- Количество слайдов: 15
Lecture 10 Corruption Prevention 1
Definition of Corruption Misuse of entrusted power for private gain All corrupt transactions have two players – the person who is receiving the bribe and the corporation or individual who is offering it
Other Definitions of Corruption involves behavior on the part of persons in which they improperly enrich themselves or those close to them by misusing power with which they have been entrusted. In short, corruption is the misuse of public power for personal gain. National Integrity Promotion Campaign - Namibia § § In broad terms, corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain. It encompasses unilateral abuses by government officials such as embezzlement and nepotism, as well as abuses linking public and private actors such as bribery, extortion, influence peddling, and fraud. Corruption arises in both political and bureaucratic offices and can be petty or grand, organized or unorganized. Handbook on fighting corruption, the Centre for Democracy and Governance
Other Definitions of Corruption § … behaviour on the part of officials in the public sector, whether politicians or civil servants, in which they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves, or those close to them, by the misuse of the public power entrusted to them. This would include embezzlement of funds, theft of corporate or public property as well as corrupt practices such as bribery, extortion or influence peddling. Transparency International (TI) § …corruption is an abuse of (public) power for private gain that hampers the public interest. …corrupt entails a confusion of the private with the public sphere or an illicit exchange between the two spheres. In essence, corrupt practices involve public officials acting in the best interest of private concerns (their own or those of others) regardless of, or against, the public interest. United Nations Manual on Anti-Corruption Policy
Other Definitions of Corruption § § An act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but is more comprehensive; because an act may be corruptly done, though the advantage to be derived from it be not offered by another. Law Library ’s Lexicon Corruption involves behaviour on the part of officials in the public and private sectors, in which they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed. World Bank
Tackling corruption to improve daily lives of the poor Improving justice system Preventing misuse of national resources Ensuring the effective delivery of public services Clean water Energy Health Education
Characteristics of Corruption Gap between group and individual interest or between short- and long term benefits Consenting adults that have a common understanding, with reciprocity Benefit Furtherance, be it private, sectional, or political party interest Existence of Power that could be grabbled entrusted or available power. Misuse of power that often drives a wedge between intended and stated positions for unintended benefits.
Corruption can occurs sometimes behind the closed door sometimes openly on the floors of parliaments, law are passed, which allow corruption to be legal. Tackling corruption is a responsibility of the government, private sector, international organization, civil societies and media. It is a GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY!
Corruption Types and Forms Types: Grand Petty Corruption Forms: Bribery Embezzlement, theft and fraud Extortion Abuse of discretion Favoritism, nepotism, clientelism Conduct creating or exploiting conflicting interests Improper political contributions
Anti-corruption measures Size and Degree of Centralization of the State Defining Competences and Decision-making Structures at the Macro Level Structures and Processes Within Individual Agencies at the Implementation Level Mechanisms of Internal Evaluation and Control Public Access to Information Strengthening Legal Foundations and Internal Awareness Raising
Anti-corruption measures advisory services for appropriate downsizing of the administration; promotion of administrative decentralization, incorporating effective administrative and political accountability; promotion of outsourcing and market competition; advisory services to help create the legal and institutional preconditions for more transparent, more rational governance structures, and help facilitate coordination processes at the macro level;
Anti-corruption measures organization development to promote a transparent administrative structure with clearly defined areas of responsibility and procedures; advisory services to help simplify and standardize procedures (in the case of key decisions safeguarded by the "two heads are better than one" principle and the multiple signatures principle); division of tasks; obligatory keeping of correct, complete and timely documentation on decisions and their rationales; staff rotation; improvement of information and documentation systems by introducing computer-based procedures (e. g. payment procedures);
Anti-corruption measures improvement of internal financial control and of internal M&E systems (quality management); strengthening of the legal, institutional and procedural foundations for improved freedom of information and active public relations work, involving civil society in the planning, design and/or monitoring.
Crushing corruption from the top 1. 2. Corruption activities are outlawed (need anti-corruption lawlegislation: Money laundering, Public Procurement Code of Ethic) Legal Protection for whistle blowers/law enforcement personnel. Government to divide anti-corruption responsibilities between various prevention and laws enforcement institutions. Anti-corruption Unit often quite weak depend on government funding, belong to government. Success depend on government commitment and political will. Civil Service Reform Reducing opportunities for corrupted behavior among public servants Raise salary Reduce gap of salary between private and pubic sectors
Privatization: Service should be privatized or Public. Private Partnership The Rights to Information and e-Government 3. 4. 5. 6. e. g. Rights to Information Legislation Introduction of use Web site to publish the names of officials against whom corruption investigation have been ordered ot pn whom corruption penalties have been impoved. Citizen on Watch: Civic society must play the role by monitoring & reporting on standards of government and also by reporting to pay bribes or collude with corrupt officials. The Power of Media: Media exposing Corruption sustain an open and transparent flow of information.