- Количество слайдов: 18
Definition of Hispanic Origin § Those who indicated that their origin was Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or some other Hispanic origin. (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000)
Population Size & Composition In March 2002, there were 37. 4 million Hispanics in the United States. (U. S. Census, 2002)
Population Data § 1/8 or 12. 5% of the total U. S. population is of Hispanic Origin. § Only 26% of the total foreign-born population of Latinos are undocumented. § In 2002, Hispanic purchasing power exceeded $630 billion dollars, and is projected to reach $1 trillion by 2005. (NCLR, 2004), (U. S. Census, 2000), (NCLR, 2004), (U. S. Census, 2002), (HACR, 2002), (Guzman, 2001), (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002)
Population Data § The Latino population is the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in Wisconsin: § Between 1990 and 2000 the Hispanic population in WI grew by 107%. § In 2002 Latinos made up 13% of Milwaukee’s population. § 36% of Wisconsin's total Hispanic population lives in Milwaukee. § In 2002, the largest percentage of Latinos in Wisconsin were Mexicans at 71. 8%. (U. S. Census, 2000), (U. S. Census, 2002)
Education: MPS § The statewide graduation rate was 91% for the 200203 school year. § Yet the graduation rate for MPS Hispanic students was only 62% compared to 71% Whites. § The MPS high school dropout rates for Hispanics ranged from 9 -10% for the years 2000 -2003, compared to 6 -7% for Whites. § The retention rate for MPS Hispanic students ranged from 6. 4%-9. 2% between the years 2000 -2003. (MPS, 2003)
Latinas & Employment § The unemployment rate for Hispanic women is about twice that of white women. § In 1997, the labor force participation rate of Hispanic women was 55. 1%. § Latinas are: § § More likely to work in light manufacturing positions and farm occupation than other women. § § More heavily represented in the service industry, and a large proportion of them are in technical/sales/administrative support roles. Underrepresented in managerial/professional roles. Women of color in general are: § More heavily represented in lower paying jobs. § Paid less in the same job (even when qualifications are the same). § More likely to be part-time or a non-standard employee involuntarily. (Waters & Gimpel, 1995), (U. S. Department of Commerce News, 2000) (Enchautegui, 1997), (Malveaux, 1999)
Latinos & Employment § The Latino labor force participation rate is 68. 7% (the national Average is 66. 4%). § However, many Latinos fill low skilled jobs with inadequate wages/benefits. § The Latino unemployment rate is 7. 3% compared to 4. 9% for Whites. § Lack of English fluency limits income/employment outcomes: § § § Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to work in service occupations. Hispanics, in comparisons to their white counterparts, were almost twice as likely to be employed as operators and laborers (22% vs. 12%). 14% of Hispanics were in managerial professional occupations vs. 33% of non-Hispanic Whites. (Waters & Gimpel, 1995), (U. S. Department of Commerce News, 2000) (Enchautegui, 1997), (Malveaux, 1999)
Employment Barriers & Issues Wage and Employment Discrimination § Only 1. 8 % of Hispanics are Fortune 1, 000 directors. § Only 1. 1% of Hispanics are Fortune 1, 000 corporate officers. § After controlling for age, education, English language ability, nativity, and state/metro residence a gap of 10% or more was found between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. § Some Hispanic men continue to earn less than comparably educated White men. § Hispanic men with less than an associate degree earned only 76% of what white males with equivalent education earned. § Undocumented Immigrants who received legalization under the 1986 IRCA amnesty program earned 30% less than their legal counterparts from the same region. (Waters & Gimpel, 1995), (U. S. Department of Commerce News, 2000), (Enchautegui, 1997), (Malveaux, 1999)
Employment Barriers & Issues § Insufficient preparation for the labor market § High stress levels § Language barriers: § Low levels of education § Labor market positions § Discrimination § Marginalization § § Exclusion from/discrimination in services Exacerbation of ethnic tensions § The economy § Poor employment networks § High poverty levels (Suleimain, 2003), (Waters & Gimpel, 1995), (NCLR, 2004), (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002)
Stereotypes & Misconceptions Immigrants General § Docile § Pliable Few Latinos speak English § Unintelligent Only low-income, poorly educated Latinos are likely to face racism § Dirty § Unwilling to learn English § Unwilling to work as hard as natives § When Latinos speak in Spanish they are "talking about" people § Most Latinos are recent immigrants § § § All Latinos are: § § § Liberal Undependable Illegal residents Work in U. S. but do not pay taxes Late to work and want to leave early (Burns & Gimpel, 2000), (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002), (Waters & Gimpel, 1995), (HACR, 2002)
Values § Strong family orientation § Strong work ethic § More collectivist than individualistic § Relationship building is important § Personal space is typically smaller § Eye contact § More relaxed view of time is prevalent § Major differences in body language/gestures between different Latin American countries § Proud of language/cultural roots (Suleimain, 2003), (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002) VALUES
Colleagues Should… § Avoid oversimplifying the intrinsic complexity of this diverse population. § Not assume all Latinos need special help in English or require you to speak slowly – assess. § Not conclude they are being talked about when someone is speaking Spanish. § Consider cultural training and language learning opportunities for all employees. (HACR, 2002), (NCLR, 2004), (Ratcliff, 2003), (Doverspike, etal. 2000), (Osterling, 2001), (U. S. Census Bureau, 2001), (www. hmweekly. com), (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002)
Employers Should… § Have greater access to information in Spanish from both written and visual media. § Support mentoring and Hispanic employee networks to boost recruitment/career development efforts. § Use successful minority incumbents in recruiting efforts, and when feasible, deploy minorities as recruiters. § Educate managers/employees about the Hispanic culture and what motivates them. (HACR, 2002), (NCLR, 2004), (Ratcliff, 2003) (Doverspike, etal. 2000) (Osterling, 2001), (U. S. Census Bureau, 2001), (www. hmweekly. com) (Wildermuth & Gray, 2002)
Dr. Wilma L. Bonaparte Associate Dean Liberal Arts and Sciences Health Occupations Milwaukee Area Technical College
QUESTIONS or COMMENTS For more information about the Hispanic population of the United States: I. Refer to the Appendices II. Visit the Census Bureau’s Web site http: //www. census. gov Click on Subjects A-Z and select H for Hispanic Thank you!!
References l Burns, P. and Gimpel, J. G. Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy. Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 155, No. 2, Summer 2001. l Doverspike, D. , Taylor, M. N. , Shultz, K. S. , and Mc. Kay, P. F. (2000). Responding to the Challenge of a Changing Workforce: Recruiting Nontraditional Demographic Groups. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 445 -459. l Enchautegui, M. E. (1997). Latino Neighborhoods and Neighborhood Poverty. Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 19, No. 4, p. 445 -467. l Fry, R. (2003). Hispanic Youth Dropping Out of U. S. Schools: Measuring the Challenge. Pew Hispanic Center, Washington D. C. l Guzman, B. (2001). The Hispanic Population: Census 2000 brief. Washington, DC: U. S. Bureau of the Census. l HACR. (2002). HACR Best Practices: 2002 Hispanic Workforce. l Malveaux, J. (199). Women of Color in the Labor Market. Quarterly Review of Economic and Finance, Vol. 39 p. 663 -678. l MPS. (2003). The 2002 -2003 District Report Card For the Milwaukee Public Schools. l National Council of La Raza (NCLR). 2004. State of Hispanic America, 2004: Latino Perspectives on the American Agenda. l Osterling, J. P. (2001). Waking the Sleeping Giant: Engaging and Capitalizing on the Sociocultural Strength of the Latino Community. Bilingual Research Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1 and 2.
References l Ratcliff, C. (2003). Strength in Diversity. Primedia Business Magazines and Media Inc. l Suleimain, L. P. (2003). Beyond Cultural Competence: Language Access and Latino Civil Rights. Child Welfare, Mar/Apr 2003, Vol. 82 Issue 2, p. 185 -201. l The W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2000). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Era of Devolution: A Persistent Challenge to Welfare Reform. l U. S. Census. 2000 Census of Population and Housing. U. S. Department of Commerce News. Diversity of the Country's Hispanics Highlighted in U. S. Census Bureau Report. March, 2001. l U. S. Census. 2000. Hispanic Population of the United States Current Population Survey Definition and Background. U. S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Ethnic and Hispanic Studied Branch. l U. S. Census. 2002. Facts for Features. Hispanic Heritage Month 2002: Sept. 15 -Oct. 15. September, 2002. . l U. S. Census Bureau. March 2002. Current Population Survey. l Waters, M. C. and Gimpel, J. G. (1995). Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, p. 419 -446. l www. diversityeffectiveness. com. 2/27/04. Wildermuth, C. & Gray, S. D. (2002). Latinos in the U. S. The American Society of Training and Development. l www. hacr. org/statistics. htm 2/24/04. HACR 2002 Hispanics Today. Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility.