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L’opera della Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
• Walter Hamilton, The Aesthetic Movement in England, 1882. • - * William Holman Hunt • - * Sir John Everett Millais • * Dante Gabriel Rossetti • F. G. Stephens • - * William Michael Rossetti • * James Collinson • - * Thomas Woolner •
William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910)
John Everett Millais, (Southampton, 8 giugno 1829 – Londra, 13 agosto 1896)
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (Londra, 12 maggio 1828 – Birchington, 10 aprile 1882 )
Thomas Woolner (Hadleigh, 17 dicembre 1825 – 7 ottobre 1892)
• • • • • Associates of the The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood * John Brett, 1830 -1902 * Ford Madox Brown, 1821 -1893 * Charles Collins * Arthur Hughes * John William Inchbold * R. B. Martineau * Christina Rossetti * John Ruskin, 1819 -1900 * William Bell Scott, 1811 -90 * Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, 1834 -1862 * Thomas Seddon * John Lucas Tupper, sculptor, poet, art theorist, and member of the Pre-Raphaelite circle * Henry Wallis * Lady Pauline Trevelyan, Friend and Patron of the Pre-Raphaelites
• Discorso tenuto presso il Social Science Congress a Manchester nel 1879 da Sir Coutts Lindsay, fondatore della Grosvenor Gallery : “Their creed involved the denial of everything the English school had hitherto held sacred. They accepted Nature alone to be their future guide and Bible, and in it they beheld the condemnation of all art except the earliest art of Italy…. These men threw themselves passionately into the study of the natural, and had implicit faith in the all-teaching of Nature without assistance from the stores of past knowledge. “
William Michael Rossetti, D. G. Rossetti, His Family Letters, 1895: • To have genuine ideas to express; • To study nature attentively, so as to know how to express them; • To sympathize with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parading and learned by rote; • And most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues.
W. M. Rossetti in Pre-Raphaelite Writing, edited by D. Stanford, 1973. • They hated the lack of ideas in art, and the lack of character; the silliness and vacuity which belong to the one, the flimsiness and make-believe which result from the other. They hated those forms of execution which are merely smooth and prettyish, and those which, pretending to mastery, are nothing better than slovenly and slapdash, or what the P. R. B. 's called "sloshy. " Still more did they hate the notion that each artist should obey his own individual impulse, act upon his own perception and study of Nature, (… ); but that, instead of all this, he should try to be "like somebody else, " imitating some extant style and manner, and applying the cut-anddry rules enunciated by A from the practice of B or C. They determined to do the exact contrary. The temper of these striplings, after some years of the current academic training, was the temper of rebels: they meant revolt, and produced revolution.
William Holman Hunt, The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 1905 Pre-Raphaelitism is not Pre-Raphaelism. Raphael in his prime was an artist of the most independent and daring course as to convention. (…) What had cost Perugino, Fra Bartolomeo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michael Angelo more years to develop than Raphael lived, he seized in a day—nay, in one single inspection of his precursors' achievements. His rapacity was atoned for by his never-stinted acknowledgments of his indebtedness, and by the reverent and philosophical use in his work of the prizes that he seized. (…)
• • What he gained (…) was the power to prove that the human figure is of nobler proportion, and has grander capabilities of action than is seen by the casual eye, and that for large work, expression must mainly depend upon movement of the body. (…) There is no need here to trace any failure in Raphael's career; but the prodigality of his productiveness, and his training of many assistants, compelled him to lay down rules and manners of work; and his followers, even before they were left alone, accentuated his poses into postures. They caricatured the turns of his heads and the lines of his limbs, designed their figures in patterns; and they built up their groups into formal pyramids. The master himself, at the last, in the “Transfiguration, ” was not exempt from such deadly artificialities and conventions. The artists who thus servilely travestied the failings of this prince of painters were Raphaelites, and although certain rare geniuses since then have dared to burst the fetters forged in Raphael's decline, I now repeat, what we said in the days of our youth, that the traditions that went on through the Bolognese Academy (which were introduced at the foundation of all later Schools and enforced by Le Brun, Du Fresnoy, Raphael Mengs, and Sir Joshua Reynolds, to our own time) were lethal in their influence, tending to stifle the breath of design. The name Pre-Raphaelite excludes the influence of such corrupters of perfection, even though Raphael, by reason of certain of his works, be in the list, while it accepts that of his more sincere forerunners.
• “ It is simply fuller Nature we want. Revivalism, whether it is of classicism or medievalism, is seeking after dry bones� ”. Da un colloquio tra Hunt e Rossetti
Raymond Watkinson, Pre-Raphaelite Art and Design, 1970. “That choiche of colours, blue-green, purples, violet, (…) came to be one of the marks of much Preraphaelite painting; colour which, however naturalistically rendered, was selective, aimed at producing certain emotional effects”. Poetry of particulars Pleinairism
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896)
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1 st Baronet (28 August 1833 – 17 June 1898)
Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris 1874
The Oxford Union Debating Hall http: //www. cwrl. utexas. edu/~bump/oxford/union/Oxfordunion. html
Sir Palomydes' Jealousy of Sir Tristam
Opere letterarie di William Morris • • • • La difesa di Ginevra ed altre opere (The Defence of Guinevere and other Poems), 1858; La vita e la morte di Giasone (The Life and Death of Jason), 1867; Il paradiso terrestre (The Earthly Paradise), 1868– 1870; L'amore è abbastanza (Love is Enough, or The Freeing of Pharamond) 1872; La caduta dei nibelunghi (The Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Nibelungs) 1876; Speranze e timori per l'arte (Hopes and Fears For Art) 1882; Un sogno di John Ball (A Dream of John Ball) 1886; The House of the Wolfings, 1888; Le radici delle montagne (The Roots of the Mountains), 1889; Notizie da nessun dove (News from Nowhere), 1890; The Story of the Glittering Plain, 1890; La fonte ai confini del mondo (The Well at the World's End), 1892; Il bosco oltre il mondo (The Wood Beyond the World), 1895; Le acque delle meravigliose isole (The Water of the Wondrous Isles) 1896; The Sundering Flood, 1898.
Alcune poesie di D. G. Rossetti • • • • Poetry "The Blessed Damozel" "The Burden of Nineveh“ "For an Annunciation, Early German" "For a Venetian Pastoral" "The Girlhood of Mary Virgin" (1849) The House of Life The Four Willowwood Sonnets "Jenny" "The Last Confession“ "My Sister's Sleep" "The Passover in the Holy Family" (1856) "The Portrait" , "Sea-Limits" "Staff and Scrip" , "Troy Town" , "The Woodspurge"
• • Published Volumes Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862) The Prince's Progress (1866) Commonplace and Other Stories (1870) Sing-Song. A Nursery Rhyme Book (1872) A Pageant and Other Poems (1881) New Poems (1896)
• • • Swinburne Ruskin Pater Wilde Symons
J. D. Merritt, The Pre-Raphaelite Poetry, Londra, 1966. • “There are certain characteristcs which may be seen as typical of all (or almost all) Pre-Raphaelite poetry: 1) A heavy use of descriptive detail; 2) Images that tend to be highly sensuous and full of colour; 3) The occasional use of an obscure symbolism, such as repeated use of the number seven, and references to the more mysterious aspects of Christianity or of 'pagan' religion; 4) A tendency to lend the tone (if not the form) of a ballad to the narrative; 5) The frequent use of subjects that have an innate poignancy or morbidity. Many of these subjects were taken from literary sources; 6) Deliberate 'medievalism', such as the use of medieval sounding words, or the use of settings that, though unidentified, seem Pre-Reinaissance. "