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Lecture 4. Magnetars: SGRs and AXPs Sergei Popov (SAI MSU) Lecture 4. Magnetars: SGRs and AXPs Sergei Popov (SAI MSU)

Magnetars n n d. E/dt > d. Erot/dt By definition: The energy of the Magnetars n n d. E/dt > d. Erot/dt By definition: The energy of the magnetic field is released P-Pdot Direct measurements of the field (Ibrahim et al. ) Magnetic fields 1014– 1015 G

Known magnetars AXPs n CXO 010043. 1 -72 n 4 U 0142+61 n 1 Known magnetars AXPs n CXO 010043. 1 -72 n 4 U 0142+61 n 1 E 1048. 1 -5937 n CXOU J 164710. 3 n 1 RXS J 170849 -40 n XTE J 1810 -197 n 1 E 1841 -045 n AX J 1844 -0258 n 1 E 2259+586 SGRs n 0526 -66 n 1627 -41 n 1806 -20 n 1900+14 n +candidates (СТВ 109)

Magnetars n n n Strong convection in a rapidly rotating (P ~ 1 ms) Magnetars n n n Strong convection in a rapidly rotating (P ~ 1 ms) newborn neutron star generates a very strong magnetic field via dynamo action Magnetars: neutron stars with surface field B > 10 BQED ~ 4 x 1014 G (Duncan & Thomson 1992; Thomson & Duncan 1993) Rapid spin-down due to magneto-dipolar losses.

Magnetars on the candidates, plus radio pulsars Galaxy n 4 SGRs, 9 AXPs, plus Magnetars on the candidates, plus radio pulsars Galaxy n 4 SGRs, 9 AXPs, plus n n with high magnetic fields… Young objects (about 104 year). Probably about 10% of all NSs.

Soft Gamma Repeaters: main properties n n n Energetic “Giant Flares” (GFs, L ≈ Soft Gamma Repeaters: main properties n n n Energetic “Giant Flares” (GFs, L ≈ 1045 -1047 erg/s) detected from 3 (4? ) sources No evidence for a binary companion, association with a SNR at least in one case Persistent X-ray emitters, L ≈ 1035 erg/s Pulsations discovered both in GFs tails and persistent emission, P ≈ 5 -10 s Huge spindown rates, Ṗ/P ≈ 10 -10 ss-1

Soft Gamma Repeaters - I n n Rare class of sources, 4 confirmed (+ Soft Gamma Repeaters - I n n Rare class of sources, 4 confirmed (+ 1): SGR 1900+14, SGR 1806 -20, SGR 1627 -41 in the Galaxy and SGR 0526 -66 in the LMC Frequent bursts of soft γ-/hard X-rays: L ~ 1041 erg/s, duration < 1 s Bursts from SGR 1806 -20 (INTEGRAL/IBIS, , Gőtz et al 2004)

Historical notes n n n 05 March 1979. The ”Konus” experiment & Co. Venera-11, Historical notes n n n 05 March 1979. The ”Konus” experiment & Co. Venera-11, 12 (Mazets et al. , Vedrenne et al. ) Events in the LMC. SGR 0520 -66. Fluence: about 10 -3 erg/cm 2 Mazets et al. 1979

N 49 – supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic cloud (e. g. G. Vedrenne N 49 – supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic cloud (e. g. G. Vedrenne et al. 1979)

Main types of activity of SGRs n n Weak bursts. L<1041 erg/s Intermediate. L=1041– Main types of activity of SGRs n n Weak bursts. L<1041 erg/s Intermediate. L=1041– 1043 erg/s Giant. L<1045 erg/s Hyperflares. L>1046 erg/s Power distribution is similar to the distribution of earthquakes in magnitude See the review in Woods, Thompson astro-ph/0406133

Normal bursts of SGRs and AXPs n Typical bursts of SGR 1806 -29, SGR Normal bursts of SGRs and AXPs n Typical bursts of SGR 1806 -29, SGR 1900+14 and of AXP 1 E 2259+586 detected by RXTE (from the review by Woods, Thompson, astro-ph/0406133) (from Woods, Thompson 2004)

Intermediate SGR bursts Examples of intermediate bursts. The forth (bottom right) is sometimes defined Intermediate SGR bursts Examples of intermediate bursts. The forth (bottom right) is sometimes defined as a giant burst (for example by Mazets et al. ). (from Woods, Thompson 2004)

Giant flare of the SGR 1900+14 (27 August 1998) n n n Ulysses observations Giant flare of the SGR 1900+14 (27 August 1998) n n n Ulysses observations (figure from Hurley et al. ) Initial spike 0. 35 s P=5. 16 s L>3 1044 erg/s ETOTAL>1044 erg Hurley et al. 1999

SGRs: periods and giant flares P, s n n 0526 -66 1627 -41 1806 SGRs: periods and giant flares P, s n n 0526 -66 1627 -41 1806 -20 1900+14 Giant flares 8. 0 5 March 1979 6. 4 18 June 1998 (? ) 7. 5 27 Dec 2004 5. 2 27 Aug 1998 See the review in Woods, Thompson astro-ph/0406133

Anomalous X-ray pulsars Identified as a separate group in 1995. (Mereghetti, Stella 1995 Van Anomalous X-ray pulsars Identified as a separate group in 1995. (Mereghetti, Stella 1995 Van Paradijs et al. 1995) • • • Similar periods (5 -10 sec) Constant spin down Absence of optical companions Relatively weak luminosity Constant luminosity

Anomalous X-ray Pulsars: main properties n n n Eight sources known (+ 1 transient): Anomalous X-ray Pulsars: main properties n n n Eight sources known (+ 1 transient): 1 E 1048. 1 -5937, 1 E 2259+586, 4 U 0142+614, 1 RXS J 170849 -4009, 1 E 1841 -045, CXOU 010043721134, AX J 1845 -0258, CXOU J 164710 -455216 (+ XTE J 1810 -197) + candidates Persistent X-ray emitters, L ≈ 1034 -1035 erg/s Pulsations with P ≈ 5 -10 s Large spindown rates, Ṗ/P ≈ 10 -11 ss-1 No evidence for a binary companion, association with a SNR in three cases

Known AXPs Sources Periods, s CXO 010043. 1 -72 8. 0 4 U 0142+61 Known AXPs Sources Periods, s CXO 010043. 1 -72 8. 0 4 U 0142+61 8. 7 1 E 1048. 1 -5937 6. 4 CXOU J 164710. 2 - 10. 6 1 RXS J 170849 -40 11. 0 XTE J 1810 -197 5. 5 1 E 1841 -045 11. 8 AX J 1845 -0258 7. 0 1 E 2259+586 7. 0

Are SGRs and AXPs brothers? n n n Bursts of AXPs (from 5 now) Are SGRs and AXPs brothers? n n n Bursts of AXPs (from 5 now) Spectral properties Quiescent periods of SGRs (0525 -66 since 1983) Gavriil et al. 2002

A Tale of Two Populations ? SGRs: bursting X/γ-ray sources AXPs: A Magnetar peculiar A Tale of Two Populations ? SGRs: bursting X/γ-ray sources AXPs: A Magnetar peculiar class of steady X-ray sources Single class of objects R < ctrise ≈ 300 km: a compact object Pulsed X-ray emission: a neutron star

Pulse profiles of SGRs and AXPs Pulse profiles of SGRs and AXPs

SGRs and AXPs SGRs and AXPs

Hard X-ray Emission INTEGRAL revealed substantial emission in the 20 -100 ke. V band Hard X-ray Emission INTEGRAL revealed substantial emission in the 20 -100 ke. V band from SGRs and APXs Hard power law tails with Г ≈ 1 -3 Hard emission pulse Mereghetti et al 2006

SGRs and AXPs X-ray Spectra n 0. 5 – 10 ke. V emission is SGRs and AXPs X-ray Spectra n 0. 5 – 10 ke. V emission is well represented by a blackbody plus a power law AXP 1048 -5937 (Lyutikov & Gavriil 2005) SGR 1806 -20 (Mereghetti et al 2005)

SGRs and AXPs X-ray Spectra n n k. TBB ~ 0. 5 ke. V, SGRs and AXPs X-ray Spectra n n k. TBB ~ 0. 5 ke. V, does not change much in different sources Photon index Г ≈ 1 – 4, AXPs tend to be softer SGRs and AXPs persistent emission is variable (months/years) Variability is mostly associated with the non-thermal component

Hardness vs Spin-down Rate Correlation between spectral hardness and spin -down rate in SGRs Hardness vs Spin-down Rate Correlation between spectral hardness and spin -down rate in SGRs and AXPs (Marsden & White 2001) Harder X-ray spectrum Correlation holds also for different states within a single source (SGR 1806 -20, Mereghetti et al 2005; 1 RXS J 170849 -4009, Rea et al 2005) Larger Spin-down rate

Theory of magnetars n n n Thompson, Duncan Ap. J 408, 194 (1993) Convection Theory of magnetars n n n Thompson, Duncan Ap. J 408, 194 (1993) Convection in a proto. NS results in generation of strong magnetic field Reconfiguration of the magnetic field structure (Figures from the web-page of Duncan)

Generation of the magnetic field The mechanism of the magnetic field generation is still Generation of the magnetic field The mechanism of the magnetic field generation is still unknown. Turbulent dynamo α-Ω dynamo (Duncan, Thompson) α 2 dynamo (Bonanno et al. ) or their combination In any case, initial rotation of a proto. NS is the critical parameter.

Strong field via flux conservation There are reasons to suspect that the magnetic fields Strong field via flux conservation There are reasons to suspect that the magnetic fields of magnetars are not due to any kind of dynamo mechanism, but just due to flux conservation: 1. Study of SNRs with magnetars (Vink and Kuiper 2006). 2. If there was a rapidly rotating magnetar then a huge 3. energy release is inevitable. No traces of such energy 4. injections are found. 2. There are few examples of massive stars with field 3. strong enough to produce a magnetars due to flux 4. conservation (Ferrario and Wickramasinghe 2006) Still, these suggestions can be criticized

Alternative theory n n n n Remnant fallback disc Mereghetti, Stella 1995 Van Paradijs Alternative theory n n n n Remnant fallback disc Mereghetti, Stella 1995 Van Paradijs et al. 1995 Alpar 2001 Marsden et al. 2001 Problems …. . How to generate strong bursts? Discovery of a passive disc in one of AXPs (Wang et al. 2006). New burst of interest to this model.

Magnetic field estimates n n n Direct measurements of magnetic field (cyclotron lines) Spin Magnetic field estimates n n n Direct measurements of magnetic field (cyclotron lines) Spin down Long spin periods Ibrahim et al. 2002

SGR 1806 -20 - I SGR 1806 -20 displayed a gradual increase in the SGR 1806 -20 - I SGR 1806 -20 displayed a gradual increase in the level of activity during 2003 -2004 (Woods et al 2004; Mereghetti et al 2005) Bursts / day (IPN) § enhanced burst rate § increased persistent luminosity 20 -60 ke. V flux (INTEGRAL IBIS) The 2004 December 27 Event Spring 2003 Autumn 2003 Spring 2004 Autumn 2004 Mereghetti et al 2005

SGR 1806 -20 - II n n n Four XMM-Newton observations (last on October SGR 1806 -20 - II n n n Four XMM-Newton observations (last on October 5 2004, Mereghetti et al 2005) Pulsations clearly detected in all observations Ṗ ~ 5. 5 x 10 -10 s/s, higher than the “historical” value Blackbody component in addition to an absorbed power law (k. T ~ 0. 79 ke. V) Harder spectra: Γ ~ 1. 5 vs. Γ ~ 2 The 2 -10 ke. V luminosity almost doubled (LX ~ 1036 erg/s)

Twisted Magnetospheres – I n n n The magnetic field inside a magnetar is Twisted Magnetospheres – I n n n The magnetic field inside a magnetar is “wound up” The presence of a toroidal component induces a rotation of the surface layers The crust tensile strength resists A gradual (quasi-plastic ? ) deformation of the crust The external field twists up (Thompson, Lyutikov & Kulkarni 2002) Thompson & Duncan 2001

A Growing Twist in SGR 1806 -20 ? n n Evidence for spectral hardening A Growing Twist in SGR 1806 -20 ? n n Evidence for spectral hardening AND enhanced spin-down Γ-Pdot and Γ-L correlations Growth of bursting activity Possible presence of proton cyclotron line only during bursts All these features are consistent with an increasingly twisted magnetosphere

Some conclusions and future developments n n n Twisted magnetosphere model, within magnetar scenario, Some conclusions and future developments n n n Twisted magnetosphere model, within magnetar scenario, in general agreement with observations Resonant scattering of thermal, surface photons produces spectra with right properties Many issues need to be investigated further q q q Twist of more general external fields Detailed models for magnetospheric currents More accurate treatment of cross section including QED effects and electron recoil (in progress) 10 -100 ke. V tails: up-scattering by (ultra)relativistic (e±) particles ? Create an archive to fit model spectra to observations (in progress)

Hyperflare of SGR 1806 -20 n n 27 December 2004 A giant flare from Hyperflare of SGR 1806 -20 n n 27 December 2004 A giant flare from SGR 1806 -20 was detected by many satellites: Swift, RHESSI, Konus. Wind, Coronas-F, Integral, HEND, … 100 times brighter than any other! Palmer et al. astro-ph/0503030

C O R O N A S F Integral RHESSI C O R O N A S F Integral RHESSI

27 Dec 2004: Giant flare of the SGR 1806 -20 n n n n 27 Dec 2004: Giant flare of the SGR 1806 -20 n n n n Spike 0. 2 s Fluence 1 erg/cm 2 E(spike)=3. 5 1046 erg L(spike)=1. 8 1047 erg/s Long «tail» (400 s) P=7. 65 s E(tail) 1. 6 1044 erg Distance 15 kpc

Konus observations Mazets et al. 2005 Konus observations Mazets et al. 2005

The myth about Medusa The myth about Medusa

QPO in tails of giant flares of SGRs (Israel et al. 2005 astro-ph/0505255, Watts QPO in tails of giant flares of SGRs (Israel et al. 2005 astro-ph/0505255, Watts and Strohmayer 2005 astro-ph/0608463)

SGRs: monitoring and extra. G [D. Frederiks et al. astro-ph/0609544] SGRs: monitoring and extra. G [D. Frederiks et al. astro-ph/0609544]

What is special about magnetars? Link with massive stars There are reasons to suspect What is special about magnetars? Link with massive stars There are reasons to suspect that magnetars are connected to massive stars. Link to binary stars There is a hypothesis that magnetars are formed in close binary systems (astro-ph/0505406). The question is still on the list. Westerlund 1

Neutron stars and massive progenitors AXP in Westerlund 1 most probably has a very Neutron stars and massive progenitors AXP in Westerlund 1 most probably has a very massive progenitor >40 Msolar. (astro-ph/0611589)

Are there magnetors in binaries? At the moment all known SGRs and AXPs are Are there magnetors in binaries? At the moment all known SGRs and AXPs are isolated objects. About 10% of NSs are expected to be in binaries. The fact that all known magnetars are isolated can be related to their origin, but this is unclear. If a magnetar appears in a very close binary system, then an analogue of a polar can be formed. The secondary star is inside the huge magnetosphere of a magnetar. This can lead to interesting observational manifestations. Magnetor

Binaries with magnetars - magnetors Can RCW 103 be a prototype? 6. 7 hour Binaries with magnetars - magnetors Can RCW 103 be a prototype? 6. 7 hour period (de Luca et al. 2006) Possible explanations: 1. Magnetar, spun-down by disc 2. Double NS system 3. Low-mass companion + magnetar= 4. magnetor RCW 103