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* Lecture 5 * Lecture 5

*Vocabulary extension – расширение словаря *Abbreviation - аббревиация *Clipping - усечение *Blending - слияние *Vocabulary extension – расширение словаря *Abbreviation - аббревиация *Clipping - усечение *Blending - слияние *Causative meaning – каузативное значение *

*What is a morpheme? *What is a root? *What is an affix? *What are *What is a morpheme? *What is a root? *What is an affix? *What are the derived words? *

* Due to peculiarities of the history of Britain borrowings have been very productive * Due to peculiarities of the history of Britain borrowings have been very productive in English. * By a borrowing or loan-word we mean a word which came into the vocabulary of one language from another and was assimilated by the new language. * The main source: * Latin * French * Germanic languages *

*1. The Norman culture of the 11 th c. was certainly superior to that *1. The Norman culture of the 11 th c. was certainly superior to that of the Saxons. The result was that an immense number of French words forced their way into English vocabulary. *

*2. Sometimes it is done to fill a gap in vocabulary. * For example *2. Sometimes it is done to fill a gap in vocabulary. * For example the words potato and tomato were borrowed by English from Spanish when these vegetables were first brought to England by the Spaniards. *

* 3. There may be a word (or even several words) which expresses some * 3. There may be a word (or even several words) which expresses some particular concept, so that there is no gap in the vocabulary and there does not seem to be any need for borrowing. * Yet, one more word is borrowed which means almost the same, - almost, but not exactly. * It is borrowed because it represents the same concept in some new aspect, supplies a new shade of meaning or a different emotional colouring *

*This type of borrowing enlarges groups of synonyms and greatly provides to enrich the *This type of borrowing enlarges groups of synonyms and greatly provides to enrich the expressive resources of the vocabulary. *That is how the Latin cordial was added to the native friendly, the French desire to wish, the Latin admire and the French adore to like and love. *

*Newly formed and borrowed words in English are made in accordance with the existing *Newly formed and borrowed words in English are made in accordance with the existing wordbuilding patterns. *The branch of lexicology that studies these patterns is known as word-building or wordformation. *

*By word-building are understood processes of producing new words from the resources of this *By word-building are understood processes of producing new words from the resources of this particular language. *Together with borrowing, word-building provides for enlarging and enriching the vocabulary of the language. *

*Several different methods of word-formation are recognized in linguistics. *They could be classified into: *Several different methods of word-formation are recognized in linguistics. *They could be classified into: *Morphological types *Syntactic-morphological types *

*Affixation *Word-compounding or word-composition *Shortening or clipping of words *Abbreviation *Blending *Root creation * *Affixation *Word-compounding or word-composition *Shortening or clipping of words *Abbreviation *Blending *Root creation *

*Conversion *Transfer and extension of meaning. *But there are no regular patterns in English *Conversion *Transfer and extension of meaning. *But there are no regular patterns in English according to which new meanings could appear in existing words. *

*The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix *The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme. The role of the affix in this procedure is very important and therefore it is necessary to consider certain facts about the main types of affixes. *From the etymological point of view affixes are classified into the same two large groups as words: native and borrowed. *

* Affixation can be further classified into suffixation and prefixation, according to the type * Affixation can be further classified into suffixation and prefixation, according to the type of affix added. * In Modern English suffixation is characteristic of noun and adjective formation, while prefixation is typical of verb formation. * As a rule, prefixes only modify the lexical meaning of stems to which they are added, while a suffix both modifies the lexical meaning of a stem and changes its part-of-speech meaning. *

*1) classification by the part of speech they form: *-noun-forming suffixes (ist, ness, or, *1) classification by the part of speech they form: *-noun-forming suffixes (ist, ness, or, stion) *- verb-forming suffixes (ify, ize, ate, en) *- adjective-forming suffixes (ish, able, less, ful, ic, ous) *- adverb-forming suffixes (ly, wise, ward) *

*2) according to their degree of productivity *- productive *Semi-productive (is used to produce *2) according to their degree of productivity *- productive *Semi-productive (is used to produce a limited number of words) *- non-productive (can no longer produce new words *

* 3) suffixes can be classified semantically according to their meaning they produce. * * 3) suffixes can be classified semantically according to their meaning they produce. * Thus, noun-forming suffixes can be further classified into: * - forming personal or agentive nouns (er, or, ist) * - forming abstract nouns (hood, ship, ness) * - forming concrete nouns (ing, ery) * - forming nationality nouns * - forming collective nouns (coverage, ) *

*4) can be classified etymologically, from the point of view of their origin (native *4) can be classified etymologically, from the point of view of their origin (native and borrowed). *5) according to their valency or combining ability (by the lexico-grammatical or part-ofspeech meaning of the stem the suffix usually combines with) *For example, er, ing, ment are added to verbal stems (speaker, reading, agreement) *

*6) Suffixes can be classified by their stylistic reference, the two main classes being *6) Suffixes can be classified by their stylistic reference, the two main classes being neutral and marked. *

*A number of commonly suffixes can be polysemantic. *For example, “ER” may imply: *1) *A number of commonly suffixes can be polysemantic. *For example, “ER” may imply: *1) a person following a trade or profession (writer, baker) *2)a person so occupied at the moment of speech (jumper, packer) *3)a person living at a certain place (Londoner) *

*4) a person with an inclination to do something (sleeper, eater) *5) a device *4) a person with an inclination to do something (sleeper, eater) *5) a device or tool (computer, trailer). *

*Prefixes have more concrete and less generalized meaning than suffixes. *One and the same *Prefixes have more concrete and less generalized meaning than suffixes. *One and the same form can convey different meanings if connected to different parts of speech. *There about 25 prefixes that can modify the part-of-speech meaning of stems – usually changing nouns to verbs or nouns to adjectives. *

*Prefixes are classified mostly on the semantic principle, productivity and etymology. *Like suffixes, they *Prefixes are classified mostly on the semantic principle, productivity and etymology. *Like suffixes, they can be productive, semiproductive and non-productive. *Semantically they are classified according to the meaning they convey to the modified word. *

*When in a book-review a book is referred to as a splendid read, is *When in a book-review a book is referred to as a splendid read, is read to be regarded as a verb or a noun? What part of speech is room in the sentence: I was to room with another girl called Jessie. *If a character in a novel is spoken about as one who had to be satisfied with the role of a hasbeen, what is this odd-looking has-been, a verb or a noun? *

*This type of questions naturally arise when one deals with words produced by conversion, *This type of questions naturally arise when one deals with words produced by conversion, one of the most productive ways of modern English word-building. *Conversion is sometimes referred to as an affixless way of word-building or even affixless derivation. *

*Conversion is one of the basic ways of forming words in Modern English. *When *Conversion is one of the basic ways of forming words in Modern English. *When two words belonging to different parts of speech are phonetically and graphically identical and semantically related, one of them is said to have been formed by conversion. *This is easily seen in the example: *Can a doctor according to his own doctrine of doctoring? *

*There about 14 thousand conversion pairs in Modern English. *Some words as “home”, “back”, *There about 14 thousand conversion pairs in Modern English. *Some words as “home”, “back”, “round” are the best-known examples – may have 4 or 5 distinct part-of-speech meanings: *Come back! (adv), the elephant’s back (noun), back door (adj), back the car into the garage (v). *

*Other terms suggested to describe this process are: *- root-formation *- transposition *-zero derivation *Other terms suggested to describe this process are: *- root-formation *- transposition *-zero derivation *- functional change. *The term conversion was firstly used in 1891 by H. Sweet in his “New English Grammar”. *

*To describe the system of a given vocabulary, we must know not only the *To describe the system of a given vocabulary, we must know not only the elements from which the words are built, but also the patterns in which they are combined. *To achieve this aim, we must single out recurrent combinations of morphemes and determine the relations between their components. *

*For example, the difference between “ism” and ‘ity” becomes clear if we contrast humanism *For example, the difference between “ism” and ‘ity” becomes clear if we contrast humanism and humanity or realism and reality. *Roughly speaking, “ity” forms nouns meaning what a corresponding adjective describes, while “ism” forms uncountable nouns meaning a corresponding idea or form or ideology. *

*A word-building pattern or a derivational pattern is defined as a meaningful combination of *A word-building pattern or a derivational pattern is defined as a meaningful combination of stems and affixes that occurs regularly enough for part of speech, the lexicosemantic category and semantic peculiarities common to most words with this particular arrangement of morphemes to be determined. *Every type of word-building and every part of speech has a typical set of patterns. *

*For example, the patterns involved in the use of the negative prefix “un” can *For example, the patterns involved in the use of the negative prefix “un” can be summed up as follows: *1) “un” with an adjectival or participle 1 or participle 2 stem – negative meaning (uncertain, unexpected) *2) “un” with a verbal stem – meaning of reverse action (undo) *3) “un” with a verbal, non-derived stem – meaning of releasing (unbook, unlock) *

*The more productive an affix is, the more probable in the existence of deviations *The more productive an affix is, the more probable in the existence of deviations from the regular pattern. *Sometimes the regular pattern is broken, as in the case with: *Flammable-inflammable which seem to be antonyms but in fact synonyms. *

*The word-building pattern is a structural and semantic formula more or less regularly produced. *The word-building pattern is a structural and semantic formula more or less regularly produced. *It reveals: *- the morphological motivation of the word *-the grammatical part-of-speech meaning *Helps to refer this word to some lexicogrammatical class. *

*Analyse the structure of the following compounds and classify them into coordinative and subordinative, *Analyse the structure of the following compounds and classify them into coordinative and subordinative, syntactic and asyntactic: *bookbinder, doorbell, key-note, knife-and-fork, hot-tempered, dry-clean, care-free, policymaker, mad-brained, five-fold, two-faced, body-guard, do-it-yourself, boogie-woogie. оfficer-director, driver-collector, building-site *

*Analyse the following words morphologically and classify them according to what part of speech *Analyse the following words morphologically and classify them according to what part of speech they belong to: *post-election, appoint, historic, mainland, classical, letterbox, outcome, displease, step, incapable, supersubtle, illegible, incurable, adjustment, ladyhood, elastic, perceptible, inaccessible, partial, ownership, idealist, hero, long-term, corporate. *

*Abbreviate the following nouns to the first syllable. *Mitten, doctor, grandmother, cabriolet, public, house, *Abbreviate the following nouns to the first syllable. *Mitten, doctor, grandmother, cabriolet, public, house, gymnasium, proprietor, fraternity, laboratory, margarine, sister, mathematics, trigonometry, veterinary, gladiolus. *

* Comment on the way the underlined words are formed. * 1. After dinner, * Comment on the way the underlined words are formed. * 1. After dinner, the woman cleared the table. 2. Finally, to quiet him, she said, she hadn't really meant it. 3. The differences are now being narrowed 4. Her face, heated with his own exertions, chilled suddenly. 5. Warmed by the hot tea, he warmed to the argument. 6. She came dressed up to the nines. 7. A win in this match is a must. 8. Turn your ought into shalls. *

*Supply the corresponding full names for the given abbreviations of American state (e. g. *Supply the corresponding full names for the given abbreviations of American state (e. g. Colo - Colourado) and so: * Ala. , Cal. , Fla. , Ga. , Ill. , Ind. , Kan. , Ken. , Md. , N. D. , NJ, NY, Oreg. , S. C. , Tex. *