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La recherche L’industrie et les problématiques de l’environnement en Pologne Jan Pluta L’usine Institute of High Pressure Physics vu par l’Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie metalurgique „Huta Warszawa” La sud de la Pologne Faculté de Physique
Perspectives énergétiques de la Pologne
La Premiere Cooperation Franco. Polonaise
Pologne France et Pologne (comparaison)
Pologne France Rapport Pl/Fr surface 322 577 km² 547 026 km² 0. 59 population 38 189 000 60 656 178 0. 63 densité de 123 pers. /km² 111 pers. /km² population 1. 108
Perspectives énergétiques de la Pologne
Current status: Production of electric energy (2005) approx. 150 TWh. It is sufficient for the needs of country. Conclusion: No needs to build new electric power plants. but
comparison Poland: 150 TWh. France: 580 TWh It corresponds for Poland: 580 TWh *0. 6 = 348 TWh More than two times more !!! What is the reason for this difference? 1. Smaller needs of industry. 2. Using of coal and/or other fuels – where the electricity can be used.
Contribution of different sources of energy in the world production of electricity. Charbon 95 % !!! Contribution of different sources of energy in the production of electricity in Poland (95% - coal) http: //www. biomasa. org/edukacja/odnawialnezrodlaenergii
Why we need new electric power stations? • Development of industry and social infrastructure • Decreasing of: CO 2, SO 2, NOX emission • Diversification of the sources of energy
What new source of energy is suitable for Poland? § Coal – NO (emission of CO 2, SO 2, NOX + diversification) § Oil or gas, – NO (dependence on Russia ? ) § Renewable sources of energy: ü Water – already used ü Wind – OK. but insufficient ü Geothermal sources – too low source temperature ü Sun – OK. but insufficient ü Biomass – unrealistic and unreasonable § Nuclear – OK. but. . . . .
I prefer rather this, (les cigognes) I do not like such view. . and what about the windmills? . . . and I am sure that the birds are of the same opinion.
Today there are more than 400 nuclear power reactors in operation in 31 countries around the world. Generating electricity for nearly 1 billion people, they account for approximately almost 17 percent of worldwide electricity generation and provide half or more of the electricity in a number of industrialized countries.
Nuclear – OK. but. . . . . • Czarnobyl – Society say – „No more!” • Coal resources sufficient for 30 – 50 years • Future of the coal mining industry (mines and miners) ? ? ? (social problem) • No experts in Poland (The construction of first nuclear power plant in Poland was stopped after the Czarnobyl disaster. )
Coal or Nuclear energy – Competition. Unacceptable! Is it possible to change competition cooperation (? ) „That is the question”
Up to now the nuclear plants were only used for the production of electric energy. . but maybe there are some other possibilities?
High-temperature nuclear plants of 4 -th generation can be the solution of the problem, as: Ø electric energy production, ØCoal gas or liquid fuel ü natural source exist in Poland (coal) ü Social problem resolved (miners) ü Independence on the source of liquid/gas fuels (Russia) ØHigh (9000 C) temperature useful for many technological processes, e. g. production of Hydrogen.
Some numbers on Hydrogen production and application • The world production of Hydrogen in 2004 is more than 50 millions ton. • 95% of Hydrogen is produced from the natural gas • 50% is used for the production of fertilizer artificial • 40% is used by the oil refinery • 97% is produced close to the location of its application • 10% - year increase of world production of Hydrogen http: //web. mit. edu/pebble-bed
Hydrogen in Poland today: Nitrogen processing 2 miliards m 3 of natural gas used for the production of Hydrogen and ammonia: CH 4 + 2 H 2 O CO 2 +4 H 2 N 2 + 3 H 2 2 NH 3 High temperature reactor could diminish the year using of natural gas up to some hundreds of millions m 3.
Hydrogen in Poland today: oil refinery System for Hydrogen production at the Płock refinery is using up to 100 thousands m 3/h what is making possible to produce 80 thousands tons of Hydrogen per year. This hydrogen is then used for the processes like hydrokraking to produce light hydrocarbons from the heavy fraction of oil. High temperature reactor used in the oil refinery could increase the year production of commercial liquid fuels up to some hundreds of ton (and/or decrease the using of oil)
High temperature reactor in small and efficient power plant • Thanks to high temperature, T = 900 o. C, the efficiency of the change of heat to electricity is about 45% • In the case of coal plant this efficiency is less than 40%, and for currently working nuclear plants is about 35% • The possibility of construction of small, efficient end ecological coal plant is unrealistic Small, efficient nuclear power plant will make competition for gas power plant – not for a large coal plant.
Heat of the reactor for the coal processing and production of gas and liquid fuel The first stage of synthetic petrol production is carbon processinfg for gas: C + H 2 O CO + H 2 In the next stages the CO 2 is removed from the synthetic gas and the synthesis of hydrogen with carbon oxide is making: 17 H 2 + 8 CO C 8 H 18 + 8 H 2 O This technology is well known but is expensive and strenuous for the environment. Some tons of coal should be used to change on ton for the synthetic petrol. The heat from the high temperature reactor will make possible to change even some hundreds of tons of coal for liquid fuel and this process will be friendly for the environment.
Hydrogen the fuel of the future Hydrogen is seen as a fuel of the future but will become it only when some condition are fulfilled: • Efficient, cheep and clean technologies of Hydrogen production • Systems of hydrogen storage • Fuel cells, making efficiently electricity from Hydrogen and Oxygen
High temperature reactor in the industrial centre Hydrogen Reactor Technological heat T = 900 o. C Electricity
Fuel elements of high temperature reactor Fuel element design Graphite layer (5 mm) Coated particles imbedded in Graphite Matrix Fuel sphere (Φ = 6 cm) Some layers of different materials for safety Half-section Coated particle (Φ ≈ 1 mm) http: //www. pbmr. com Fuel (uranium dioxide) (Φ = 0, 5 mm)
Construction of high temperature reactor http: //web. mit. edu/pebble-
Reaktor wysokotemperaturowy http: //web. mit. edu/pebble-bed/index. html
And what with the radioactive waste? • • Reactor use some tens of tons of fuel par year. Storage of radiactive waste will be near the reactor duriong approx. 50 years of reactor operation and 50 years after the end of work. The storage place do not need a forced cooling From the very begin the fuel is in almost nondestructive microcapsules The recycling of fuel is not predicted.
Conclusion: The high temperature 4 -th generation nuclear reactor is a good solution for Poland.
. . . and what about the future generations?
THE NUCLEAR FUSION
Tokamak ITER In Cadarache (FRANCE) "тороидальная камера в магнитных катушках"
Welcome to Warsaw University of Technology History since 1826 Students: 30 000 Academic staff: 2500 other staff: 2000 17 faculties the main building of WUT
Warsaw University of Technology “Gaudeamus igitur. . . ” Celebration of the new Academic Year
Warsaw University of Technology Celebration of the new Academic Year
Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie – la structure • Faculté d’Architecture • Faculté de Chimie • Faculté d’Electronique et Techniques d’Information • Faculté d’Electrotechnique • Faculté de Physique • Faculté de Géodésie et Cartographie • Faculté de Génie Chimique et de Génie des Procédés • Faculté de Génie Civil • Faculté de Génie des Matériaux • Faculté de Génie de Production
Ecole Polytechnique de Varsovie – la structure (suite) 11. Faculté de Génie de l’Environnement 12. Faculté des Mathématiques et Sciences d’Information 13. Faculté d’Energétique et de Génie Aérospatial 14. Faculté de Mécatronique 15. Faculté des Voitures et Machines Lourdes 16. Faculté de Transport 17. Faculté de Génie Civil, Mécanique et Pétrochimie • • • Collège des Sciences Sociales et d’Administration Collège des Sciences Economiques et Sociales Ecole des Affaires (Bussiness School) Centre Inter – facultés de Biotechnologie Ecole des Sciences Techniques et Sociales
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Divisions: • Complex systems • Optics • Semiconductors • Solid State Ionics • Condensed Matter Structure • Solid State Technology • Nuclear Physics • Nonlinear Optics
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Ceremony of Marie Curie fellowships awards. . . led by prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft.
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Meeting of Polish Physicists September 2005
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology Some important events at the Faculty Festival of science 2005 „Physics under the sails and wings”
Cooperation with EMN
Before - scientific cooperation since 1991: experiments: E 183, E 193, E 286 at GANIL, and NA 44 at CERN Cooperation agreement signed 24 March 1997 by director of EMN Mr. Germinet and rector of WUT Mr. Woźnicki during the visit of EMN delegation in Warsaw After - Rapid development of cooperation in research and education
Cooperation agreement (in Polish)
Visit of the delegation from WUT with the Rector (J. Woźnicki) at EMN
An idea of Mr Germinet Three base elements of cooperation Exchange of students Cooperation of teachers Common research
Exchange of students Industrial Training of EMN students in Poland Research training of WUT students in France International student project (PCI)
3 -months Industrial Training of EMN students in Poland (1997 - 2005) Number of students, (months) = 31, (93) Examples of placements: • Metallurgic Plant “Warszawa-Luccini” • Polish Telecom “TPSA” • Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology • Institute of Aviation • Cancer Therapy Centre in Kielce • Establishment for Nuclear Equipment in Swierk • Warsaw University of Technology
Research training of students from WUT at EMN (1997 -2004) Number of students+tutors, (months) = 54, (85) The subjects of research projects: • Analysis of the results from E 286 experiment at GANIL • Data Base system for SSD detector of STAR experiment • System of Data Acquisition for STAR-SSD • Data Base for the construction of ALICE detector • Non-identical particle correlations measured by STAR • Three-dimensional Imaging Technique
International student project (PCI) Autumn 1998 – „Application of semiconductor detectors for sterilisation of medical materials” Autumn 99 – 3 common student projects with Faculty of Physics and Faculty of Environmental Engineering Autumn 2000 – new projects with two faculties of WUT January 2001 – exchange of students (in both directions) between EMN at WUT in the frame of PCI Autumn 2001 – realisation of PCI project on Radon. . . (spontaneous visit of EMN students in Warsaw) --------------Autumn 2002 - realisation of the next PCI project etc. . .
PCI project 2001/2002 “Radon radiation in private and public buildings” Dr Wolkowicz from Polish Geological Institute demonstrates the instrument for radon measurements. . . and makes the real measurements with French and Polish students in December 2001.
Final report on PCI in 1999/2000 academic year in Warsaw. . . presentation Consultation. . . just before. . . and happy after presentation! Visit in the power plant „Kawęczyn”
Cooperation of teachers September 99 – (WUT=>EMN) Visit at EMN of D. Soltyska – the head of Foreign Language Division at WUT June 2000– (EMN=>WUT) Visit of the delegation of EMN in Warsaw (presentation of the principles of APA ) March 2002 – (WUT=>EMN) Visit of Prof. Galwas and Dr. Grabski at EMN, demonstration of distance laboratories for students June 2002 – (WUT<=>EMN) “ALE’ 2002” - “Active Leaning in Engineering Education” organised by John Miller-Jones from EMN with participation of Jan Pluta from WUT
Pol-Bernard Gossiaux form EMN demonstrates the principles of APA (*) for the teachers and students at The Faculty of Physics, WUT (*) APA – Apprentissage Par Action
APA L’Apprentissage Par l’Action „Learning by Doing”, „Nauczanie przez Działanie” A new way of teaching at EMN The idea. . . show complicated phenomena in a simple way. . . (an example)
Robert Germinet The original title „L’apprentissage de l’incertain” (my translation) Learning (preparation) of (to) Uncertain
Experiment EMN &WUT scientific cooperation ( I ) Participation in STAR Experiment at BNL STAR at Brookhaven National Laboratory RHIC Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider Long Island New York, USA E=mc 2 Brookhaven New York USA see: http: //www. star. bnl. gov/
EMN &WUT scientific cooperation ( II ) Participation in ALICE Experiment at CERN (Geneva) Experiment ALICE at CERN ALICE see: http: //alice. web. cern. ch/Alice. New
Ur. QMD – Ultra-relativistic Quantum-Molecular Dynamics
Scientific cooperation „Phone meeting” at EMN i the frame of common participation In the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Lab. (USA) On line are participants from: Warsaw, Brookhaven, Berkeley, Washington, Columbus. . .
Arrangement of cooperation (an example)
How it works? Organisation of the EMN students training in Poland 1. I am sending the propositions of the training subjects to EMN From pluta@mars. if. pw. edu. pl Tue Dec 13 10: 55: 50 2005 Date: Tue, 13 Dec 2005 10: 55: 50 +0100 (CET) From: Jan Pluta
2. Student is sending mail to his future supervisor. From jeanberniolles@gmail. com Wed Jan 11 19: 24: 40 2006 Date: Wed, 11 Jan 2006 19: 24: 33 +0100 From: Jean Berniolles
More info. . . (from Mme Nicole Poedras) Eleves de l’Ecole des Mines de Nantes intéressés par un stage en Pologne en 2006 Domaine recherche Observations de l’élève Domaine informatique Je suis extrèmement intéressé par la Pologne. En ce qui concerne le domaine, j'aimerais beaucoup travailler dans l'informatique, et plus précisément dans le domaine de la programmation par contrainte, aide à la décision ou recherche opérationnelle (constraint programming, decision systems, operation research). Evidemment je serai prêt à travailler dans un autre domaine de l'informatique, dans le cas d’une proposition différente. En ce qui concerne l'établissement d'accueil, j'aimerais si cela est possible, avoir un stage dans un laboratoire ou dans le département R&D d'une entreprise. Tristram Gräbener Domaine de l’environnement Je suis vivement intéressé par la possibilité d'un stage en Pologne. J'aimerais effectuer un stage qui ait un lien avec le domaine environnemental, le traitement de l'eau par exemple. N'hésitez pas à me contacter si vous avez besoin de plus d'informations! Merci pour votre aide. Mathieu Gillard Domaine de l’environnement Je suis très intéressée par l'opportunité de faire un stage en Pologne. J'aimerais qu'il concerne l'environnement au sens large, et je suis ouverte à toute proposition dans ce domaine. Je vous remercie. Laleh Tcharkhti
3. They start to exchange mails, sometimes also phones or faxes in order to clarify the details of the training 4. A am arranging the lodgiing for student(s) in the guest house of our school, sometimes some financial support, 5. In the begin of May students are coming to Poland for the training. 6. At the end of training the supervisor is sending an information with the evaluation of the student activity during the training to EMN. 7. EMN is sending an acknowledgement to the supervisor. It was done already with 31 students of EMN
Foto - report Group of Polish students (with tutors) in Nantes
Foto - report Group of French students in Warsaw
French and Polish students in the „Central Laboratory for Radioprotection” in Warsaw
Foto - report Working together – PCI
Reception for French students by Dean of the Faculty of Physics in Warsaw
Visit of Profs: J. Martino and B. Erazmus from SUBATECH at WUT, January 2003
Additional results of cooperation Work of EMN students in French Enterprises or Agencies in Poland. Many private visits in Poland of EMN students, after passing 3 -month training in Polish Enterprises. . and also New French-Polish family of EMN student Elric Peyre, married with Polish girl - “found” by him in Warsaw during the 3 -month training in 1997.
La promenade dans Varsovie
Varsovie – la Vieille Ville
Varsovie – la Gare Centrale
La France – en Pologne Hypermarchés français à Varsovie
Warsaw – „Old town”
Warsaw- Central Railway Station
Varsovie – le monument de A. Mickiewicz
Varsovie – le centre ville 1
Varsovie – la rue Świętokrzyska
Varsovie – le Parc de Łazienki, monument de F. Chopin Je vous invite à Varsovie. Jan Pluta