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Leading the Learning: The Task for Teacher Educators Dr Tony Townsend Chair, Department of Leading the Learning: The Task for Teacher Educators Dr Tony Townsend Chair, Department of Educational Leadership, College of Education Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA ICET Conference Fortaleza, Brasil July 19, 2006

Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at.

FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS.

FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE FABULOUS FILES ARE FREQUENTLY THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY FOLLOWED BY THE KEEPING OF FULL FINDINGS.

Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking Perception Our view of the world is a product of what we are looking at, where we are standing when we are looking at it and how we feel about ourselves and the thing we are looking at. We can, however, change people’s perceptions of the world by providing them with new information.

Cochran-Smith, 2004: 3 Over the past several years, a new consensus has emerged that Cochran-Smith, 2004: 3 Over the past several years, a new consensus has emerged that teacher quality is one of the most, if not the most, significant factor in students’ achievement and educational improvement. In a certain sense, of course, this is good news, which simply affirms what most educators have believed for years: teachers’ work is important in students’ achievement and in their life chances. In another sense, however, this conclusion is problematic, even dangerous. When teacher quality is unequivocally identified as the primary factor that accounts for differences in student learning, some policy makers and citizens may infer that individual teachers alone are responsible for the successes and failures of the educational system despite the mitigation of social and cultural contexts, support provided for teachers’ ongoing development, the historical failure of the system to serve particular groups, the disparate resources devoted to education across schools and school systems, and the match or mismatch of school and community expectations and values. Influenced by the new consensus about teacher quality, some constituencies may infer that “teachers teaching better” is the panacea for disparities in school achievement and thus conclude that everybody else is off the hook for addressing the structural inequalities and differential power relations that permeate our nation’s schools.

Spellings, 2005: iii the focus should be on: . . . the essential principles Spellings, 2005: iii the focus should be on: . . . the essential principles for building outstanding teacher preparation programs in the 21 st century and. . . on the critical teaching skills all teachers must learn. In particular, all teacher preparation programs must provide teachers with solid and current content knowledge and essential skills. These include the abilities to use research-based methods appropriate for their content expertise; to teach diverse learners and to teach in high-need schools; and to use data to make informed instructional decisions. Successful and promising strategies for promoting these skills include making teacher education a university-wide commitment; strengthening, broadening, and integrating field experience throughout the preparation program; strengthening partnerships; and creating quality mentoring and support programs.

Steiner and Rozen, 2003 Schools of Education …are neither preparing teachers adequately to use Steiner and Rozen, 2003 Schools of Education …are neither preparing teachers adequately to use the concrete findings of the best research in education, nor are they providing their students with a thoughtful and academically rich background in the fundamentals of what it means to be an outstanding educator.

Gerstner et al. , 1994: 3. . . this one most vital area of Gerstner et al. , 1994: 3. . . this one most vital area of our national life public education - has not undergone the process of revitalising change. In our economic and social life we expect change, but in the public schools we have clung tenaciously to the ideas and techniques of earlier decades and even previous centuries.

Hargreaves, 1994: 43 -44 Schools are still modelled on a curious mix of the Hargreaves, 1994: 43 -44 Schools are still modelled on a curious mix of the factory, the asylum and the prison. . . We are glad to see the end of the traditional factory; why should we expect the school modelled on it to be welcome to children?

Hood, 1998: 3 Structurally the curriculum is much the same as it has been Hood, 1998: 3 Structurally the curriculum is much the same as it has been for the last 50 years, as is how teachers approach the curriculum. Students are still divided into classes of about the same number, primarily based on age. The day is rigidly fixed within specific timeframes and divided by inflexible timetables. Teachers teach subjects, and front up each hour to a different group of students. Classrooms are designed and used as they were 50 years ago, even though the décor might have changed. Assessment of learning is still dominated by national external examinations.

How the world has changed Transport Communication Education focus Who participates? 1000 AD walk, How the world has changed Transport Communication Education focus Who participates? 1000 AD walk, horse, cart, boat smoke, drums, mirrors Individual 1900 AD balloon, steam car, airplane Telegraph, radio Local some 1980 AD car, jet, space ship telephone, TV National many few

Townsend, 1998: 248 We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education Townsend, 1998: 248 We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education system for a few people to a quality education system for most people.

Townsend, 1998: 248 We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education Townsend, 1998: 248 We have conquered the challenge of moving from a quality education system for a few people to a quality education system for most people. Our challenge now is to move from having a quality education system for most people to a quality education system for all people.

How the world has changed Transport Communication Education focus Who participates? 1000 AD walk, How the world has changed Transport Communication Education focus Who participates? 1000 AD walk, horse, cart, boat smoke, drums, mirrors Individual 1900 AD balloon, steam car, airplane Telegraph, radio Local some 1980 AD car, jet, space ship telephone, TV National many civilians in space email, DVD internet 2000 AD onwards Global few all

Coleman, et al, 1966: 325 Schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s Coleman, et al, 1966: 325 Schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s achievement that is independent of his background and general social context.

 TIMSS Asia Gr 4 PISA 15 Gr 8 TIMSS Gr 4 PISA Gr TIMSS Asia Gr 4 PISA 15 Gr 8 TIMSS Gr 4 PISA Gr 8 15 Europe TIMSS PISA Gr 4 Gr 8 15 Europe Armenia Denmark Serbia Bahrain England Slovak Republic Bulgaria Estonia Slovenia Chinese Taipei Finland Spain Hong Kong SAR France Sweden Indonesia Germany Switzerland Iran Greece Turkey Israel Hungary United Kingdom Japan Iceland Africa Jordan Ireland Botswana Korea Italy Egypt Lebanon Latvia Ghana Macao-China Liechtenstein Morocco Malaysia Lithuania South Africa Palestinian Luxembourg Tunisia Philippines Macedonia The Americas Saudia Arabia Moldova Brazil Singapore Netherlands Canada Thailand Norway Chile Poland Mexico Europe Austria Portugal United States Belgium Romania Uruguay Cyprus Russian Federation Pacific Czech Republic Scotland Australia New Zealand

The world class school • a clear vision, underpinned by a set of values The world class school • a clear vision, underpinned by a set of values which will guide its policies, procedures and practices; • a strong focus on the student outcomes to improve both curriculum and teaching practices; • a professional learning community which adopts knowledge-based practices based on continuous self-evaluation in the pursuit of excellence; • a strong alliance of stakeholders, including parents, teachers and community members, working in partnership to develop the potential of each and every student to the fullest extent; and • school management which is open, transparent and publicly accountable for its educational achievements and proper use of public funds. (Hong Kong School Based Management Consultation Document, 1999)

Stoll & Fink (1997) Improving Effective Declining Moving Cruising Strolling Ineffective Struggling Sinking Stoll & Fink (1997) Improving Effective Declining Moving Cruising Strolling Ineffective Struggling Sinking

Stoll, 1997: 9 -10 • The moving school (effective and improving) is not only Stoll, 1997: 9 -10 • The moving school (effective and improving) is not only effective in ‘value added’ terms but people within it are also actively working together to respond to their changing context and keep developing. . . • The cruising school (effective but declining) is perceived as effective, or at least more than satisfactory, by teachers and the school’s community. It has a carefully constructed camouflage. . . it is usually located in a more affluent area where students achieve in spite of teaching quality. . . • The strolling school is neither particularly effective nor ineffective. It is moving towards some kind of school improvement but at an inadequate rate to cope with the pace of change which therefore threatens to overrun its efforts. . . • The sinking school (ineffective and declining) is a failing school. It is not only ineffective; the staff, whether through apathy or ignorance, are not prepared or able to change. . . • While the struggling school (ineffective, but improving) is ineffective because its current pupil outcomes and school and classroom processes need attention, it is aware of this, and expends considerable energy to improve.

What school is your school? • • • • Student achievement Staff-student relationships Student What school is your school? • • • • Student achievement Staff-student relationships Student welfare Literacy attainment Numeracy attainment Balanced curriculum Student responsibility School facilities and environment Parent involvement School leadership Professional development Fund raising Marketing the school Staff-administration relationship Communication to parents • • • • • Relations with the wider community Extra curricular activities Sporting achievement Staff health and well-being Student attendance Staff involvement in decisions Financial management Student behavior School ethos and climate Curriculum development Assessment of student progress Reporting to parents Relations with region/department Staff cooperation Inducting new staff Student group learning Celebrate achievement

Codding, 1997: 15. . . almost none of the widely advocated reforms modular scheduling, Codding, 1997: 15. . . almost none of the widely advocated reforms modular scheduling, open space, individualized instruction, different school governance experiments, vouchers, charter schools, the various curriculum reform initiatives - have survived or changed student performance.

Student Population Sorting Students VERY DUMB SORTA SMART Student Smartness VERY SMART Student Population Sorting Students VERY DUMB SORTA SMART Student Smartness VERY SMART

Accountability Versus Responsibility Accountability Responsibility to count, compute to be responsive; response-ability (something done Accountability Versus Responsibility Accountability Responsibility to count, compute to be responsive; response-ability (something done to schools) (an internal drive for continuous improvement)

Ready or Not. . . The World is Different • Work is different. . Ready or Not. . . The World is Different • Work is different. . . • Tools are different. . . • Communication is different. . . • Information is different. . . • Kids are different. . . • Learning is different … • Teaching must be different. . . And Leading must be different!

Powerful Words Research has found that faculty in successful schools always question existing instructional Powerful Words Research has found that faculty in successful schools always question existing instructional practice and do not blame lack of student achievement on external causes. — Carl Glickman, 2002

What Helps Students Learn? Wang, M. C. , Haertel, G. D. and Walberg, H. What Helps Students Learn? Wang, M. C. , Haertel, G. D. and Walberg, H. J. (1993/1994, Educational Leadership, pp 74 -79) Analyzed 179 chapters, conducted 91 research syntheses, interviewed 61 educational researchers, considered 11, 000 findings. Identified 28 areas grouped into 6 categories

What Helps Students Learn? Student Aptitude Classroom Instruction/Climate Context Program Design School Organization State/District What Helps Students Learn? Student Aptitude Classroom Instruction/Climate Context Program Design School Organization State/District Characteristics 54. 7 53. 3 51. 4 47. 3 45. 1 35. 0

What helps students learn? district/system school program home/community classroom student What helps students learn? district/system school program home/community classroom student

What Helps Students Learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive processes What Helps Students Learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive processes Home Environment/Parental Support 5. Student/Teacher social interactions 6. Social/behavioral attributes 7. Motivational/Affective attributes 8. Peer Group 9. Quantity of Instruction 10. School Culture 11. Classroom Climate 12. Classroom Instruction 13. Curriculum Design 14. Academic Interactions 15. Classroom Assessment 16. Community Influences 17. Psychomotor skills 18. Teacher/Administrator Decision Making 20. Parent Involvement Policy 21. Classroom Implementation and Support 22. Student demographics 23. Out of Class Time 24. Program Demographics 25. School Demographics 26. State Level Policies 27. School Policies 28. District Demographics

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 22. 26. 27. Classroom Management What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 22. 26. 27. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive Processes Home environment/parental support Student/Teacher social interactions Student Demographics State Level Policies School Policies Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive Processes Home environment/parental support Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive Processes Home environment/parental support Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Classroom Management Metacognitive processes Cognitive Processes Home environment/parental support Student/Teacher social interactions Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1993

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. The curriculum and how it is presented, What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed The ability of the student to think and to decide what they think about The relationships that are established between the teacher and the student, the parent and the teacher and the student and learning

The Curriculum of the Future We need to move from valuing what we measure The Curriculum of the Future We need to move from valuing what we measure to measuring what we value Mel Ainscow, 2005

What are the skills we want our students to acquire? • • • Inquirer What are the skills we want our students to acquire? • • • Inquirer Thinker Communicator Risk-Taker Knowledgeable Principled Caring Open-Minded Well-Balanced Reflective Primary Years Program, International Baccalaureate

The Global Classroom Townsend and Otero, 1999, Hawker Brownlow, Australia The Global Classroom Townsend and Otero, 1999, Hawker Brownlow, Australia

The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom • • Education for Survival Understanding our The Four Pillars of the Global Classroom • • Education for Survival Understanding our place in the world Understanding community Understanding our personal responsibility

Third Millennium Skills Education for Survival • • Literacy and Numeracy Technological Capabilities Communication Third Millennium Skills Education for Survival • • Literacy and Numeracy Technological Capabilities Communication Skills Development Capability Awareness of one’s choices Critical Thinking Skills and Problem Solving Decision Making

Third Millennium Skills Understanding our Place in the World • • Exchange of Ideas Third Millennium Skills Understanding our Place in the World • • Exchange of Ideas Work Experience and Entrepreneurship Awareness and Appreciation of Cultures Creative Capability Vision, Adaptability and Open Mindedness Social, Emotional and Physical Development of Student Assets

Third Millennium Skills Understanding Community • • • Teamwork capability Citizenship Studies Community Service Third Millennium Skills Understanding Community • • • Teamwork capability Citizenship Studies Community Service Community Education Global Awareness and Education

Third Millennium Skills Understanding Our Personal Responsibility • • • Commitment to Personal Growth Third Millennium Skills Understanding Our Personal Responsibility • • • Commitment to Personal Growth through lifelong learning Development of Personal Value System Leadership capabilities Commitment to community and global development Commitment to personal and community health

What helps students learn? 1. 2. The curriculum and how it is presented, the What helps students learn? 1. 2. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed The ability of the student to think and to decide what they think about

Dendrites Myelin Sheath Axon Terminals Cell Body Axon Dendrites Myelin Sheath Axon Terminals Cell Body Axon

Impulse Electrical charge from the cell body to the tip Presynaptic axon Transmitters Synaptic Impulse Electrical charge from the cell body to the tip Presynaptic axon Transmitters Synaptic gap Receptors Electrical charge to the cell body from the tip Postsynaptic dendrite

The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Engaged Learners Isolated The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Engaged Learners Isolated Learners RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting

The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Engaged The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners Engaged Learners UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing Isolated Learners RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting

The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners VALUING The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners Interactive/Introspective Learners VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion Engaged Learners UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing Isolated Learners RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting

The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners RELATING Interdependence Options The Relationa. Learning Model (Otero and Sparks, 2000) Global Self-regulated Learners RELATING Interdependence Options for Positive Action Interactive/Introspective Learners VALUING Interaction Ethics for Discussion Engaged Learners UNDERSTANDING Adaptability Concepts for Analysing Isolated Learners RECOGNISING Awareness Facts for Forgetting

Randall Clinch Young people who have not learned to choose their thoughts and use Randall Clinch Young people who have not learned to choose their thoughts and use their thinking skills respond to what their inner voices tell them to do.

Randall Clinch We need to distinguish between habitual behavior and intelligent behavior. With habitual Randall Clinch We need to distinguish between habitual behavior and intelligent behavior. With habitual behavior we respond to a stimulus in the same way as we have learned to respond. With intelligent behavior we reinterpret the stimulus by asking ourselves questions.

Environment interpreted by Senses External Stimulus Th oug ts ugh o Th Memory (The Environment interpreted by Senses External Stimulus Th oug ts ugh o Th Memory (The Past) Thoughts Perception (The Present) Emotion (The Driver) Action hts Thoughts Imagination (The Future)

Randall Clinch Teachers respond to young people’s behavior and try to address the behavior. Randall Clinch Teachers respond to young people’s behavior and try to address the behavior. If we addressed how young people think we can engage them in learning.

Stimulus Perception Emotion Action The Story Stimulus Perception Emotion Action Stimulus Perception Emotion Action The Story Stimulus Perception Emotion Action

Questions about the Environment ts gh hou T Memory (The Past) Thoughts Internal Stimulus Questions about the Environment ts gh hou T Memory (The Past) Thoughts Internal Stimulus Th oug Perception (The Present) hts Thoughts Imagination (The Future) Emotion (The Driver) Action A different story

Randall Clinch Excitement comes. . . Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Randall Clinch Excitement comes. . . Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Enjoyment comes. . . From doing the activity Reward comes… From completing the activity well Satisfaction comes. . . From knowing that you have contributed To yourself, to someone else or to something else

Randall Clinch Excitement comes. . . Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Randall Clinch Excitement comes. . . Prior to the activity (increased by fear factor) Boredom comes. . . From having to do things you don’t want to do Guilt comes… From knowing you could have done better Frustration comes. . . From knowing you have made no contribution

Randall Clinch A concept is. . . an idea that is opinion based and Randall Clinch A concept is. . . an idea that is opinion based and experience supported. It is a living thing and can grow over time. Often the opinion is inherited.

Randall Clinch For students to be successful learners we need to help them to Randall Clinch For students to be successful learners we need to help them to develop five primary concepts: • • • a concept of learning a concept of teacher a concept of school a concept of self a concept of future

Randall Clinch The long term success a student has is not in the relationship Randall Clinch The long term success a student has is not in the relationship they have with their teacher but in the relationship they have with learning.

What we might ask At the end of each class/day at school: • What What we might ask At the end of each class/day at school: • What did you enjoy in school today? • What rewarded you in school today? • What satisfied you in school today? • What did you contribute to school today?

What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. The curriculum and how it is presented, What helps students learn? 1. 2. 3. The curriculum and how it is presented, the classroom and how it is managed The ability of the student to think and to decide what they think about The relationships that are established between the teacher and the student, the parent and the teacher and the student and learning

Lonely at the top? How’s your health? How heavy is the load? How’s your Lonely at the top? How’s your health? How heavy is the load? How’s your family? Can’t find enough time? Does colouring your hair help?

IDEALS/BELIEFS IDEALS/BELIEFS

Leadership Teams Share Accountability Leadership Teams Share Accountability

Professional Learning Communities An effective professional learning community has the capacity to promote and Professional Learning Communities An effective professional learning community has the capacity to promote and sustain the learning of all professionals in the school community with the collective purpose of enhancing student learning Effective Professional Learning Communities Project, 2004

Professional Learning Communities 1. Shared mission, vision and values: A collective commitment to the Professional Learning Communities 1. Shared mission, vision and values: A collective commitment to the guiding principles and beliefs of the people in the school and what they want to create. 2. Collective inquiry: People in the community constantly question the status quo, taking action to improve it, and then reflecting on the results. 3. Collaborative Teams: The basic structure of the professional learning community is a group of collaborative teams that share a common purpose. Du. Four and Eaker, 1998

Professional Learning Communities 4. Action orientation and experimentation: People in professional learning communities recognize Professional Learning Communities 4. Action orientation and experimentation: People in professional learning communities recognize that learning always occurs in the context of taking action, and they believe engagement and experience are the most effective teachers. 5. Continuous improvement: A professional learning community is always unsatisfied with the status quo and constantly trying to improve upon it. 6. Results orientation: A professional learning community realizes that its efforts must be assessed on the basis of results rather than good intentions. Du. Four and Eaker, 1998

From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers Modern Teachers need to be developed as capable From Effective Schools to Effective Teachers Modern Teachers need to be developed as capable which is seen as moving ‘beyond’ initial competencies. The Capable Teacher is what we should be seeking to develop, encourage and honour as the hallmark of our profession. Cairns, 1998: 1

Capability Learning Model Three intertwined elements: u Ability (describes both competence and capacity) u Capability Learning Model Three intertwined elements: u Ability (describes both competence and capacity) u Values (the ideals that govern the use of ability) u Self-efficacy (the way people judge their capability to carry out actions effectively)

Leadership Issues for Capability Learning Model u u u Ability (improved by structured professional Leadership Issues for Capability Learning Model u u u Ability (improved by structured professional development) Values (improved by establishing a common code of values - professionalism) Self-efficacy (improved by providing teachers with professional support)

General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 leadership and coordination home, General Design for Improving Learning Outcomes Hill and Crevola 1997 leadership and coordination home, school and community partnerships Intervention and special assistance School and class organisation beliefs and understandings professional learning teams standards and targets monitoring and assessment classroom teaching strategies

Nutrients for a hospitable learning culture • • • being valued being encouraged being Nutrients for a hospitable learning culture • • • being valued being encouraged being noticed being trusted being listened to being respected Southworth, 2000

More information If you would like more details contact Tony Townsend: Phone: Fax: 561 More information If you would like more details contact Tony Townsend: Phone: Fax: 561 297 6771 Cell: 561 297 3618 561 414 3709 email: [email protected] edu