Water use intensity by agriculture Water use intensity by agriculture

Cropping and livestock patterns UNECE presented as: (i) Total area of the major agricultural Cropping and livestock patterns UNECE presented as: (i) Total area of the major agricultural land uses (arable, permanent grassland permanent crops). (ii) Trends in the share of major agricultural land uses in total utilized agricultural area. (iii) Livestock numbers of major livestock types (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry). (iv) Trends in the share of the major livestock types. Indicators iii + iv in nutrient balance, but necessary on their own? OECD 15

Visit the OECD website: Agri-environmental indicators: www. oecd. org/tad/env/indicators Contact: Kevin. Parris@oecd. org Visit the OECD website: Agri-environmental indicators: www. oecd. org/tad/env/indicators Contact: Kevin. [email protected] org