Скачать презентацию L 2 Acquisition of Grammar Japanese as an Скачать презентацию L 2 Acquisition of Grammar Japanese as an

335ccf837f84592675111d1611f5ed60.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 31

L 2 Acquisition of Grammar: Japanese as an SOV Language Wesley M. Jacobsen Harvard L 2 Acquisition of Grammar: Japanese as an SOV Language Wesley M. Jacobsen Harvard University

First Language (L 1) Acquisition A complex and perfect grammar is internalized: • on First Language (L 1) Acquisition A complex and perfect grammar is internalized: • on the basis of limited, fragmented data • without formal instruction • very early, during “critical period” (by age of 3) Innateness theory of language acquisition Universal grammar hypothesis

 • • Second Language (L 2) Acquisition Typically after critical period is past • • Second Language (L 2) Acquisition Typically after critical period is past Unclear whether innateness device is still active (Therefore) other means of learning required: STUDY L 1 has already been internalized: possible effects How are invisible structures acquired in L 2 acquisition? Role of linguistic research in clarifying invisible structures.

Language typology § Greenberg (1963) observed the following correlations between basic word order and Language typology § Greenberg (1963) observed the following correlations between basic word order and grammatical characteristics If a language is Non-verb final (SVO, VSO) Verb-final (SOV) Nouns are marked by: Prepositions Postpositions Order of modifier and modified elements is: Modified - modifier Modifier-modified Location of question marker is: Initial position in clause Final position in clause Order of main verb and auxiliary verb is: Aux V – Main V- Aux V Joseph H. Greenberg. 1963. Universals of Language. London: MIT Press

Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate (verb, adjective, copula) comes at the end Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate (verb, adjective, copula) comes at the end (1) ジョンが 新聞を  買った.   Jon-GA shinbun-O kat-ta. Jon-SUBJ newspaper-OBJ buy-PAST ‘Jon bought a newspaper. ’ (2) 値段が  安かった.   nedan-GA yasu-katta. price-SUBJ cheap-PAST ‘The price was cheap. ’

Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate comes at the end B. Has postpositions Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate comes at the end B. Has postpositions (case particles) rather than prepositions. (3) ジョンは レストランで 真理と 昼を食べた.   Jon-WA resutoran-DE Mari-TO hiru-O tabeta. Jon-TOP restaurant-LOC Mari-WITH lunch-OBJ eat-PAST ‘Jon ate lunch WITH-Mari AT-the restaurant. ’

Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate (verb) comes at the end B. Has Japanese as an SOV language A. Predicate (verb) comes at the end B. Has postpositions (‘particles’) rather than prepositions. C. Modifiers precede what is modified. (4) [おもしろい]本を 読んだ.   [Omoshiroi] hon-o yonda. [interesting] book-OBJ read-PAST ‘(I) read an [interesting] book. ’ (5) [友達が 紹介して くれた] 本を 読んだ.   [Tomodachi-ga shookaishite-kureta] hon-o yonda. [friend-SUBJ introduce-give me] book-OBJ read-PAST ‘I read a book [that a friend introduced to me]. ’

Japanese as an SOV language A. B. C. D. Predicate (verb) comes at the Japanese as an SOV language A. B. C. D. Predicate (verb) comes at the end Has postpositions (‘particles’) rather than prepositions. Modifiers precede what is modified. Auxiliary verb follows the main verb. (6) 今朝は なかなか 起きられなかった.   Kesa-wa naka oki-rare-na-katta. this-morning-TOP just get-up-can-NEG-PAST ‘I just couldn’t get up this morning. ’ (7) ケーキを 食べさせられたくなかった.   keeki-o tabe-sase-rare-taku-na-katta. cake-OBJ eat-CAUS-PASS-want-NEG-PAST ‘I did not want to be made to eat cake. ’

Japanese as a pronoun-dropping language (8) A: 先月 貸してあげた 本、どうしたの? [Sengetsu kashite-age-ta] hon, doo Japanese as a pronoun-dropping language (8) A: 先月 貸してあげた 本、どうしたの? [Sengetsu kashite-age-ta] hon, doo shita no? [last-month lend-give-you-PAST] book, what happen-PAST Q ‘What happened to the book I lent you last month? ’ B: まだ読んでいる.もうすぐ返すよ. Mada yonde-iru. Moo-sugu kaes-u yo. still read-ing soon return-will ‘ (I’m) still reading (it). (I’ll) return (it) soon. ’ --knowing what’s left out (comprehesion) and what to leave out (production).

Structure type 1: How many nouns does a verb need? Verbs can be put Structure type 1: How many nouns does a verb need? Verbs can be put in classes according to how many nouns they take. Every verb has a hidden structure formed by the pattern of nouns it takes, whether you see the nouns or not. This pattern is called argument structure.

Structure type 1: Argument structure One-place predicates: Xが 走る (n=1) X-ga hashiru ‘X runs’ Structure type 1: Argument structure One-place predicates: Xが 走る (n=1) X-ga hashiru ‘X runs’ Two-place predicates: Xが Yを 食べる (n=2) X-ga Y-o taberu ‘X eats Y’ Three-place predicates: Xが Yを Zに あげる (n=3) X-ga Y-o Z-ni ageru ‘X gives Y to Z’

Structure type 1: Argument structure In natural conversation, most clauses come with only one Structure type 1: Argument structure In natural conversation, most clauses come with only one noun (8) A: 先月 貸してあげた 本、どうなっている? [Sengetsu kashite-age-ta] hon, doo natte-iru? [last-month lend-give-you-PAST] book, what become-STATEQ ‘What happened to the book I lent you last month? ’ B: まだ読んでいる.もうすぐ返すよ. Mada yonde-iru. Moo-sugu kaes-u yo. still read-ing soon return-will (I’m) still reading (it). (I’ll) return (it) soon. But every hidden slot in the argument structure has to be filled in to make sense of the meaning.

Structure type 1: Argument structure (9) もうすぐ返すよ。 Moo-sugu kaesu yo. soon return-will ‘(I’ll) return Structure type 1: Argument structure (9) もうすぐ返すよ。 Moo-sugu kaesu yo. soon return-will ‘(I’ll) return (it) (to you) soon’ … X-ga Y-ni Z-o kaesu. … (X-ga) (Y-ni) hon-o kaesu …(watashi-ga) (anata-ni) hon-o kaesu

Structure type 1: Argument structure Transitive/intransitive verbs: n(Vin) = n(Vtr) - 1 n=1 (intransitive) Structure type 1: Argument structure Transitive/intransitive verbs: n(Vin) = n(Vtr) - 1 n=1 (intransitive) n=2 (transitive) あく aku “open” あける akeru “open” 直る naoru “be fixed” 直す naosu “fix” 上がる agaru “rise” 上げる ageru “raise” n=3

Structure type 1: Argument structure Some verbs have no partners n=1 (intransitive) 泣く naku Structure type 1: Argument structure Some verbs have no partners n=1 (intransitive) 泣く naku “cry” 歩く aruku “walk” Ø Ø n=2 (transitive) Ø Ø 殴る naguru “hit” 食べる taberu “eat” n=3 In such cases the causative SASE form and passive RARE form step in to fill in the blank.

Structure type 1: Argument structure Some verbs have no partners n=1 (intransitive) n=2 (transitive) Structure type 1: Argument structure Some verbs have no partners n=1 (intransitive) n=2 (transitive) n=3 泣く naku “cry” Ø --> 泣かせる nakaseru “make cry” 歩く aruku “walk” Ø --> 歩かせる arukaseru “walk” Ø -->殴られる nagurareru “be hit” 殴る naguru “hit” Ø -->食べられる taberareru “be eaten”食べる taberu “eat” SASE acts to INCREASE the number of noun slots, and RARE acts to DECREASE the number of noun slots in argument structure: n(Vsase) = n(V) + 1 n(Vrare) = n(V) - 1

Structure type 1: Argument structure What happens when SASE and RARE are combined? n((Vsase)rare) Structure type 1: Argument structure What happens when SASE and RARE are combined? n((Vsase)rare) = n(Vsase) - 1 = (n(V) + 1) - 1 = n(V) + 0 = n(V) (8) 子供が納豆を食べる. Kodomo ga nattoo o taberu “The child eats nattoo” 母親が子供に納豆を食べさせる. Hahaoya ga kodomo ni nattoo o tabe-SASEru “The mother makes the child eat nattoo” 子供が(母親に)納豆を食べさせられる. Kodomo ga (hahaoya ni) nattoo o tabe-SASE-RAREru “The child is made to eat nattoo (by the mother). ”

Structure type 2: Information structure Old information: information that both the speaker and hearer Structure type 2: Information structure Old information: information that both the speaker and hearer know of or are able to identify from previous context New information: information that either the speaker or hearer does not know of or is unable to identify from previous context Patterns of interaction between these two types of information in text or discourse are referred to as information structure.

Structure type 2: Information structure WA and GA and information structure: In general, WA Structure type 2: Information structure WA and GA and information structure: In general, WA marks noun that are old information (called “topics”) and GA marks nouns that are new information.

Structure type 2: Information structure A basic pattern of GA and WA in story-telling: Structure type 2: Information structure A basic pattern of GA and WA in story-telling: (9) 昔々あるところにおじいさんとおばあさんがいました。 Mukashi-mukashi aru tokoro-ni ojiisan-to obaasan-GA imashita. once-upon-time certain place-LOC old-man-and old-woman-GA be. PAST ある日おじいさんは山の方へ芝刈りに出かけました。 Aru hi, ojiisan-WA yama-no hoo-e shibakari-ni dekakemashita. one-day old-man-WA mountain direction-to cut-wood-PURP set-out. PAST ‘Once upon a time there was AN old man and old woman. One day, THE old man set off for the mountains to gather firewood. ’

Structure type 2: Information structure But whether a noun is old or new information Structure type 2: Information structure But whether a noun is old or new information can only be determined in relation to the rest of the sentence in which it occurs. In the following sentences of the type ‘N 1 is N 2’, both N 1 and N 2 can be considered ‘old information’, yet both N 1 -GA and N 1 -WA are possible (10) あの白い建物がホワイトハウスです。 Ano shiroi tatemono-GA Howaito Hausu desu. that white building-GA White House be-NONPAST ‘That white building is the White House. ’ (11)あの白い建物はホワイトハウスです。 Ano shiroi tatemono-WA Howaito Hausu desu. that white building-WA White House be-NONPAST ‘That white building is the White House. ’

Structure type 2: Information structure (10) あの白い建物がホワイトハウスです。 Ano shiroi tatemono-GA Howaito Hausu desu. that Structure type 2: Information structure (10) あの白い建物がホワイトハウスです。 Ano shiroi tatemono-GA Howaito Hausu desu. that white building-GA White House be-NONPAST ‘That white building is the White House. ’ --> This sentence is in answer to the (perhaps unspoken) question ‘Which building is the White House? ’ (11) あの白い建物はホワイトハウスです。 Ano shiroi tatemono-WA Howaito Hausu desu. that white building-WA White House be-NONPAST ‘That white building is the White House. ’ --> This sentence is in answer to the (perhaps unspoken) question ‘That white building there: what is it? ’

Structure type 2: Information structure GA-marked noun New WA-marked noun Old Rest of the Structure type 2: Information structure GA-marked noun New WA-marked noun Old Rest of the sentence New GA is also possible in New-New information flow (as in the story-telling case) and WA is also possible in the Old-Old information flow (this is called the “contrastive” use of WA) Understanding WA and GA requires thinking not only in terms of the noun itself that takes WA or GA, but its informational relationship to the rest of the sentence.

(12) Structure type 3: Sentences are trees ジョンは真理からもらったチョコレートをビルにあげた。 Jon wa Mari kara moratta chokoreeto (12) Structure type 3: Sentences are trees ジョンは真理からもらったチョコレートをビルにあげた。 Jon wa Mari kara moratta chokoreeto o Biru ni ageta. Jon-TOP Mari-from received chocolate OBJ Bill-to give-PAST ‘Jon gave to Mari the chocolate he got from Bill. ’ [ジョンは][真理から][もらった][チョコレートを] [ビルに][あげた]。 [Jon wa] [Mari kara] [moratta] [chokoreeto o] [Biru ni] [ageta]. [ジョンは][真理からもらった][チョコレートを][ビルに][あげた] 真理 ビル [Jon wa] [Mari kara moratta] [chokoreeto o] [Biru ni] [ageta]. [ジョンは][真理からもらった チョコレートを][ビルに][あげた] 真理 ビル [Jon wa] [Mari kara moratta chokoreeto o] [Biru ni] [ageta]. [ジョンは][真理からもらった チョコレートをビルに あげた] 真理 ビル [Jon wa] [Mari kara moratta chokoreeto o Biru ni ageta].

S' S   NP ジョンは Jon NP S NP V 真理から from Mari N チョコレートを S' S   NP ジョンは Jon NP S NP V 真理から from Mari N チョコレートを chocolate NP ビルに to Bill   V あげた gave    もらった received Sentences, like trees, have both vertical and horizontal structure!

Structure type 3: Sentences are trees Thinking about WA and GA in terms of Structure type 3: Sentences are trees Thinking about WA and GA in terms of trees: (13) 花子は食事をしている間に家を出た。 Hanako-WA shokuji-o shiteiru aida-ni uchi-o deta. Hanako-TOP dinner-OBJ do-ing while house-OBJ leave-PAST Hanako left the house while (we) were eating. (14) 花子が食事をしている間に家を出た。 Hanako-GA shokuji-o shiteiru aida-ni uchi-o deta. Hanako-SUBJ dinner-OBJ do-ing while house-OBJ leave-PAST While Hanako was eating, (we) left the house.

S’ NP 花子は Hanako S NP NP V 家を 出た house left N 間に S’ NP 花子は Hanako S NP NP V 家を 出た house left N 間に while  S NP V ∅ 食事をしている (was) eating

S’ S’ NP 花子は Hanako S NP S ∅ NP  S NP V 家を S’ S’ NP 花子は Hanako S NP S ∅ NP  S NP V 家を 出た house left N 間に while NP V ∅ 食事をしている (was) eating NP  S NP 花子が Hanako NP V 家を  出た house  left N 間に while V 食事をしている (was) eating

Structure type 3: Sentences are trees Thinking in terms of trees when the going Structure type 3: Sentences are trees Thinking in terms of trees when the going gets tough: (19) 異なった学説もしくは思想を持つ者たちが、一つの一致点に到達 し、もしくは一定の政策を全体の決定として承認するためには、国 家もしくは団体の意思を分裂させることが討論の目的であるので はなく、よりよき一致を目ざせばこその討論であり批判であること を認識し、討論・批判の精神および方法についての思想的ならび に技術的訓練を積まねばならない。 (矢内原忠雄著「言論自由の思想的根拠」より)

SUMMARY Cultivating an awareness (covert or overt) of these three structure types by: § SUMMARY Cultivating an awareness (covert or overt) of these three structure types by: § Paying attention to the hidden slots that have to be filled with EVERY verb and predicate and understanding how those slot patterns change with different verb forms. § Noticing the interaction between what is already known and what is new or unknown in Japanese discourse, and letting WA and GA be your guide to that. Thinking in terms of up and down, not just left to right, as sentences become more complex. §

ご清聴ありがとうございました。 Thank you for your kind attention! ご清聴ありがとうございました。 Thank you for your kind attention!