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What is an LEED Building? LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Goals of LEED is to promote integrated, whole-building design practices, recognize environmental leadership in the building industry, stimulate green competition, raise consumer awareness of green building benefits, transform the building market. An LEED building is rated based on : Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor environmental quality Innovation and Design process
Advantages and Disadvantages -Resources are used more efficiently -Creates healthier working environment for employees resulting in more productivity and comfort -Cleaner water and air -Less Waste Disadvantages -Higher initial cost (that’s about it)
Bank of America Tower (LEED Platinum Rating) -Cost One Billion Dollars to build -One of 2 Platinum rated buildings in the World -Implements floor-to-ceiling windows which maximize day time light and reduce thermal loss. -Automatic day time dimming system -Greywater system which collects rainwater from the green-roof and reuses it. -Air coming into the skyscraper is filtered and out going air is filtered as well, making it a giant air filter for mid-town Manhattan. -It is made out of mostly recycled and recyclable material -The concrete is made of 45% slag cement which is a byproduct of blast furnaces. One ton of concrete produces a ton of carbon dioxide. -Building will store and produce ice during off peak hours and then use the ice to cool the building during the day. -It has a wind turbine on the roof to create electricity and will have a 4. 6 MW cogeneration plant in the building.
Rainwater and groundwater capture saves 10. 3 million gallons per year
Transparent interior walls make extensive use of daylighting
Tower draws in air 10 floors up or higher—far above the stew of tailpipe emissions. Filters catch 95% of particulate matter, allergens, ozone, and other compounds that can cause illness.
Cool air is pumped into a void below the building's raised floors. As workers and office equipment warm the ambient air in their workspace, the heated air rises to exhaust vents. This in turn pulls chilled air up from below. Since it's not under pressure, the air can be cooled to just 65°F, rather than 55°F in a conventional system. And by eliminating miles of chilled, moist ductwork—where pathogens often play—this passive system improves overall building health.
A super-efficient 5. 1 -megawatt power plant, running on clean-burning natural gas, nearly trebles the tower's overall energy efficiency. By reusing waste heat and eliminating losses caused when electricity is shipped via power lines over long distances, the turbine can meet up to four-fifths of the tower's peak needs. The setup wastes just 23% of the energy from the original fuel used to make the electricity, far better than the 70% lost at a conventional, grid-connected building.
Victorian-era ice houses cut blocks of frozen water from lakes to store and use during the hot summer months. Bo. A Tower will make ice at night, when power prices are lower, and use it during the day to chill the A/C system. This promises to help cut—by 50%—the amount of power the building needs to cool itself during the hottest days, when electricity demand is greatest.
Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) ZEB’s are becoming increasingly popular in the United States and in the EU. ZEB can be defined in many different ways. They use simple architectural and design techniques to increase the efficiency of the building. Using a technique called Passive Solar Design, a building can reduce its energy needs by up to 90% without the use of any active power generation. This technique requires that the house be southward facing to take advantage of the solar energy given of by the sun.
Passivhaus (Passive House)
Passive Houses are perhaps the most energy efficient houses in the world. They consume on average about 85% less energy than an ordinary house would of a similar size. -Passive houses face south and take advantage of the sun for its primary source of heat -High R-values especially for windows - Heat exchange -Cannot use more than 120 k. Wh/meter square in total energy annually (3. 76 x 10000/square foot) - Super insulated - Little to no VOC’s or formaldehyde emissions - At least. 3 air changes an hour (my house would be would save about 89% just on heating costs if it met this standard)
ZEB (continued) One of the largest ZEB communities is in London and consists of 82 houses and 17 apartments. As name implies it uses zero energy. All power is produced from on site renewable energy such as a cogeneration plant and 777 square meters of solar panels. -All apartments are finished to a high quality -All rain water is captured and reused - Built with low impact materials -Everything is recycled - Public and eco friendly transportation is encouraged. There are limited parking spaces and those that are there are for car-sharing and electric vehicles. -Heating requirements where 87% less - Hot water consumption was 57% less - Residents car mileage decreased by 65%
Affordable LEED homes in The Bronx