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LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS WISCONSIN’S STATE MICROBE
Wisconsin’s largest industry is 1. agriculture 2. tourism 3. manufacturing 4. biotechnology
Agriculture is Wisconsin's largest industry at an estimated $51. 5 billion.
What proportion of agriculture in Wisconsin is driven by the dairy industry? 1. 80% 2. 40% 3. 20% 4. 10% 5. 5%
40%…… Dairying is the largest segment, representing $20. 6 billion in Wisconsin's economy - larger than both manufacturing and tourism.
Which of these Wisconsin industries employ the use of microbes? 1. Agriculture 2. Biotechnology 3. Brewing 4. Cheese making 5. Tourism
All these Wisconsin industries involve the use of microbes. Agriculture Biotechnology Brewing Cheese making Tourism
Agriculture Farmers depend on microbes for soil fertility.
Agriculture Farmers use microbes including Lactococcus for silage fermentation. Wisconsin leads the Nation in corn silage production.
Biotechnology is the use of microbes and other types of cells to produce useful substances in medicine, food science, agriculture and other human activities. Lactococcus is used in several aspects of biotechnology, e. g. the production of cheese starter cultures, food preservation, production of lantobiotics and development of vaccines.
Brewing, like breadmaking, uses a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for the conversion of sugars to alcohol and/or carbon dioxide. Ethanol production from corn also empolys this microbe.
Cheesemaking accounts for $18. 5 billion per year in Wisconsin’s economy.
Tourism A Traveler's Guide to America's Dairyland “Wisconsin--land of clean air, lush rolling hills and sparkling limestonefiltered water--is known for its worldclass cheeses. As you travel through the state and sample the best our craftsmen and women have to offer, you'll get a true taste of the rich traditions that for well over 160 years have shaped Wisconsin's ethnic and culinary landscape. ” Tourists attracted by a microbial activity - cheesemaking
Microbes in the manufacture of dairy products Which microbes are utilized in the manufacture cheese, butter, sour cream, yogurt and other fermented dairy products? 1. Streptococcus 2. Lactobacillus 3. Lactococcus 4. Propionibacter 5. Penicillium
All are utilized, depending on the desired outcome! Streptococcus - Italian cheese Lactobacillus - Swiss cheese, yogurt Lactococcus - Cheddar, Colby, sour cream, cottage cheese, cultured butter Propionibacter - Swiss cheese Penicillium - Roquefort, Blue, Camembert
Microbes involved in manufacture of fermented dairy products All cheese images courtesy of Wisconsin Cheese Mart
Know Your State Symbols
What is the Wisconsin state animal?
What is the Wisconsin state beverage?
What is the Wisconsin state microbe?
What is the Wisconsin state microbe? Lactococcus lactis
LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS WISCONSIN’S STATE MICROBE Dairy Facts And Figures
Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis Image copyright Profood International, Inc.
Dairy facts and figures There are 12, 872 licensed dairy herds in Wisconsin. There are 1, 260, 000 dairy cows in the State. Annual milk production per cow in Wisconsin is 18, 240 lbs. Total milk production in Wisconsin is 24. 5 billion pounds per year. Total cheese production in Wisconsin in 2008 was 2. 5 billion lbs. (25. 9 percent of the U. S Total). 25. 6% of cheese produced in Wisconsin is the Cheddar variety. 626, 558, 000 lbs. of Cheddar cheese were manufactured in Wisconsin in 2007. 145, 295, 000 lbs. of Colby and Jack cheeses were produced in Wisconsin in 2007. There are 124 cheese plants in Wisconsin. Per capita cheese consumption in the U. S (2007) was 32. 7 lbs. 52. 5 percent of all milk in the U. S is made into cheese or butter. Over 90 percent of Wisconsin-produced milk is made into cheese or butter. One pound of butter requires 21. 2 lbs. whole milk. One pound of whole milk cheese requires 10. 0 lbs. of milk. One pound of cottage cheese requires 6. 25 lbs. skim milk. Over 90 percent of Wisconsin cheese is sold outside of the State. Dairy agriculture and cheese production create more than 80, 000 jobs in the State and pump 21. 5 billion dollars into the economy.
All cheese images courtesy of Wisconsin Cheese Mart
“Never underestimate the power of the microbe” - L. Pasteur Other Applications and uses for Lactococcus Nisin Starter Cultures Vaccine Delivery Genomic applications
Nisin is antibiotic-like substance produced by Lactococcus lactis. Nisin has antimicobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria, Staphylococcus and Clostridium. Nisin molecule and Lactococcus lactis image copyright Profood International, Inc. http: //www. profoodinternational. com/nisin-profood. html
Starter Cultures Starter cultures have crucial roles to play during all phases of the cheese making and maturation process. http: //www. eatwisconsincheese. com Starter cultures, consisting of bacterial cultures, including Lactococcus lactis, are added to start the cheesemaking process. As the culture grows in the milk, it converts lactose to lactic acid. This ensures the correct p. H for coagulation and influences the final moisture content, texture and flavor of the product.
Lactococcus and Vaccine Delivery Lactococcus can be genetically engineered to produce proteins from pathogenic species on their cell surfaces. This includes human pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria meningitidis, among others. Buccato, S. , et al. 2006. Use of Lactococcus lactis Expressing Pili from Group B Streptococcus as a Broad-Coverage Vaccine against Streptococcal Disease. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006. 194: 331 -340. Hanniffy, S. B. , et al. 2007. Mucosal Delivery of a Pneumococcal Vaccine Using Lactococcus lactis Affords Protection against Respiratory Infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007. 195: 185 -93.
Lactococcus and Vaccine Delivery Lee, M. H. , et al. 2001. Expression of Helicobacter pylori urease subunit B gene in Lactococcus lactis MG 1363 and its use as a vaccine delivery system against H. pylori infection in mice. Vaccine 2001. 19: 3927 -3931. Ribeiro, L. A. , et al. 2002. Production and Targeting of the Brucella abortus Antigen L 7/L 12 in Lactococcus lactis: a First Step towards Food-Grade Live Vaccines against Brucellosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002. 68: 910 -916. Xin, K. Q. , et al. 2003 Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing surface-bound HIV Env. Blood 2003. 10: 223 -228. Robinson, K. , et al. 2004. Mucosal and cellular immune responses elicited by recombinant strains of Lactococcus lactis expressing tetanus toxin fragment C. Infection and Immunity 2004. 72: 2753 -2756. Bermudez-Humaran, L. G. , et al. 2005. A Novel Mucosal Vaccine Based on Live Lactococci Expressing E 7 Antigen and IL-12 Induces Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses and Protects Mice against Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 -Induced Tumors. The Journal of immunology 2005. 175: 7297 -7302. Ramasamay, R. et al. 2006. Immunogenicity of a malaria parasite by Lactococcus lactis in oral immunisations. Vaccine 2006. 24: 3900 -3908. antigen displayed
The Lactococcus Genome Understanding and manipulating the Lactococcus lactis genome will allow improvement of flavor, texture, and preservation of 10 million tons of cheese produced annually, and facilitate current and future work that aims to exploit Lactococcus lactis for a variety of medical and health maintenance applications.
Links Steps in Making Cheese http: //www. eatwisconsincheese. com/wisconsin/how_cheese_is_made. aspx History of Wisconsin Cheese http: //www. eatwisconsincheese. com/wisconsin/history_of_wisconsin_cheese. aspx http: //nationalhistoriccheesemakingcenter. org/Cheese-Making-Gallery. aspx Request a "Traveler's Guide to America's Dairyland" http: //www. eatwisconsincheese. com/wisconsin/travelers_guide. aspx Request a copy of the “Wisconsin Cheese Variety Guide” http: //www. eatwisconsincheese. com/cheese/requestguide. aspx Wisconsin Dairy Statistics http: //www. wisdairy. com/otherdairyproductinfo/dairystatistics. aspx Buy Cheese Wisconsin Cheese Mart http: //www. wisconsincheesemart. com Cheese Videos http: //www. wisconsincheesemart. com/cheese-videos-c-94_130. html