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Learning Resource Centre Information Skills tutorial Citations and bibliographies
Before you begin… n n n This presentation is intended to be a basic guide only Please check your School’s policy on referencing – you should find this in your Student handbook Or consult your tutor
Why reference? n n to support an argument or claim you are making to acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work to show evidence of the breadth and depth of your own reading to avoid being accused of plagiarism
Citations n n n referring to other people’s work in your own work is known as “citing” a list is given at the end of your work, of all the items you refer to the citations should contain sufficient information for someone else to be able to trace the item
Citations n n keep a careful record of all the items you read as you read them take the details from the title page or reverse, not the front cover if you keep the list on a computer you can keep it in alphabetical order this is known as a bibliography
Reference lists v bibliographies n n a reference list is a list of all the items you have mentioned in your essay or work - in alphabetical order a bibliography is a complete list of all the above PLUS everything you have read around the subject that has helped you to write your essay or work
Bibliographies n n n use the Harvard referencing system! links on Google www. google. com – enter Harvard referencing and click UK only
Books – single author n Mc. Cavity, Phil (1980): Dentistry today. London, Association of Dentists.
Books – two authors n Bull, J and M Gate (1989): Breeding dairy cows. London, United Farming Press.
Books – 3 or more authors n n n Builder, Bob, et al (1993): Construction practice. London, Town House Publications. et al means “and others” in Latin your tutor may prefer you to list ALL the authors instead – check first
Corporate authors n n Put the name of the organisation as the author: Institute of Waste Management (1995): Ways to improve recycling. Northampton, Institute of Waste Management.
Books - editors n Beanstalk, Jack (ed. ) (1986): Success with vegetables. Oxford, Giant Co.
2 authors from the same year n n n Put the titles in alphabetical order and call the references a, b, c, etc. Brett, P. (2002 a): Bench joinery. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes. Brett, P. (2002 b): Site carpentry and joinery level 2. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.
A chapter/article within a book n Ewbank, R (1999): “Animal welfare”, in Management and welfare of farm animals. 4 th ed, Wheathampstead, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, p. 1 -15. n for page numbers, use p. 25, pp. 94 -191 or : 94 -191 or , 94 -191
Journal articles § put the title of the article in “quotes” § put the name of the Journal in italics § Shaw, Philip (2005): “Estimating local extinction rates over successive timeframes”, Biological Conservation, 121 (2), 281 -7.
Newspaper articles n n n same as journal articles but if there is no author (e. g. a short news item) use the Newspaper name as a corporate author Guardian, The (2005): “Guardian appeal tops £ 1. 5 m”. The Guardian. 19 January 2005, p. 2.
A thesis or dissertation n similar to a book reference - n Brown, Michael (1980): The problems of making and maintaining a medieval style garden today. M. A. Thesis, Birkbeck.
Reports n similar to a book reference: n Curry, Donald (2002): Farming and food: A sustainable future: Report of the policy commission on the future of food and farming. London, Cabinet Office.
British Standards n British Standards Institute (1984): Nursery stock – Part 4: Specification forest trees. BS 3936 -4. London: BSI.
Government publication n n Similar to a corporate author reference: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2004): Improving lamb survival. London, DEFRA.
CD-ROM n The Keyskill Company (1999): Vetlogic: The skeletal system. [CD ROM] Stroud, The Keyskill Company.
WWW document n Dogbreedinfo. com (1998 -2005): English Foxhound. [Online] Available from http: //www. dogbreedinfo. com/englishfo xhound. htm [Accessed 27 January 2005].
Other types of material. . . n n n n legislation Patents unpublished material (grey literature) electronic material videos, films e-journals…. etc
References and citations within your work n n n White and Gilbert say “Using a detailed soil strategy is an essential part of the habitat creation planning process” (White and Gilbert, 2003, p. 55). OR: White and Gilbert (2003) point out that a soil strategy is a necessary part of planning. Use 3 dots … for a word/part of a word within a direct quote to show where you are missing out sections/words of the quote (4 dots …. If the omission includes a full stop).
Citing references to resources you have not actually seen n n state in your text that Colin Smith (Gibbs and Carroll, 1978, p. 7) says “……. ” put the Gibbs and Carroll book and page number(s) in your bibliography
If you can’t find the details n n n author not given no place (sine loco) no publisher (sine nomine) no date not known [anon] [s. l. ] [s. n. ] [n. d. ] [n. k. ]
With thanks to…. . n Learning Resources Services, UCN (2003): n http: //library. northampton. ac. uk/subjects/subje ct. php? sid=28&pid=1 [Accessed 8 December 2006]. The Library, University of Sheffield (2000): Writing a bibliography. [Online] Available from www. shef. ac. uk/library/libdocs/hsl-dvc 1. pdf [Accessed 2 September 2005]. Referencing guide questions and answers - the Harvard system. University of Northampton.
n Thank you! Learning Resource Centre Information Services