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Lecture 10: Ethnonational Groups Ethnonationalist/Separatist Terrorist Groups
Geographic Territory Seeking control over a specific territory Nationalists/separatists pursue the goal of an autonomous state Ethno-nationalist pursue the goal of state based on ethnicity Usually operate within the confines of territorial borders
Ethnic Identity Membership requires proper ethnic background Much different from other categories, where being a “true believer” is enough to become a member Focus is on “forging a distinct ethnic identity” apart from the state and “fostering ethnic mobilization. ” - D. Byman
Common Grievances Targets = members of a specific rival or dominant ethno-nationalist group Marginalization and discrimination structural disadvantages discriminatory government policies lack of political representation and human rights abuses based on ethnic differences Insecurities and fear among members of an ethnic community have led them to believe that they are profoundly threatened by “others” leads to “othering” and “us” versus “them”
ETA “Euzkadi ta Askatasuna” = “Basque Homeland Freedom” Autonomous nation-state for the Basque people of northern Spain and southwestern France 1930 s – Franco regime seeks unification; squashes Basque culture, freedoms 1959, student movement to raise Basque political and cultural awareness; transforms into ETA in 1968, launches campaign of terrorist attacks (mostly bombings, kidnappings and assassinations); 2011 ceasefire. . .
LTTE Sinhalese (Buddhist) 75% of population; Tamils (Hindu) 12. 5% 1956, Sinhala declared Sri Lanka’s sole official language; 1973 adopted Buddhism as official state religion Legislation gave preference to Sinhalese over Tamils (government jobs, university admission, other socioeconomic opportunities) 1976: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam formed; launches terrorist campaign, seeking independent state for Tamils Pioneers suicide bombings (world’s leader of this tactic throughout 1990 s); also developed Sea Tigers unit Killed former Indian PM Rajiv Ghandi (1991) and Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa (1993); finally defeated in 2009 military offensive
PKK Attaturk, banned the teaching of Kurdish in schools and Kurdish broadcasting in an effort to secularize and standardize Turkish society Kurdish communities are concentrated mainly in southeastern Turkey, the most rural and economically weakest regions in the south of the country 1978 Partiya Karkaren Kurdistan founded by Abdullah Ocalan First attacks in 1984; targets include policemen, governors, members of the gendarmerie, state officials, and politicians Ocalan captured 1999; calls for end to terrorism; PKK still launching attacks today. . .
IRA Founded 1922 as nationalist militia committed to a unified and independent Ireland Opposed peace treaty with UK, lost civil war to pro-treaty forces In Northern Ireland, Protestant (pro-UK) majority discriminates against the (anti-UK) Catholic minority; conflicts heat up 1972: British military asked to help security; Bloody Sunday leads to Provisional IRA, 26 year terror campaign targeting police, soldiers, judges, civilians, etc. (“Armalite and Ballot Box strategy) 1998: Sinn Fein signs Good Friday Agreement; Omagh bombing; still some dissident splinter groups (Continuity IRA, Real IRA)
Asia Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) Spawns religious splinter group Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Free Papua Movement, “Organisasi Papua Merdeka” (OPM) East Turkestan Liberation Organization Affiliated with East Turkistan Islamic Movement East Turkestan Liberation Organization
India Kashmir independence/separatist groups Lashkar-e-Taiba, “Army of the Pure” Attacks include Indian Parliament building in New Delhi; November 2008 attacks in Mumbai Northeast India separatist groups (Nagas, Meiteis, etc. ) United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muviah (NSCN-IM) United National Liberation Front (UNLF)
Middle East Zionist, Jewish extremist groups (Stern Gang, Lehi) Mix religious ideology with ethnically-based justification for violence Yigal Amir kills PM Yitzhak Rabin Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) established 1964; goal of “liberating Palestine from Israel” Yassir Arafat; advancing Palestinian nationalism through terrorism Power and control over a relatively tiny strip of land
Africa Nigeria: Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) Grievances include environmental destruction of Ibo, Ogoni, Ijaw homelands by oil extraction Lack of infrastructure development, social services provided by government in region Angola: Front for the Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave (FLEC) Grievances similar to those of MEND
Chechnya and Russia 1990 s, USSR dissolves, Chechnya declares independence; Russian troops invade to quell rebellion Chechen groups launch terrorist campaign Mosvar Bayayev Gang, the Riyad us-Saliheyn Martys’ Brigade, the Dagestani Shariah Jamaat, Special Purpose Islamic Regiment Major terrorist incidents Dubrovka Theater, Moscow (Oct. 2002); School No. 1, Beslan (Sept. 2004) Black Widows – Moscow subways, airplanes, etc.
Ethno-Nationalist Group Comparisons Represent an ethnic minority within a larger population of an established nation-state Operate within the geographic regions where they seek to change the status quo Government targets; often, government actions created grievances for terrorist group Portrayal of selves as vanguard of oppressed people pursuing self-determination
Conclusion Government actions in responding to terrorism can reinforce perceptions of oppression Some terrorist attacks intended to provoke response; foster a stronger sense of ‘us vs. them’ among ethnic community members Governments reluctant to make concessions; seen as weak or rewarding violence n For more on these groups, see: n n Global Terrorism Database Profiles http: //www. start. umd. edu/start/data_collections/tops/ National Counterterrorism Center Profiles http: //www. nctc. gov/site/profiles/index. html