Скачать презентацию Lecture 5 Reliability and validity of scales 1 Скачать презентацию Lecture 5 Reliability and validity of scales 1

9cc9388ea72d0b26dac0bac8f8e1cf9c.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 31

Lecture 5: Reliability and validity of scales 1. Describe the applications of the following Lecture 5: Reliability and validity of scales 1. Describe the applications of the following types of measurement: - Impairment, disability, handicap, quality of life, attitudes, behaviour - Generic versus disease-specific health status and quality of life scales 2. Define the following terms, giving examples of each: - Response bias - Social desirability 3. In relation to scales, define the following terms: - Test-retest reliability - Inter-rater reliability - Internal consistency

Scales • Single- vs multi-item scales • Items are intended to sample the content Scales • Single- vs multi-item scales • Items are intended to sample the content of the underlying construct • Items summarized in various ways: – sum or average of responses to individual items – item weighting or other algorithm – profiles/sub-scale scores

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) • IMPAIRMENT: –. . . loss International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH) • IMPAIRMENT: –. . . loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function. • DISABILITY: –. . . restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity … • HANDICAP: –. . . disadvantage. . . resulting from an impairment or disability, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role …. that is normal for that individual…. 3

Quality of life (Qo. L) • Definition – individuals’ perception of their position in Quality of life (Qo. L) • Definition – individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns” (WHO QOL group, 1995) • Domains – physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationships, environment, and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs

Health-related quality of life (HRQo. L) • Dimensions of Qo. L related to health Health-related quality of life (HRQo. L) • Dimensions of Qo. L related to health • Related terms: – health status – functional status • Usually includes: – physical health/function – mental health/function – social health/function

Selection of measures: Appropriateness • Purpose: – describe health of population – evaluate effects Selection of measures: Appropriateness • Purpose: – describe health of population – evaluate effects of interventions (change over time) – compare groups at point in time – predict outcomes • Areas of function covered • Level of health • Generic/global or specific

Generic vs specific • Generic – comparisons across populations and problems – robust and Generic vs specific • Generic – comparisons across populations and problems – robust and generalizable – measurement properties better understood • Disease-specific – shorter – more relevant and appropriate – sensitive to change

Practical considerations • Mode of administration – self-administered (in-person, mail) – interviewer (face-to-face, telephone) Practical considerations • Mode of administration – self-administered (in-person, mail) – interviewer (face-to-face, telephone) – informant or proxy • Respondent burden

Example of single-item measure of HRQo. L: the Euro. Qol “thermometer” • EITHER: visual Example of single-item measure of HRQo. L: the Euro. Qol “thermometer” • EITHER: visual analogue scale • OR : Now, to help people say how good or bad their health state is, let’s say the best state you can imagine is 100 and the worst state you can imagine is 0. • In your opinion, how good or bad is your health today - please use a number.

Example of Disability Scale: OARS ADL scale • Measures basic and instrumental activities of Example of Disability Scale: OARS ADL scale • Measures basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) • 14 items: e. g. , bathing, dressing, money management, house-cleaning • Based on self-report and/or judgement • Response scale: – Completely independent (2) – Needs some help (1) – Completely dependent (0)

Example of measure of health status/ HRQo. L: SF-36 • • Generic measure of Example of measure of health status/ HRQo. L: SF-36 • • Generic measure of health status 36 items, self-report Sample item: Scoring: – 8 specific sub-scales (e. g. , physical function, mental health, vitality – 2 component summary scores: physical and mental health

During the past 2 weeks, did you have any of the following problems with During the past 2 weeks, did you have any of the following problems with your work or other regular daily activities as a result of your physical health? YES 3 a. Accomplished less than you would like 1 3 b. Were limited in the kind of work or other activities 1 NO 0 0

How much bodily pain did you have during the past 2 weeks? Was there How much bodily pain did you have during the past 2 weeks? Was there no pain, very mild pain… (etc) None 1 Very mild 2 Mild 3 Moderate 4 Severe 5 Very severe 6

Example of specific scale: Geriatric Depression Scale • 15 or 30 -item self-report scale Example of specific scale: Geriatric Depression Scale • 15 or 30 -item self-report scale • Response options: yes/no • Sample items: – Do you feel happy most of the time? – Do you feel that your life is empty?

Response bias • Examples: – Recall – Acquiescence – Social desirability • Factors affecting Response bias • Examples: – Recall – Acquiescence – Social desirability • Factors affecting response bias: – Question wording/response scale – Characteristics of subjects: (age, education, etc) – Mode of data collection (questionnaire, interview, telephone vs face-to-face)

Social desirability • Tendency to give answers to questions that are perceived to be Social desirability • Tendency to give answers to questions that are perceived to be more socially desirable than the true answer • Different from deliberate distortion (“faking good”) • Depends on: – Individual characteristics (age, sex, cultural background) – Specific question

Social desirability • Measures of social desirability (SD) – SD scales (e. g. , Social desirability • Measures of social desirability (SD) – SD scales (e. g. , Jackson SD scale, Crowne & Marlowe SD scale) – individual tendency to SD bias • Prevention – phrasing of questions – questionnaire mode – training of interviewers

Reliability of scales • Internal consistency • Test-retest reliability • Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability Reliability of scales • Internal consistency • Test-retest reliability • Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability

Example: Delirium Index (DI) • Delirium = acute confusional state • Characterized by acute Example: Delirium Index (DI) • Delirium = acute confusional state • Characterized by acute onset and fluctuations • Risk factors: – Predisposing: age, dementia, disability, comorbidity etc – Precipitating: infections, medications, environment • DI: observer-rated measures of severity of 7 symptoms of delirium: – – inattention, disorganized thinking altered consciousness, disorientation memory impairment, perceptual disturbances psychomotor agitation or retardation

Administration and scoring • Administered by research assistant based on patient observation • Each Administration and scoring • Administered by research assistant based on patient observation • Each symptom rated on 4 -point scale: 0 = absent 1 = mild 2 = moderate 3 = severe Total score: range from 0 - 21

Evaluation of performance of DI • What aspects should be evaluated? • How? Evaluation of performance of DI • What aspects should be evaluated? • How?

Internal consistency • Relevant to additive scales (that sum or average items) • Split-half Internal consistency • Relevant to additive scales (that sum or average items) • Split-half reliability: – correlation between scores on arbitrary half of measure with scores on other half • Coefficient alpha (Cronbach) – estimates split half correlation for all possible combinations of dividing the scale

Example • Internal consistency of Delirium Index scale to measure symptoms of delirium: – Example • Internal consistency of Delirium Index scale to measure symptoms of delirium: – Cronbach’s alpha for entire scale: – …. without perceptual disturbance:

Test-retest reliability (stability) • Scale is repeated – short-term • for constructs that fluctuate, Test-retest reliability (stability) • Scale is repeated – short-term • for constructs that fluctuate, 2 weeks often used to reduce effects of memory and true change – long-term • for constructs that should not fluctuate (e. g. , personality traits) • Some measure of variability vs stability of 2 scores is computed

Mean within-patient standard deviation in DI score during 1 st week in hospital Mean within-patient standard deviation in DI score during 1 st week in hospital

Inter- and intra-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability • For scales requiring rater skill, judgment • Inter- and intra-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability • For scales requiring rater skill, judgment • 2 or more independent raters of same event Intra-rater reliability • Independent rating by same observer of same event

Measures of inter- and intra-rater reliability: continuous data • Measures of correlation – Correlation Measures of inter- and intra-rater reliability: continuous data • Measures of correlation – Correlation graph (scatter diagram) – Correlation coefficients • Measures of pairwise comparison

Correlation coefficients • Pearson’s r – assesses linear association, not systematic differences between 2 Correlation coefficients • Pearson’s r – assesses linear association, not systematic differences between 2 sets of observations – sensitive to range of values, especially outliers • Spearman r – ordinal or rank order correlation – less influenced by outliers – doesn’t assess systematic differences

Correlation coefficients • Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) – Estimate of proportion of total measurement Correlation coefficients • Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) – Estimate of proportion of total measurement variability due to between-individuals (vs error variance) – Equivalent to kappa and same range of values – Reflects true agreement, including systematic differences – Affected by range of values - if less variation between individuals, ICC will be lower

Inter-rater reliability • Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): n = 26 patients (39 pairs of Inter-rater reliability • Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): n = 26 patients (39 pairs of ratings) ICC = 0. 98 (SD 0. 06)

Examples for discussion • What aspects of reliability should be measured for the following Examples for discussion • What aspects of reliability should be measured for the following scales: – Euro. Qol VAS – SF-36 – Geriatric Depression Scale