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KOMPETENSI PROFESI , REGISTRASI DAN LISENSI PRAKTEK PROFESI
The Pharmacist’s Dual Role… Dispensing and Patient Care Patient care and appropriate therapeutics are now the focus of curricula in schools and colleges of pharmacy across the country, and becoming more central to the practice of pharmacy in all settings. While some say the pharmacist’s role has been “redefined” from medication dispenser to patient care provider, it is more accurate to say the role has been expanded. Pharmacists today remain legally responsible for the safe and accurate dispensing of medication, but also have the additional challenge, as integral members of the health care team, to educate, monitor, and care for patients. The accessibility of pharmacists and pharmacies make them logical extensions of the primary care infrastructure of the United States, particularly in rural and underserved areas.
? I AM A PHARMACIST DAMPAK KEPADA PRIBADI KEPADA MASYARAKAT KEPADA KEMANUSIAAN
? THE PROFESSION PRACTICE OF A PHARMACIST THE LEARNING PROCESS OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
Society grants professionals the privilege of practising in their chosen field. In return, society increasingly demands that professionals, especially health professionals, demonstrate their contribution to the common good. This was highlighted in "Pharmacy in the future" as the need "to ensure that public confidence in the profession is maintained and enhanced. " Marshall Davies, Royal Pharmaceutical Society,
THE GAP OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE LEARNING AND THE PROFESSION PRACTICE A CONTROVERSION OF INDONESIA ?
STATEMENT OF POLICY GOOD PHARMACY EDUCATION PRACTICE Care giver. Decision maker. Communicator. Leader. Manager. Life-long learner. Teacher. The World Health Organisation, in the report of its consultative group on “Preparing the Future Pharmacist”(Vancouver 1997)
The Vancouver consultancy agreed that pharmacists must possess specific knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviours to equip them to perform these roles effectively. These professional characteristics should be regarded as required outcomes of basic education and training of pharmacists. .
Basic (first degree) education programmes should provide pharmacy students and graduates with a sound and balanced grounding in the natural, pharmaceutical and healthcare sciences that provide the essential foundation for pharmacy practice in a multiprofessional healthcare delivery environment.
biological systems, the chemistry of drugs and other constituents of medicines, pathophysiology and disease states and the interaction between medicines and biological systems, • dosage form design and development, • the actions and uses of medicines and other relevant products, • the laws governing the practice of pharmacy and the sale and supply of medicines, • the principles governing ethical conduct as set out in FIP’s Code of Ethics for Pharmacists (1997) and the relevant national Code, • safety and risk management, • pharmaco-epidemiology and pharmaco / health-economics, • an introduction to the practice of pharmacy in community and hospital pharmacies, industrial, academic, and where appropriate, clinical biology settings including an introduction to the relevant aspects of the social and behavioural sciences, leading to competency in delivering patient care,
Educational programmes should ensure that patient-focused pharmaceutical care as outlined in the FIP Statement “Pharmaceutical Care” (The Hague 1998) is a mandatory part of the curriculum.
Educational programmes should reflect the fact that current and future pharmacists must have sufficient knowledge and professional, social and communication skills, and exhibit specific attitudes and behaviour, to enable them effectively to discharge their professional roles, within the requirements governing Good Pharmacy Practice including assisting an individual to evaluate and interpret information they have obtained from other sources.
Educational programmes should be based in a research active environment at a university or institute of equal standing and thus derive the benefit of multidisciplinary support for teaching, research, patient care and service to the public.
A final examination should lead to the granting of a diploma or degree signifying either achievement of the academic requirement for recognition as a pharmacist or, if in-service training has also been successfully completed and competency established, the right to commence practising as a pharmacist.
11. National pharmaceutical associations should share responsibility for the education of pharmacy students by : • being involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the educational programmes of the schools and faculties of pharmacy in their countries, • establishing a co-operative working relationship with the schools and faculties of pharmacy, • promoting the appointment of practitioners as teachers in schools and faculties of pharmacy, • seeking to ensure that practising pharmacists and pharmacy students are involved in discussions on changes to curricula, • ensuring that pharmacist tutors of pre-registration graduates have adequate training for that responsibility, • organising practical training possibilities and promoting postgraduate residencies and training programmes.
As a self-regulating profession, pharmacy has kept its house in order — that is not at issue. We are proud of the Society's record both in guiding pharmacists towards excellence and dealing with the small number whose conduct falls short.
12. Schools and faculties of pharmacy should share knowledge and educational resources with their colleagues world-wide. 13. Schools and faculties of pharmacy should develop close alliances with educators of other health professionals involved with any aspect of human or animal health.
The new Bill contains proposals to hold regulatory bodies to account for their performance and to ensure that they act in a consistent manner. Among the many changes heralded by the legislation is the prospect that health professionals will be expected to demonstrate their fitness to practise throughout their working lives
Two key further elements are evolving as part of the vision for the future: continuing professional development and assurance of competence. The Society has been preparing the framework for the former and is considering how to implement the latter as part of the development of an overall regulatory framework that addresses fitness to practise alongside conduct.
Benefits of the Competence Programme A Competence programme for a profession such as pharmacy has a number of significant benefits for stakeholders who include the public of New Zealand, the profession as a whole and each individual pharmacist. For the Public • • The public can be assured that there is a competent pharmacy workforce. Continuing professional development by pharmacists can lead to improved pharmaceutical care, thereby improving health outcomes for New Zealanders. The programme helps ensure consistency of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists throughout New Zealand. The competence programme links with the proposed new legislation that is aimed at ensuring the competence of all health professionals.
For the Profession • • The Competence Framework describes the unique role of the pharmacy profession in the provision of health care. The standards provide direction for providers of both undergraduate and postgraduate education of pharmacists. The assessment of continuing competence of pharmacists provides assurance to the profession of quality as a whole. Having a competent workforce enables the professional body to continue to support pharmacists in initiatives that meet the changing health needs of the public.
For the Pharmacist • • • Pharmacists are given assurance of their competence. The programme helps pharmacists identify learning needs to plan continuing professional development that maintains and supports their practice. There is a clear career pathway for pharmacists that recognises the varied skills, abilities, knowledge and expertise of pharmacists. Job descriptions can be defined in terms of competence standards. Pharmacists who have specialised skills can have these recognised.
In 1995 the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand introduced competence standards which defined the skills, knowledge and attitudes of a New Zealand registered pharmacist
all new pharmacists entering the register of pharmacists have been assessed as meeting these competence standards at the pharmacist level.
2002 the Society needs to embark on work • Ensure that the various frameworks from which the Society takes its powers and remit are fit for purpose • Strengthen existing conduct and disciplinary machinery • Develop systems to deal with the competence of pharmacists at all stages in their careers • Integrate approaches to conduct and competence into a modern framework for the regulation of the pharmacy profession • Strengthen underpinning governance and infrastructure across the Society in England, Scotland Wales
Pharmacist Level Standards • Standard 1 Practise Pharmacy in a Professional Manner • Standard 2 Facilitate the Rational Use of Medicines • Standard 3 Provide Primary Health Care • Standard 4 Apply Management and Organisation Skills • Standard 5 Research and Provide Information • Standard 6 Dispense Medicines • Standard 7 Prepare Pharmaceutical Products Practitioner Level Standards Specialist Level Standards
Practise pharmacy in a professional manner professional, legal and ethical responsibilities of the pharmacist Contribute to the quality use of medicines selection, monitoring and evaluation of medicine therapy Provide primary health care encouraging and assisting people to take responsibility for their own health
Statutory Committee Behaviour affected pharmacist's competence to practise A pharmacist with a history of "erratic" behaviour has been struck off the register by order of the Statutory Committee. At its meeting on November 16, 1999, the committee resumed an inquiry adjourned from March 19, 1999, into the case of Miss Christine Elizabeth Hay, whose registered address is 50 The Crescent, Cardiff Road, Llandaff, Cardiff.
The committee had received a complaint from the Council of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society concerning allegations about Miss Hay's fitness to practise. It was alleged that on occasions she had appeared to be under the influence of alcohol, medication or other substances and that her competence had been impaired on those occasions. It was also alleged that while employed as a pharmacist, she had regularly taken items from the pharmacy's stock, including phenobarbitone and dihydrocodeine, for the purposes of self-medication, that she had taken stock without paying for it, that she had left pharmacy premises unattended, and that she had supplied patients with quantities of prescription only medicines in excess of those ordered on the prescription.
Giving the committee's decision, the chairman (Mr Gary Flather, QC) said that when Miss Hay had appeared before the committee in March, she had surrendered her certificate, had undertaken not to practise and to keep in touch with the committee.
Voluntary removal from the register A pharmacist may, at any time, ask for their name to be voluntarily removed from the register. The pharmacist may then, at a later date, have their name returned to the register. If the pharmacist’s name has been removed from the register for less than three years they are required on application to pay the appropriate registration fee and their name will be reinstated. If the pharmacist’s name has been off the register for a period greater than three years the pharmacist must apply to Council for reinstatement. The application to Council should contain a detailed account of the pharmacist’s employment record since their name was removed from the register. If the pharmacist has been employed as a pharmacist overseas, letters of good standing and job descriptions should accompany the application. If Council considers the pharmacist has not been actively employed in pharmacy practice in the intervening years they may recommend a period of pre-registration employment under the supervision of a registered pharmacist before reinstatement to the register. In all cases, evidence of competence must be demonstrated before reinstatement to the register.
Removal of name from the register by order of Council Following a recommendation of the Disciplinary Committee, Council may order that the name of a pharmacist be removed from the register. Section 52 A directs that during this period the person may not work in a pharmacy without the consent of Council may also direct that a pharmacist whose name has been removed from the pharmaceutical register in another country and who is also registered in New Zealand may also have their name removed from the New Zealand Register of Pharmacists removed from the register by order of Council may apply to Council to have their name restored to the register.
Health professions are beginning to recognise the complex and variable information needs of people in different circumstances. Patient-centred therapeutic partnerships, founded on the principles of concordance, are being developed in acknowledgement that patients themselves are in the driving seat where their treatment is concerned.