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LCC and the “Digital Identifier Network” Godfrey Rust, Rightscom/Linked Content Coalition Keynote for IFRRO LCC and the “Digital Identifier Network” Godfrey Rust, Rightscom/Linked Content Coalition Keynote for IFRRO Business Models Forum, March 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Context: the digital content explosion The number of new and adapted works of all Context: the digital content explosion The number of new and adapted works of all media types (text, image, audio, audivisual) now loaded or created on the internet each day is greater than the total number of books, audio and audiovisual recordings published in physical form in the history of civilisation. This figure was negligible ten years ago. The result is an unimaginable number of new daily digital orphans – content whose identity and rights are inaccessible to users or service providers in any automatable way. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

This presentation… Summary of LCC and the RDI project Brief description of the Digital This presentation… Summary of LCC and the RDI project Brief description of the Digital Identifier Network which as the context of rights management for the future (using the LCC’s rights model to describe it) Suggestion of Web Content Declaration of interest an – approach LCC is considering for addressing the digital orphan issue. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Linked Content Coalition (LCC) LCC was established in 2012 to develop building blocks for Linked Content Coalition (LCC) LCC was established in 2012 to develop building blocks for the expression and management of rights and licensing across all content and media types. Membership global: all media types and all parts of the digital content supply chain. Supported by EC (funding RDI project) and UK “Copyright Works” report leading to Copyright Hub. Phase 1 completed – “LCC Framework” published last week. Phase 2 in planning. LCC to be a consortium of standards bodies? Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 4 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

LCC Vision Use technology to benefit media supply chain participants, not to their detriment. LCC Vision Use technology to benefit media supply chain participants, not to their detriment. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 5 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

LCC Role To be a catalyst to encourage the automated management of content rights LCC Role To be a catalyst to encourage the automated management of content rights in the digital network. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 6 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

An LCC assumption Rights data management is broadly the same in all media – An LCC assumption Rights data management is broadly the same in all media – differences of emphasis, not of fundamentals. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 7 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

LCC is not… …advocating automation where it isn’t appropriate …about replacing existing standards …about LCC is not… …advocating automation where it isn’t appropriate …about replacing existing standards …about copyright law …biased to any sector or business model Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 8 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Potential benefits Easier discovery of rights ownership will increase market size for rightsholdersand decrease Potential benefits Easier discovery of rights ownership will increase market size for rightsholdersand decrease infringement. Increasing automation will reduce cost and increase profitabilityfor all supply chain participants. More standardisation will lower system development costs , encouraging transformative innovation and increasing market size for all supply chain participants. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 9 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

First deliverable - LCC Framework (April 2013) Specification for best practice and interoperability in First deliverable - LCC Framework (April 2013) Specification for best practice and interoperability in the digital rights data supply chain. Specs for Identifiers and Messages (and, in future, user interface/iconography in the digital network. ) Rights Reference Model(RRM) – comprehensive data model for all types of rights in all types of content for all types of use and control. RRM can be used for system/message design or data transformation for interoperability between other schemas (whether standard or proprietary) – a “hub” modelto allow anyone to talk to anyone about rights. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 10 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

RDI (“Rights Data Integration”) project Beginning (May? ) 2013, for two years, EC funded. RDI (“Rights Data Integration”) project Beginning (May? ) 2013, for two years, EC funded. An exemplary implementation of the RRM as a “hub”. Real businesses dealing with real data and hoping for real long -term business opportunities from RDI. A range of data flows across the supply chain to show that different rights expressions (licenses and rightsholding claims) from all media types can be integrated using an implementation of the RRM. Also show new standards can be implemented to fill gaps (in image sector). Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 11 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

RDI participants Publishing Still images Music PPL CI (Pearson) Ediser Axel Springer Sources CEPIC RDI participants Publishing Still images Music PPL CI (Pearson) Ediser Axel Springer Sources CEPIC Getty Album age fotostock/THP (Kobalt Music) PLUS (Capture)/ (BL) (EMI Music Publishing) IFRRO (IPTC) (Fremantle. Media) Danish Producers Association Cineca Transformer/ mapping Exchanges AV Rightscom NTUA m. EDRA Picscout Album Brackets denote contributing partner which is not a member of the consortium Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 Rights Direct Users 12 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

UK Copyright Hub LCC endorsed by Hooper “Copyright Works Report”. Hub working groups reviewing UK Copyright Hub LCC endorsed by Hooper “Copyright Works Report”. Hub working groups reviewing LCC Rights Reference Model with a view to recommending it as the data architecture for the Hub. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 13 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The Digital Identifier Network (“DIN”) The rest of this talk will use the RRM The Digital Identifier Network (“DIN”) The rest of this talk will use the RRM to present a vision of the present and future of the rights supply chain as a network of digitally resolvable identifiers. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The LCC Rights Reference Model(RRM) A comprehensive data model for all media and right The LCC Rights Reference Model(RRM) A comprehensive data model for all media and right types. Based on much previous work and best data modelling practise. Designed to cover scope of all known existing rights standards and more. Extensible, flexible, optimizable. Tested with use cases. Data modelling is not rocket science: it is about describing the reality you want your system to deal with. A model should make sense to anyone who has some understanding of that reality. If it doesn’t, your system will cause you trouble. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The RRM demystifies rights data management All multi-media rights data, however complex, can be The RRM demystifies rights data management All multi-media rights data, however complex, can be aggregated and expressed in common and relatively simple ways. Across-the-board interoperability is achievable: “our domain is special” is not true. Differences can all be accommodated by identifier and vocabulary management. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

LCC Entity Model: Attribute Model LCC Entity Model This diagram shows the common structure LCC Entity Model: Attribute Model LCC Entity Model This diagram shows the common structure for each Entity in the RRM (and other models which LCC may specify in future). Entity Each Entity is built in a modular way from combinations of five types of Attribute, each of which has a different “micro-model” structure, exemplified here. Each Attribute is Category an Entity in its own right and may have Attributes of its own. Link 1 0 -n Link A typed Link. Type relationship Entity 1 between Entity 1 Role two Entities Entity 2 Role 1 Category A categorization of of an Entity with a fully controlled data value example Type xyz: Right. Type Value xyz: Play 1 -n Entity 0 -n Descriptor A Name, Identifier or Annotation of an Entity in the form of an uncontrolled or partially controlled data value Type Value Name. Type Designation Part example lcc: Name “John Smith” Reference. Name “Smith, John”, Indexed “John”, Names. Before. Key. Name “Smith”, Key. Name example lcc: Creation_Party A 123 (=“Moby Dick”) B 987 (=“Herman Melville”) xyz: Author Time 0 -n A point or period of time associated with an Entity Type Mode Proximity From Proximity To example xyz: Valid. Period lcc: Exactly 2012 -01 -01 Lcc: Not. After 2013 -12 -31 Type Mode Proximity Value Unit example xyz: File. Size lcc: Single. Quantity lcc: Not. More. Than 10 xyz: MB 0 -n Quantity A measure of some aspect of an Entity Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 Note: Some element names are abbreviated because of space © LCC/Rightscom 2013

RRM Entity. Types and principal Links RRM Entities and principal Links This diagram shows RRM Entity. Types and principal Links RRM Entities and principal Links This diagram shows the eight Entity. Types of the RRM, and the main links between them. What the reality looks like Party Creation Contributor Rightsholder Asserter Controlled Creation Assigner Assignee Source. Rights Assignment Assigned. Right Excluded. Right Condition Valid. Context Subject. Of. Assertion Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 Valid. Place Conflicted. Rights Conflict Context Place © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Each of the Entities is an Identifier and each of the Links is defined Each of the Entities is an Identifier and each of the Links is defined by a Type (a term from a controlled vocabulary). The computer has no idea what it means. It only works if IDs and Types are in a form that it can process. It can recognise if an ID or a Type is the same as another – that is how it is able to pass information from one model to another. RRM Entities and principal Links What this looks like to a computer Type 14 Type 1 ID 1 Type 3 ID 4 Type 2 Type 13 Type 4 Type 12 ID 2 Type 5 ID 5 Type 11 Type 9 Type 6 ID 3 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 Type 7 ID 6 Type 10 Type 8 ID 7 ID 8 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

On the Web, each ID and Type is best represented as a URI. That On the Web, each ID and Type is best represented as a URI. That enables connections to be made using standard Web protocol. This is creating the Linked Identifier Network on which digital commerce relies. Rights, money, content, searches, piracy and anti-piracy actions all flow along this network. The Linked Identifier Network What this looks like (ideally) on the Web URI 22 URI 20 URI 19 URI 4 URI 21 URI 13 URI 14 URI 12 URI 15 URI 11 URI 9 URI 16 URI 3 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 URI 17 URI 6 URI 10 URI 18 URI 7 URI 8 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Where there are gaps in the network, the Network is broken. The Linked Identifier Where there are gaps in the network, the Network is broken. The Linked Identifier Network What this looks like (actually) on the Web URI 22 URI 20 URI 4 URI 13 URI 14 URI 5 URI 17 URI 3 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 URI 6 URI 10 URI 8 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The network is broken The Linked Identifier Network is seriously broken (or rather, not The network is broken The Linked Identifier Network is seriously broken (or rather, not yet built) in many places, and some of these get in the way of good content and rights management. Either - IDs and Types are missing, or - IDs and Types are not mapped to each other where they represent the same things, or - they are not yet usable as URIs That sums up what LCC wants to see done. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Provisos Not all links are public. The network will always be confidential or inaccessible Provisos Not all links are public. The network will always be confidential or inaccessible in some places for good reasons. Not all parts of the network are worth the cost of building and maintaining them. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Two key developments which shape the solution • Digital content identification • “Direct-to-web” publishing. Two key developments which shape the solution • Digital content identification • “Direct-to-web” publishing. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Digital content identification There is plenty of technology now for identifying digital items, for Digital content identification There is plenty of technology now for identifying digital items, for example: • Digimarc Guardian (Attributor) - text • Getty Pic. Scout – images • Soundmouse - audio • You. Tube Content ID - audio visual These mean that content items can be tracked for any purpose. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Mapped”, not just standard, identifiers The same identifier standards do not need to be “Mapped”, not just standard, identifiers The same identifier standards do not need to be used everywhere – different standards can be “mapped” to one another so that systems can translate automatically. This is the basis of the ISNI Party identifier currently being implemented. This is also how different controlled vocabularies can be interoperated (RDI will greatly expand the Vocabulary Mapping Framework). Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Direct-to-web” publishing Most items of content are now published first in digital form on “Direct-to-web” publishing Most items of content are now published first in digital form on the web. Much of this content is of some commercial value (or potential commercial value). Much is “self-published” by individuals or by organizations who are not primarily publishers but Primary publishers also now release a great deal of content through websites, blogs and filesharing services. There may now be more than a billion “web content publishers”. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The identifier gap Most direct-to-web publishing captures metadata – who is the creator / The identifier gap Most direct-to-web publishing captures metadata – who is the creator / rightsholder what is the content and sometimes what rights are available but much of it is not machine-interpretable (that is – not captured as shared identifiers or authorized. It is captured as ) free text or proprietary IDs. Unlike data in a public registry, for example, it cannot Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Simply stated… …most web content publishers have no way of declaring who they are Simply stated… …most web content publishers have no way of declaring who they are what their content it what content it is derived from (if any) and what rights they control or grant in a form that is authorized, and can be discovered automatically by anyone who wants or needs to know. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Digital content IDs are dumb Digital content IDs enable a high level of automated Digital content IDs are dumb Digital content IDs enable a high level of automated identification – but they only recognise the content. Digital content IDs must be linked at some point to “human” authorized party, content and rights identification. This set of identifiers might be called the authorized key metadata. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Declaration “at point of first publication” The obvious solution is to issue the authorized Declaration “at point of first publication” The obvious solution is to issue the authorized key metadata at the point at which a digital item first enters the web. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Web Content Declaration of interest” (WCD) This could be a standardised but flexible declaration “Web Content Declaration of interest” (WCD) This could be a standardised but flexible declaration of interest of any kind (contributor or rightsholder) in an item of digital content published on the web. The WCD would include: • a digital content ID (automatically generated) • party ID(s) for the interested party(s) • creation ID(s) for the content item and linked items • rights assignments • other metadata using mapped controlled vocabularie Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

use case: a music video (but could be any content) Performer “Ebony Day” Creation use case: a music video (but could be any content) Performer “Ebony Day” Creation “Kiss You - One Direction (Ebony Day Live Cover)” This is a version of: Music video by One Direction performing Kiss You. (c) 2013 Simco Limited under exclusive licence to Sony Music Entertainment UK Limited Rights No information published. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

As a Web Content Declaration of interest Content. ID 01010101010 Performer ISNI 123456789 Creation As a Web Content Declaration of interest Content. ID 01010101010 Performer ISNI 123456789 Creation ISRC 234567890 ddex: Musical. Work. Video (etc) xyz: cover of: ISRC 987654321 Rights ABC Rights Assignment 123456789 (etc) Asserter ISNI 987654321 date 01 -01 -2015 Most WCD data can be stored as a default “profile” and created automatically as part of the content publication process. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Web Content Declaration of interest” (WCD) Based on the LCC models. Customised for specific “Web Content Declaration of interest” (WCD) Based on the LCC models. Customised for specific content and services using Apps and APIs. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Some health warnings Any systems must be voluntary and opt-in. Not all rights management Some health warnings Any systems must be voluntary and opt-in. Not all rights management can be automated. This approach is not “legal deposit” (though could be integrated with legal deposit where that exists). Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

How to get IDs? Web content publishers need to be able to acquire IDs How to get IDs? Web content publishers need to be able to acquire IDs automatically. Existing identifier registries (eg ISRC, ISNI, ISBN, ISWC, EIDR, DOI etc) can allow web content publishers to acquire IDs directly (a challenge in volume, cost or authorization for some of them) and/or new identifiers and registries will emerge to provide identification services. These will feed into established registries where appropriate. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Where to put WCD data? Content aggregators and service providers would not be expected Where to put WCD data? Content aggregators and service providers would not be expected to accept any responsibility for the data (unless they want to). WCD data can go to existing Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Web Content Declaration of Interest” Machine-interpretable declarations of content and rights made at the “Web Content Declaration of Interest” Machine-interpretable declarations of content and rights made at the point of first publication of digital content the web. on Using (and supplementing) existing identifier and metadata standards and registries wherever possible. Declarations to link digital content IDs to authoritative party, creation and rights identifiers and metadata. Declarations should be integrated with content loading systems, but web content aggregators not expected to be registries – Apps and APIs to provide links. May be supplemented of course (user default patterms) (wrks that are registered) Currently no place to decare rights control Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Rights expressions in. WCDs The LCC model supports the simplest or most complex rights Rights expressions in. WCDs The LCC model supports the simplest or most complex rights expressions, using any controlled vocabularies. Other rights languages such as ODRL, Rights. ML or ONIX-PL can be used for licenses. The model can be used to express public domain and orphan works and any specific provisions or exceptions for specific jurisdictions. Rights claims can be made at any time after first publication by association. Conflicting claimswill be a significant issue for WCDs, as they are for collective rights registries now. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Controlled vocabularies The LCC RRM supports the simplest or most complex rights expressions, using Controlled vocabularies The LCC RRM supports the simplest or most complex rights expressions, using any controlled vocabularies. kfkfk. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Impact on licensing The LCC RRM supports the simplest or most complex rights expressions, Impact on licensing The LCC RRM supports the simplest or most complex rights expressions, using any controlled vocabularies. Kfkfk . Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Digital orphans” If metadata is not machine-interpretable, an item of content maybe called a “Digital orphans” If metadata is not machine-interpretable, an item of content maybe called a digital orphan – it requires human intervention to complete a chain of transaction. The problem of new digital orphans is far larger than the problem of “historical orphans”: billions of digital orphans are being created daily. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Rights” in the LCC model A Right is “a state in which a Party “Rights” in the LCC model A Right is “a state in which a Party is entitled to do something in relation to a Creation, as a consequence of a law, agreement or policy”. A Rights Assignmentis “a decision which results in the existence of a Right” and so covers any kind of agreement (including licences), law or policy which grants rights. Offers and requests can be expressed in the same structure as “proposed rights assignments”. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Assertions and conflicts Digital Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Assertions and conflicts Digital Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The missing link(s) Digital content identification “Direct-to-web” publishing. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March The missing link(s) Digital content identification “Direct-to-web” publishing. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013 Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future of the Digital Identifier Network Five things I expect to happen, and The future of the Digital Identifier Network Five things I expect to happen, and which LCC will be trying to facilitate: Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future DIN: Party IDs – first in the chain Party IDs are the The future DIN: Party IDs – first in the chain Party IDs are the starting point – and the blind spot in several sectors. eg CISAC’s great success story – the CAE/IP number. eg ISNI (and IDs which link to it) When Creations or Rights are being identified, the Rightsholders must first be identified if licensing is to be automated. All Rightsholders who want them will have IDs (like ISNI, or an ID mapped to ISNI) which enable them to register content and rights. They will be able to get them quite easily. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future DIN: Creation IDs - “Digital declaration” Automated content identification is already common The future DIN: Creation IDs - “Digital declaration” Automated content identification is already common in images (eg Pic. Scout and You. Tube) and audio. Growing use in text world (eg Digimarc Guardian). Allows a party to declare a reference copy – so a copy supplied to (eg) You. Tube or Pic. Scout allows service providers to offer discovery or monitor pirate usage. At present this process is ad hoc and driven by specific business requirements (such as take-down). Digital declaration will become the key to the authoritative “once for all” declarationof works and associated Rights throughout the digital network. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future DIN: Rights IDs Rights data needs to be shared automatically much more The future DIN: Rights IDs Rights data needs to be shared automatically much more than it currently is in the supply chain (volume, multi-media, re-purposing explosion). Policies and Rights will have IDs issued at the point at which they are to enable resolution. eg PLUS Coalition Much but not all of this will be proprietary “behind closed doors”. Assertions (“who says”? ) and Conflicts will become critically important in managing distributed Rights data. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future DIN: Controlled vocabularies (“Category IDs”) Already well established and widely used, these The future DIN: Controlled vocabularies (“Category IDs”) Already well established and widely used, these will be mapped through services like the Vocabulary Mapping Framework (VMF) and schema. org. Apps will access Category IDs automatically and transform them seamlessly for different domains as required. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future DIN: Resolvable IDs Creation and License/Rights IDs will allow people and systems The future DIN: Resolvable IDs Creation and License/Rights IDs will allow people and systems to resolve automatically to different services – such as content, rights metadata or licensing systems, eg DOI/Handle already offers “multiple resolution”. IDs will be embedded with content or in web pages, but metadata increasingly stored remotely – especially for rights. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

“Declaration”vs “registration” This presentation talks about “declaration” rather than “registration” of digital content, to “Declaration”vs “registration” This presentation talks about “declaration” rather than “registration” of digital content, to avoid a common misunderstanding. “Registration” has several meanings, and is sometimes used to describe an act which establishes the existence of copyright in a creation. “Declaration” here simply means providing a definitive, accessible copy of a creation along with metadata for the purposes of authoritative identification regardless of its copyright status (for example, ”declaration” may also apply to works in the public domain). Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future of content and rights declaration (1) A person or organization with content The future of content and rights declaration (1) A person or organization with content and rights will be able to upload a Creation onto a digital service and: - identify themselves and their roles (with IDs) - identify their Creation(s) and links (with IDs) - identify the rights they control and are willing to grant (with IDs) - this process may apply to self-publishers or major corporations - this process may apply to single works or complete repertoires Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future of content and rights declaration (2) The IDs they use may be The future of content and rights declaration (2) The IDs they use may be standard or proprietary but will be “shared” with the network. Controlled vocabularies from different namespaces will be interoperable. Services will use apps and APIs so that for the user the process can be more or less automatic, using a set of default preferences. With the RRM underpinning the standards it can be as simple or complex (and extensible) as it needs to be. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

The future of content and rights declaration (3) Similar “ID at the point of The future of content and rights declaration (3) Similar “ID at the point of activity” processes will support the issuing of licenses and usage reporting and monitoring. There are no technical barriers to this – all the individual processes involved are commonplace and “big data” is no longer an obstacle. The digital explosion described at the beginning makes this both necessary and inevitable. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Who manages the Digital Identifier Network? Like internet, all the participants. Threat or opportunity Who manages the Digital Identifier Network? Like internet, all the participants. Threat or opportunity for IFRRO members? New services and intermediaries will appear, some of them growing very rapidly. Your legacy data and systems can be an asset or a liability. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

LCC – the next step LCC proposes to become a consortium of standards groups LCC – the next step LCC proposes to become a consortium of standards groups (eg Editeur, DDEX, IPTC, CC, PLUS Coalition, W 3 C, DOI, other ISO identifier agencies). Enough of these already engaged with LCC to secure continuity. Anyone else (eg IFRRO) may be affiliated and participate in, propose and/or fund projects. Project to facilitate “digital declaration at the point of activity” will be top of the agenda. Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013

Thank you for your time and attention. godfrey. rust@rightscom. com www. linkedcontentcoalition. org Godfrey Thank you for your time and attention. godfrey. [email protected] com www. linkedcontentcoalition. org Godfrey Rust Licenses for Europe March 2013 © LCC/Rightscom 2013