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Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism 1800 -1870 Chapter 25 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism 1800 -1870 Chapter 25

The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire

Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798 -1840 1798 – Bonaparte invaded Egypt Quickly defeated Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798 -1840 1798 – Bonaparte invaded Egypt Quickly defeated Mamluk forces under Ottoman control Napoleon returned to France and named himself emperor

French rule in Egypt didn’t understand the region cut off from France by British French rule in Egypt didn’t understand the region cut off from France by British in the Mediterranean withdrew in 1801

Muhammad Ali 1805 - took the place of the Ottoman governor 1811 - took Muhammad Ali 1805 - took the place of the Ottoman governor 1811 - took privileges and land from the Mamluks adopted Fr. practices sent forces against the Saudi Kingdom to take Mecca and Medina for the Sultan conscription (draft) used to replenish the army

 established military schools even sent some officers to France for training 1824 – established military schools even sent some officers to France for training 1824 – first newspaper in the Islamic world Built factories Forced farmers to sell crops at fixed prices Made huge profits selling to Europe during the Napoleonic Wars Ibrahim Muhammad’s son Took Syria

 British naval bombardments of Syria’s coast Egypt withdrew from Syria Due to debt British naval bombardments of Syria’s coast Egypt withdrew from Syria Due to debt owed to the Br. Limited his power Militarily and economically

Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807 -1853 Sultan Selim III intelligent ruler created Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807 -1853 Sultan Selim III intelligent ruler created European style military units strengthened the central government provincial governors under control of central govt. tax reforms

these reforms failed janissary opposition against the creation of new military units interested in these reforms failed janissary opposition against the creation of new military units interested in preserving economic privileges

 sometimes military uprisings in Serbia janissaries were governors the people (especially Orthodox Christians) sometimes military uprisings in Serbia janissaries were governors the people (especially Orthodox Christians) complained that they were cruel rulers Selim planned to move them to Istanbul the Janissaries revolted, massacred Christians in Serbia gained independence

 ulama, or Muslim religious scholars, opposed reform distrusted secularization of law and taxation ulama, or Muslim religious scholars, opposed reform distrusted secularization of law and taxation that Selim proposed Selim suspended his program in 1806 Military uprising and Selim was imprisoned then executed

Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808 -1839) Selim’s cousin began reinstituting the reforms Greek independence Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808 -1839) Selim’s cousin began reinstituting the reforms Greek independence Greek nationalists fought for Greek independence from the Ottomans Even with the help of the Egyptians, the Ottomans lost Was seen as Ottoman weakness

 Mahmud was able to make changes Trained a new artillery unit Dissolved the Mahmud was able to make changes Trained a new artillery unit Dissolved the Janissary corps 1839 Serbian forces under Ibrahim Pasha attacked The Ottoman Navy decided to support Egypt Mahmud died

Tanzimat series of reforms introduced by Abdul Mejid, Mahmud’s son in 1839 endorsed by Tanzimat series of reforms introduced by Abdul Mejid, Mahmud’s son in 1839 endorsed by European ambassadors public trials and equal protection under the law whether Muslim, Christian or Jew

 equal eligibility for men to be drafted changed the tax system, ended tax equal eligibility for men to be drafted changed the tax system, ended tax farming Seen as “the dawn of thought and enlightenment in the middle east. ” Christians and Jews tended to be happier about it than Muslims Also seen as the beginning of unchecked Authoritarianism when religious leaders lose political power

Law overtime more and more secular sharia became used only in matters of family Law overtime more and more secular sharia became used only in matters of family law Education military school at Istanbul became a university 1838 – first medical school usually European teachers French became the language of education 1831 – first Turkish newspaper

Military uniforms became more modern no more facial hair brimless hats so Muslims could Military uniforms became more modern no more facial hair brimless hats so Muslims could touch their heads to the ground the fez

European dress became fashionable Traditional dress was seen as religious or rural All men European dress became fashionable Traditional dress was seen as religious or rural All men became eligible for military service, even non-Muslims All of the Tanzimat reforms applied ONLY to men family life was still based on the sharia

Economy silver from the Americas led to pay in cash rather than goods women Economy silver from the Americas led to pay in cash rather than goods women lost jobs to machines (weaving) Women continued to be able to own and manage property until the 1820 s

The Crimean War and Its Aftermath, 1853 -1877 Russia had been trying to take The Crimean War and Its Aftermath, 1853 -1877 Russia had been trying to take Ottoman land for over a century Russia claimed to be the protector of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire felt they could claim them as subjects because Russia helped the Ottoman Empire in 1833 when Syria was being attacked by Egypt

1852 – Ottoman Empire named France Protector of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem made 1852 – Ottoman Empire named France Protector of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem made Russia angry they invaded The Crimean War 1853 -1856 Russia vs. Ottoman Empire, Italy, France and Britain Overpowered the Russians

The Eastern Question Who would control the Ottoman Empire? ? ? Britain did not The Eastern Question Who would control the Ottoman Empire? ? ? Britain did not trust Russia Afraid they would keep them from India Alliance Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire Stopped Russian expansion into Europe and the Middle East

Effects Russian tsar was discredited British Newspapers gave the impression that the Ottomans did Effects Russian tsar was discredited British Newspapers gave the impression that the Ottomans did not fight well French Newspapers increased unity between French and Turkish culture

 transition from traditional to modern warfare high casualty count due to mechanized vs. transition from traditional to modern warfare high casualty count due to mechanized vs. nonmechanized Ottoman economy became more integrated with European commerce Ottoman gold coins were correlated to the British pound Ottoman empire became urban

 Ottoman government became dependent on European loans Low agricultural yields meant less money Ottoman government became dependent on European loans Low agricultural yields meant less money Europeans were allowed extraterritoriality allowed to live in their own regions within Istanbul and other commercial regions were subject to European law rather than Ottoman law

 1860’s and 1870’s Reform groups demanded a constitution Wanted universal male suffrage Young 1860’s and 1870’s Reform groups demanded a constitution Wanted universal male suffrage Young Ottomans Young urban men Liberal Wanted Ottoman independence from Europe Modern views of Islam Developed a constitution Was in effect from 1876 -1877

The Russian Empire The Russian Empire

Tsar Alexander (r. 1801 -1825) Absolute ruler Making reforms Trying to improve industry Tsar Tsar Alexander (r. 1801 -1825) Absolute ruler Making reforms Trying to improve industry Tsar Nicholas I (r. 1825 -1855) Suspicion of modern ideas

Russia and Europe 1700 – 3% of people lived in cities 1850 – 6% Russia and Europe 1700 – 3% of people lived in cities 1850 – 6% lived in cities agricultural society

 major cities were seaports internal transportation was bad (like the Ottoman Empire) 1817 major cities were seaports internal transportation was bad (like the Ottoman Empire) 1817 – good roads began to be built 1843 steam ships on the Volga 1837 – began working on railroad tracks This slow start compares to Egypt many different languages British help set up textile mills

Czar Nicholas I kept the peasants in serfdom did not want educated people afraid Czar Nicholas I kept the peasants in serfdom did not want educated people afraid of western ideas of revolution did not want a middle class to oppose him fear of change kept him from truly modernizing the country continued to buy manufactured goods and export raw materials

Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Cyrillic alphabet made Russia more like European nations not as Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Cyrillic alphabet made Russia more like European nations not as foreign as Arabic Westernizers wanted technical advances and govt. reform Slavophiles believed in the tsar’s absolute rule

Pan Slavism, a militant doctrine wanting all Slavs to join together Russophobia developed in Pan Slavism, a militant doctrine wanting all Slavs to join together Russophobia developed in the west Russia seen as a geostrategic threat British opposed serfdom serfs were released in 1861

Russia and Asia Russia began expanding east and southward Inferior army compared to Europeans, Russia and Asia Russia began expanding east and southward Inferior army compared to Europeans, but were more advanced than Asian armies 1860 – developed a military port on the Pacific at Vladivostok took over many territories with different languages and religions

created political friction with Qing China, Japan, Iran, and the Ottoman Empire partially due created political friction with Qing China, Japan, Iran, and the Ottoman Empire partially due to refugees into those areas Britain afraid of Russia getting all the way to British India

Cultural Trends Had contact with western Europe since Peter the Great (r. 1689 -1725) Cultural Trends Had contact with western Europe since Peter the Great (r. 1689 -1725) Some knew European languages Peter the Great encouraged Western style education systems Some wanted to free the serfs

Alexander I died in December 1825 reformers tried to revolt and take over the Alexander I died in December 1825 reformers tried to revolt and take over the government the Decembrist revolt failed Russia was forced to return lands to the Ottoman Empire after the Crimean war how embarrassing!

Alexander II (Nicholas’s son) emancipates the serfs in 1861 gave them property rights authorized Alexander II (Nicholas’s son) emancipates the serfs in 1861 gave them property rights authorized joint stock companies railroad system education expanded political activism was prohibited authors still wrote books that encouraged liberalism and socialism

The Qing Empire The Qing Empire

Economic and Social Disorder, 1800 -1839 The Qing had brought stability to China in Economic and Social Disorder, 1800 -1839 The Qing had brought stability to China in the 1600 s Rulers had encouraged agricultural growth and improvement to the road and canal systems 1650 -1800, the population doubled

 Increased population led to strain on the land a large homeless population Minority Increased population led to strain on the land a large homeless population Minority populations began to resent the government. Internal conflicts fought by city militias swept through China in the 1800 s.

The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839 -1850 European and Americans merchants were making The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839 -1850 European and Americans merchants were making fortunes smuggling Opium into China The western powers were using silver gained from this trade to fund industrialization The Qing made opium illegal, but addiction spread to all levels of society

 The Qing banned the importation of Opium in 1839 The British saw this The Qing banned the importation of Opium in 1839 The British saw this as a threat to their economy They sent a naval fleet to the south China coast, beginning the Opium War.

 The Bannermen, or traditional hereditary soldiers of the Qing Empire, were found to The Bannermen, or traditional hereditary soldiers of the Qing Empire, were found to be obsolete. The Chinese foot soldiers were no match for the well armed British Navy. They even used gunships that allowed them to travel up the Yangzi River

 The Treaty of Nanking Ended the Opium War Opened four more treaty ports The Treaty of Nanking Ended the Opium War Opened four more treaty ports in addition to Canton The island of Hong Kong became a British colony British residents in China gained extraterritoriality rights Britain also received Most Favored Nation Status

 1860 – a new treaty legalized the import of opium Foreign missionaries were 1860 – a new treaty legalized the import of opium Foreign missionaries were allowed to travel easily throughout China More treaty ports were established Small colonies formed in Qing territory

 Foreigners built neighborhoods, bars and restaurants and prohibited the Chinese Christian missionaries sponsored Foreigners built neighborhoods, bars and restaurants and prohibited the Chinese Christian missionaries sponsored hospitals, shelters, and soup kitchens Still, some Chinese viewed the Christians as evil

The Taiping Rebellion, 1850 -1864 Civil war Spurred by social unhappiness and foreign intrusion The Taiping Rebellion, 1850 -1864 Civil war Spurred by social unhappiness and foreign intrusion Began in the Guangxi region Unstable agriculture Social divisions

 Hong Xiuquan Founder of the Taiping movement Saw himself as the younger brother Hong Xiuquan Founder of the Taiping movement Saw himself as the younger brother of Jesus Felt God had sent him to build a new kingdom by removing the Manchus from power Soon had followers that believed they could walk on air They said the Manchus were creatures of Satan Became a militaristic movement

 The Taipings took Nanjing and called it the capital of their “Heavenly Kingdom The Taipings took Nanjing and called it the capital of their “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. ” Qing response Had to rely on civilian and professional military Began to use modern weaponry The Taipings were able to hold Nanjing for over a decade

 1856 – Britain and France Done with the Crimean War Should they stop 1856 – Britain and France Done with the Crimean War Should they stop the Taipings? Should they attack the Qing?

 1856 – the British and French begin to attack the coast of China 1856 – the British and French begin to attack the coast of China The Arrow War (1856 -1860) Eventually they join with Qing forces and stop the Taipings

 The Taiping Rebellion aftermath Bloodiest civil war before the 1900 s Between 20 The Taiping Rebellion aftermath Bloodiest civil war before the 1900 s Between 20 and 30 million dead Mostly of starvation and disease Also, a lot of material and cultural destruction

Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864 -1875 The Qing were in Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire, 1864 -1875 The Qing were in great debt Britons and Americans worked for the Qing as advisers and ambassadors Provincial governors became more powerful

 A Qing emperor continued to stay on the throne, but true power rested A Qing emperor continued to stay on the throne, but true power rested with the local governors and China was broken into large zones of power