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LARGE LATINAMERICAN MILLIMETER ARRAY (“LLAMA”) Argentina: Mirabel, Arnal, Morras, Romero… Brasil: Lepine, Gouveia Dal LARGE LATINAMERICAN MILLIMETER ARRAY (“LLAMA”) Argentina: Mirabel, Arnal, Morras, Romero… Brasil: Lepine, Gouveia Dal Pino, Abraham… México: Rodríguez, Lizano…(provided the tipper) ANTENA(S) MILIMETRICA(S) EN ARGENTINA

ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Will consist of 50 to 64 antennas of 12 ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Will consist of 50 to 64 antennas of 12 m diameter Total cost of construction = 1. 4 billon USDs

Atacama Large Millimeter-Submillimeter Array en el llano de Chajnantor (5000 m) Atacama Large Millimeter-Submillimeter Array en el llano de Chajnantor (5000 m)

ALMA location ALMA location

Milestones schedule End 2008: begin 2 -antenna interferometry at 3000 m Mid 2009: begin Milestones schedule End 2008: begin 2 -antenna interferometry at 3000 m Mid 2009: begin commissioning, 3 -antenna interferometry at the AOS. Mid 2010: call for Early Science proposals. End 2010: Early Science, 16 antennas at the AOS. Q 1 2013: full operations, 50 antennas + ACA at the AOS.

Goals: high angular resolution at sub-millimeter wavelengths Reconfigurable, baselines from 150 m to ~16 Goals: high angular resolution at sub-millimeter wavelengths Reconfigurable, baselines from 150 m to ~16 km (186 pads) with a resolution < 0. 1” and a Atacama Compact array (ACA)

ALMA Present main Science Drivers for ALMA VLBI mentioned, but not implemented in the ALMA Present main Science Drivers for ALMA VLBI mentioned, but not implemented in the present construction phase Star & Planet Formation Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

Millimeter Astronomy e. g. a “dark” cloud The cold Universe The formation of galaxies, Millimeter Astronomy e. g. a “dark” cloud The cold Universe The formation of galaxies, stars and planets Emission from dust and molecules Multi-wave astronomy opens A rich scientific frontier Synergy of ALMA with large optical & infrared telescopes

LLAMA TO ENHANCE THE ANGULAR RESOLUTION OF ALMA FIRST STEP: INSTALL ANTENA(E) IN ARGENTINA LLAMA TO ENHANCE THE ANGULAR RESOLUTION OF ALMA FIRST STEP: INSTALL ANTENA(E) IN ARGENTINA Mirabel, Arnal, Morras, Romero… Argentina Lepine, Gouveia Dal Pino, Abraham… Brasil Rodríguez, Lizano… México

AGUJERO NEGRO DE 4 x 106 M EN EL CENTRO DE LA GALAXIA AGUJERO NEGRO DE 4 x 106 M EN EL CENTRO DE LA GALAXIA

GENERAL RELATIVITY IMAGE OF THE GALACTIC CENTER BLACK HOLE • Dark circle caused by GENERAL RELATIVITY IMAGE OF THE GALACTIC CENTER BLACK HOLE • Dark circle caused by radiation from behind BH being swallowed by the event horizon (R = 10 mas = 0. 1 UA) • Bright ring = rays deflected by BH • Shadow is off-centre due to flung of photons in the direction of BHs’ spin • VLBI @ 1. 3 mm with a resolution of 40 mas showed that the bulk of the emission is not centered on the BH (Doeleman et al. in Nature Sept. 2008) J. P. Luminet • 4 x 106 M confined in a region enclosed by less the orbit of the Earth • R < 10 marcsec could be imaged with VLBI at sub-millimeter or X-rays VLBI IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE WITH ALMA IS UNIVERSALLY RECOGNIZED AS A FUTURE NEED

Scientific objectives for VLBI with a millimeter antenna in Argentina (T~20%) • First VLBI Scientific objectives for VLBI with a millimeter antenna in Argentina (T~20%) • First VLBI images of regions a few times the horizon size of super-massive black holes (e. g. Sgr A*, Cen A, etc. ). • How relativistic jets are released, accelerated & collimated. • Megamasers of molecules & atomic recombination lines • Masers in stellar forming regions & stellar envelopes • Molecular absorption in front of quasars at very high Zs • Non-thermal processes in stellar magneto-spheres • Solar radio astronomy at unprecedented angular resolution • Extra-solar planets and proto-planetary disks • Applications in Geodesy (e. g. movement of tectonic plates) Complement scientific objectives of APEX with the best back-ends (T~80%)

TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS RELATED TO THIS PROJECT • Communications: engineer training in high frequency microwaves TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS RELATED TO THIS PROJECT • Communications: engineer training in high frequency microwaves • Natural resources: Satellite surveying in high freq. microwaves • Material sciences & engineering: Carbon fiber technologies. The 12 m antennae have a surface accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick up a golf ball at a distance of 15 km • Electronics: Construction of radiometers & High freq. receptors • Gain experience in management of projects at national & international level • ? ? ?

Prototype ALMA antennae in New Mexico 12 m in diameter antennae from Mel. Co, Prototype ALMA antennae in New Mexico 12 m in diameter antennae from Mel. Co, Vertex and AE 2003 -2008

CHAJNANTOR–MACÓN–SUSQUES: A UNIQUE ARRAY LLAMA Susques is close to paved road Macón is close CHAJNANTOR–MACÓN–SUSQUES: A UNIQUE ARRAY LLAMA Susques is close to paved road Macón is close to railway

LANDSCAPE IN THE ARGENTINIAN DESERT (‘PUNA’ OF SALTA) LANDSCAPE IN THE ARGENTINIAN DESERT (‘PUNA’ OF SALTA)

ESO STAFF WORKING IN MACÓN ESO STAFF WORKING IN MACÓN

BUDGETING CONTEXT • • • According to the Argentine minister of Science & Technology BUDGETING CONTEXT • • • According to the Argentine minister of Science & Technology in the year 2009, and in the context of regional integration, there will be the possibility to finance projects in fundamental sciences with impact in new technologies For the first antenna we have the following alternatives: a) ALCATEL or Vertex prototype: Refurbish & transport cost US$ ~1. 5 millon, plus purchase and installation costs b) Purchase an additional 12 m ALMA antenna. Cost ~US$ 10 M c) The possibilities amongst Latin American countries to be explored Equipment for VLBI plus receivers : ~ US$ 1 M Total equipment cost buying a new ALMA antenna: ~ US$ 15 M Annual cost of operations: Depends on several factors, such as contribution from the Province, exchanges of time for new instruments, cost of fuel and electricity, etc. 200. 000/yr x 10 = US$ 2 M Extra salary for engineers: 10. 000/yr for 20 for 10 yr ~ US$ 2 M • TOTAL COST FOR 10 yrs: US$ 20 M or US$ 12 M Depending on whether we buy a new or a prototype antenna

POLITICAL CONTEXT • The AUGER project has demonstrated the capability of Argentina to host POLITICAL CONTEXT • The AUGER project has demonstrated the capability of Argentina to host and manage a global scientific and technological project • The countries in the region maintain a sustained growth and there is a will of integration, in scientific & technological state-of-the art areas • A first antenna in Macón (4600 m), 180 km in a straight line with ALMA, or near Susques (4500 m), 160 km from ALMA, would be the first step in the development of an interferometer for VLBI associated to ALMA and ASTE, with antennas distributed in the Andes of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. • In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico there are scientific-technical groups in radioastronomy, and their integration in millimeter and submillimeter techniques would be desirable. • In Brazil decision makers at scientific level support this project and it is part of a document being sent to CNPq signed by more than 100 Ph. Ds. In Argentina the Astronomical Society supports this project as one of first priority. México provided the tipper and is willing to be in the VLBI network with their 50 m antenna. Perú & Colombia also expressed interest. • With this relatively modest project we would start developing an excellent site for future ground base projects in Latin America

CONCLUSION A Large Latin-American Millimeter Array (LLAMA) would offer the following advantages: • Take CONCLUSION A Large Latin-American Millimeter Array (LLAMA) would offer the following advantages: • Take the lead in a global project that the central countries would start to fund not earlier than 2012. It would place the countries of the region in an advantageous position to participate in an extended version of the project. • A US$ 12 -20 million investment would allow partial integration in a global project that entails an investment of US$ 1. 4 billion • It is an original, scientific-technological project in the sense that it will not repeat goals already achieved (e. g. observations with optical and near infrared telescopes installed in Chile decades ago) • Since in the long run, this project will require the installation of antennae in several countries of the region, it will serve as testing ground to correct regional scientific-technological integrations, step by step, and in progressive way. • It is an ideal context to train human resources in material engineering and microwave technologies, with applications in telecommunications, surveying of natural resources, microelectronics and business management, at national and regional level.

VIEW FROM MACÓN IN SALTA (Foto by Gaspare Locurto) VIEW FROM MACÓN IN SALTA (Foto by Gaspare Locurto)

TOLAR GRANDE: RAILWAY STATION TO ATLANTIC & PACIFIC OCEANS TOLAR GRANDE: RAILWAY STATION TO ATLANTIC & PACIFIC OCEANS

SUSQUES IN JUJUY The town & paved road (Fotos by Adrian Rovero) A site SUSQUES IN JUJUY The town & paved road (Fotos by Adrian Rovero) A site at 3900 meters (Foto by Josué Nuñez)