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Knowledge Management Chuck Audet Amy Schoenbeck Matt Eilerman Josh Baclesse Knowledge Management Chuck Audet Amy Schoenbeck Matt Eilerman Josh Baclesse

KM Vital to Success “… 79% of the CEOs surveyed in 1999 by the KM Vital to Success “… 79% of the CEOs surveyed in 1999 by the American Management Association believed that knowledge management was vital to the success of their company. ” Source: “Networked knowledge. ” CMA Management, Feb 2003. 2

Spend on KM (In Billions of Dollars) Source: Spend on KM (In Billions of Dollars) Source: "Document and Knowledge Management: After-hype: KM Enters Critical Phase, " Computing Canada, April 14, 2000. 3

What is Knowledge Management? “Knowledge management involves the capture of your organization’s information and What is Knowledge Management? “Knowledge management involves the capture of your organization’s information and experience so that it becomes part of your organization’s know-how and expertise which can be pooled, disseminated and used by your skilled staff in doing and winning profitable business. ” Source: www. retaininternational. com 4

Knowledge Hierarchy Knowledge Information Data 5 Knowledge Hierarchy Knowledge Information Data 5

Data Raw data is the simplest and most abundant component of a knowledge management Data Raw data is the simplest and most abundant component of a knowledge management system “Data on its own has no meaning…” Source: The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing 6

Information Once organized and defined, data becomes information. “Data on its own has no Information Once organized and defined, data becomes information. “Data on its own has no meaning, only when interpreted by some kind of data processing does it take on meaning and become information. ” Source: The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing 7

Knowledge Information that has been processed. “If information is data plus meaning then knowledge Knowledge Information that has been processed. “If information is data plus meaning then knowledge is information plus processing. ” Source: The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing 8

An Example to Clarify… “ 1234567. 89’ is data. ‘You’re bank balance jumped 8, An Example to Clarify… “ 1234567. 89’ is data. ‘You’re bank balance jumped 8, 087% to $1, 234, 567. 89’ is information. ‘Nobody owes me that much money’ is knowledge. ” Source: The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing 9

Two Kinds of Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge 10 Two Kinds of Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge 10

Explicit Knowledge “As a general rule of thumb, explicit knowledge consists of anything that Explicit Knowledge “As a general rule of thumb, explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented, archived and codified, often with the help of IT. ” Examples of Explicit Knowledge include: n n Any step-by-step process that has been documented Company policies and manuals Source: “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management” 11

Tacit Knowledge “… The know-how contained in people’s heads. ” Examples of Tacit Knowledge: Tacit Knowledge “… The know-how contained in people’s heads. ” Examples of Tacit Knowledge: n n Knowing how to hit a baseball Knowledge in any job where you can skip steps/contacts to get what you need more quickly Source: “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management” and Reference 5. 12

What is Knowledge Management Trying to Solve? The problem of spending more time trying What is Knowledge Management Trying to Solve? The problem of spending more time trying to find information than actually using it. Increase consistency of information/standardization of processes in order to improve efficiency and/or effectiveness. Retain knowledge as workers retire or leave the company. Avoid “re-inventing the wheel. ” Increase efficiency of accessing the specific information that workers need. Sources: www. retaininternational. com and References 3 and 5. 13

What is Knowledge Management Trying to Solve? Goals of KM at Maritz: n n What is Knowledge Management Trying to Solve? Goals of KM at Maritz: n n Streamline and improve internal communications Increase cost savings through reduction in redundancies Goals of KM at Edward Jones: n n Increase business process efficiencies Increase globalization/standardization of business practices 14

Different Aspects of Knowledge Management Creation and Capture of knowledge Sharing of information Codification Different Aspects of Knowledge Management Creation and Capture of knowledge Sharing of information Codification of information Protection of information Retrieval of information Ability to update information easily Sources: See References 2 and 3. 15

Why Knowledge Management? Old Knowledge Equation: w “Knowledge = Power, so hoard it. ” Why Knowledge Management? Old Knowledge Equation: w “Knowledge = Power, so hoard it. ” New Knowledge Equation: w “Knowledge = Power, so share it and it will multiply. ” Source: See Reference 1. 16

The Benefits of Knowledge Management “An effective KM program should help a company do The Benefits of Knowledge Management “An effective KM program should help a company do one or more of the following: Foster innovation by encouraging the free flow of ideas Improve customer service by streamlining response time Boost revenues by getting products and services to market faster Source: “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management” 17

The Benefits of Knowledge Management (con’t) Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value The Benefits of Knowledge Management (con’t) Enhance employee retention rates by recognizing the value of employees knowledge and rewarding them for it Streamline operations and reduce costs by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes. ” Source: “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management” 18

The Challenges of Knowledge Management Most difficult challenge appears to be getting employees to The Challenges of Knowledge Management Most difficult challenge appears to be getting employees to “buy-in” that KM benefits them Determining what is and what is not useful information n n Deciding what information should be retained What quantities of information to retain Source: “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management” 19

Maritz Inc. Case Study 20 Maritz Inc. Case Study 20

Maritz Inc. History 1894 -E. Maritz Jewelry Mfg. Co. - wholesaler and manufacturer of Maritz Inc. History 1894 -E. Maritz Jewelry Mfg. Co. - wholesaler and manufacturer of jewelry and watches 1929 -company nearly fails when stock market crashed-forced to take new direction-offers merchandise to large corporations as sales incentives and service awards 1950 s-purchased small Detroit travel co. Maritz added group travel as incentive award As 60 s ended, Maritz had laid groundwork for ventures in communications, marketing research, training and meeting production 21

History cont. Established a presence in Europe and opened a travel office in Mexico History cont. Established a presence in Europe and opened a travel office in Mexico 1981 -several acquisitions made Maritz a major supplier of corporate travel services Today-Maritz operates across three major lines of business, Performance Improvement, Travel, and Marketing Research http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Selling%20 Tools/About%20 Maritz/Maritz%20 Facts %20 and%20 Statistics/Maritz%20 History/index. html 22

Maritz Performance Improvement Co. World’s largest provider of incentive services to improve the performance Maritz Performance Improvement Co. World’s largest provider of incentive services to improve the performance of employees, channel partners, and customers who use the client’s products. Primary services-merchandise and travel awards, learning systems, communications, and fulfillment Primary industries served-automotive, telecommunications, financial services, and hi tech http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Selling%20 Tools/About%20 Maritz/Maritz%20 Facts %20 and%20 Statistics/Fact%20 Sheet/index. html 23

Maritz Travel Co. Global leader in providing meeting, event and incentive travel programs to Maritz Travel Co. Global leader in providing meeting, event and incentive travel programs to help clients achieve business results through sales meetings, product launches, incentive award programs, technology conferences and more Primary services-meeting, event and incentive travel programs http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Selling%20 Tools/About%20 Maritz/Maritz%20 Facts %20 and%20 Statistics/Fact%20 Sheet/index. html 24

Maritz Research Largest marketing research firm in the U. S Provides large-scale qualitative and Maritz Research Largest marketing research firm in the U. S Provides large-scale qualitative and quantitative research, brand studies, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty studies Primary industries served-automotive, financial, telecommunications, healthcare, hospitality, and technology http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Selling%20 Tools/About%20 Maritz/Maritz%20 Facts %20 and%20 Statistics/Fact%20 Sheet/index. html 25

Company statistics Multinational company headquartered in Fenton, MO with 240 offices worldwide in a Company statistics Multinational company headquartered in Fenton, MO with 240 offices worldwide in a total of 42 countries Approximately 6, 000 employees worldwide Ranked 157 in 2000 Forbes listing of “ 500 Biggest Privately Help Companies” Clients include 40 of the 50 largest companies in the world Source: http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Selling%20 Tools/About%20 Maritz/Maritz%20 Facts %20 and%20 Statistics/Fact%20 Sheet/index. html 26

Revenues (in Billions) 27 Revenues (in Billions) 27

IT at Maritz 700 FT domestic employees Additional 125 employees located in Canada and IT at Maritz 700 FT domestic employees Additional 125 employees located in Canada and UK 58 contractors devoted to application development Source: Gil Hoffman, CIO of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 24, 2003 28

IT Spend at Maritz Annual IT budget is $99. 2 million – 7. 34% IT Spend at Maritz Annual IT budget is $99. 2 million – 7. 34% of revenues in ‘ 02 $60 million devoted to application development labor $39. 2 million devoted to infrastructure Source: Gil Hoffman, CIO of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 24, 2003 29

Organization Chart http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Support%20 Services/Organization%20 Charts/Marit z%20 Inc/Maritz%20 Global%20 Technology%20 Services. xls Organization Chart http: //www. maritzonline. com/website/Support%20 Services/Organization%20 Charts/Marit z%20 Inc/Maritz%20 Global%20 Technology%20 Services. xls 30

KM at Maritz First intranet site – December 1997 19 independently operated intranet sites KM at Maritz First intranet site – December 1997 19 independently operated intranet sites across the organization As they developed, there was less and less uniformity Costly to maintain Difficult to share information and keep it all current Source: Gil Hoffman, CIO of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 24, 2003 31

Transition to Central Portal November 19, 2002 - 19 websites condensed into one main Transition to Central Portal November 19, 2002 - 19 websites condensed into one main portal Content Management Tool Developed new mission and goals related to this new site Source: Laura Carter, Webmaster of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 26, 2003. 32

Mission “To help generate revenue and profit by providing an easy-to-use repository of tools Mission “To help generate revenue and profit by providing an easy-to-use repository of tools and information for Maritz people whose job is to understand, sell, and profitably deliver our product/service offering” Source: handout from interview with Laura Carter and Marty Ewell on February 26, 2003 33

Goals of the New KM tool Create brand identity Cross sell between BUs by Goals of the New KM tool Create brand identity Cross sell between BUs by using a common easy to use navigation Develop international shared resources Improve interorganizational alliances Streamline and improve internal communications Cost efficiencies (labor hours) through reduction in redundancies Source: handout from interview with Laura Carter and Marty Ewell on February 26, 2003 34

Gauss Technology “Gauss is a recognized market leader of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) software Gauss Technology “Gauss is a recognized market leader of Enterprise Content Management (ECM) software that supports the optimization of business processes across and between organizations” Used to develop new portal Quick and easy to develop, though unfamiliar to most Maritz programmers-could add new portal in one week with a small team www. gaussinterprise. com/Company/index. htm, viewed March 19, 2003. 35

Gauss VIP Content Manager Professional mgmt system for creating and maintaining websites. Enables users Gauss VIP Content Manager Professional mgmt system for creating and maintaining websites. Enables users to create, manage and publish websites in a short period of time using applications such as Dreamweaver or MS Word. Includes Portal Manager, to integrate dynamic components and personalize content, and Content Miner, a Search Engine component. http: //gauss. maritz. com/home. html 36

Gauss VIP Content Manager Provides quality-assured content and design based on a three-server concept Gauss VIP Content Manager Provides quality-assured content and design based on a three-server concept (edit, QA and production). Handles the administration of websites, users and access rights. Allows design experts, SMEs and programmers to work simultaneously without stepping on each other. http: //gauss. maritz. com/home. html 37

Benefits of New Central KM Portal Content manager Updates can be added to certain Benefits of New Central KM Portal Content manager Updates can be added to certain users/groups Quicker access to information Easier navigation among site Uniformity among portals Source: Marty Ewell, System Architect of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 26, 2003 39

Problems with new KM Portal Getting employees to take full advantage of resources Overall, Problems with new KM Portal Getting employees to take full advantage of resources Overall, new portal has been very successful n Minor glitches, but nothing major Source: Gil Hoffman, CIO of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 24, 2003 40

Knowledge Security vs. Open Information Sharing Fewer content managers to control information posted on Knowledge Security vs. Open Information Sharing Fewer content managers to control information posted on the site Postings can be selectively made to certain users/groups Source: Marty Ewell, System Architect of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 26, 2003 41

Future Vision Optimization of business process across entire company Enable re-use of content Common Future Vision Optimization of business process across entire company Enable re-use of content Common interface Consistent communication across entire company Source: handout from interview with Laura Carter and Marty Ewell on February 26, 2003 42

Future Vision Support ISO process for company-wide use Cost Savings n n IT cost Future Vision Support ISO process for company-wide use Cost Savings n n IT cost savings (infrastructure, administration, and maintenance) Business process cost savings “Soft” benefits accrued by BU’s (reduction in search time, increased knowledge sharing and visibility) Source: handout from interview with Laura Carter and Marty Ewell on February 26, 2003 43

Lessons Learned Minimize number of users who have ability to update intranet In order Lessons Learned Minimize number of users who have ability to update intranet In order to get employees to use all the resources, information must be up-todate and easy to access Source: Gil Hoffman, CIO of Maritz Inc. , interviewed in person by Amy Schoenbeck, February 24, 2003 44

Case Study Edward D. Jones Investments Mission: To provide the investments, services, and information Case Study Edward D. Jones Investments Mission: To provide the investments, services, and information individuals need to achieve their financial goals 45

Company Background and Overview Financial Services firm founded in 1871 Headquarters in St. Louis Company Background and Overview Financial Services firm founded in 1871 Headquarters in St. Louis Largest brokerage firm in the U. S. headquartered outside of NY Only national brokerage firm that serves individual investors exclusively Operated as a partnership http: //www. edwardjones. com/cgi/get. HTML. cgi? page=/USA/careers/ej_story. html 46

Offices More than 8, 800 offices throughout the U. S. , Canada, and United Offices More than 8, 800 offices throughout the U. S. , Canada, and United Kingdom Over 25, 000 employees Growth rate of 200+ new branch offices per month Source: Matt Eilerman, Edward Jones, April 1, 2003 47

Growth Source: Edward D. Jones Investments 48 Growth Source: Edward D. Jones Investments 48

Industry Rankings Among All Firms: No. No. 1 in offices 4 in employees 5 Industry Rankings Among All Firms: No. No. 1 in offices 4 in employees 5 in brokers 34 in capital Source: Matt Eilerman, Edward Jones, April 1, 2003. 49

Industry Rankings Among Regional Firms: No. No. 1 in offices 1 in employees 1 Industry Rankings Among Regional Firms: No. No. 1 in offices 1 in employees 1 in brokers 13 in capital Source: Matt Eilerman, Edward Jones, April 1, 2003. 50

Recognition Ranked No. 1 for the second year in a row in Fortune magazine’s Recognition Ranked No. 1 for the second year in a row in Fortune magazine’s “ 100 Best Companies to Work For” in America(January 2003) Ranked No. 1 for the tenth consecutive year in Registered Representative magazine’s annual brokerage ranking(December 2002) Ranked No. 1 full-service broker by Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine(October 2002) http: //www. edwardjones. com/cgi/get. HTML. cgi? page=/USA/about. EJ/in_the_news. html 51

Client Characteristics Individual Investors n n n Average Age is 53 Average Annual Income Client Characteristics Individual Investors n n n Average Age is 53 Average Annual Income of $50, 075 Average Net Worth of $377, 216 Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 52

Total Revenue In Thousands Source: Edward D. Jones Investments 53 Total Revenue In Thousands Source: Edward D. Jones Investments 53

IT Department Try to develop almost all technology internally n Business Process Modeling(BPM) 80% IT Department Try to develop almost all technology internally n Business Process Modeling(BPM) 80% EDJ Associates 20% Contractors who work internally Annual budget usually around $200 million(10% of 2002 revenues), but EDJ does not set a limit on it’s IT budget. Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 54

Organizational Chart IT Department Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 55 Organizational Chart IT Department Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 55

Why Utilize Knowledge Management? Edward Jones currently operates over 8, 800 branch offices in Why Utilize Knowledge Management? Edward Jones currently operates over 8, 800 branch offices in the U. S. , Canada, and U. K. Over 10, 000 home office associates work in conjunction with these branches Investor demands are always changing Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 56

IT Vision through KM Utilization Enable the firm to reach 25, 000 branch offices IT Vision through KM Utilization Enable the firm to reach 25, 000 branch offices worldwide by leveraging technology efficiently and effectively. n Intranet Enable the firm to expand internationally n Intranet To ensure IT is synchronized with business and focused on the future. n Business Process Model(BPM) Source: https: //devnet. edwardjones. com/bpm/index. html 57

Intranet Internal web site developed for and by Edward Jones Introduced in 1997 Connects Intranet Internal web site developed for and by Edward Jones Introduced in 1997 Connects local branch offices to the home office Features include division listings, trades, research, department “Knowledge Bases, ” company policies, and product information Source: Matt Eilerman, Edward Jones, April 1, 2003. 58

Business Process Modeling(BPM) Overview The Edward Jones methodology for documenting the firm’s business processes. Business Process Modeling(BPM) Overview The Edward Jones methodology for documenting the firm’s business processes. Provides a set of tools, techniques, and modeling that allow the IT department to analyze the business processes. Results in recommendations for improvement and streamlining of business process and internal systems. Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 60

Business Process Modeling(BPM) Purpose Business Process Improvement- By gaining efficiencies through detailed analysis of Business Process Modeling(BPM) Purpose Business Process Improvement- By gaining efficiencies through detailed analysis of current and future business processes. Business and IS Alignment- To promote integration of business processes and technologies by identifying IS projects in support of business initiatives. Identify and Leverage Global Processes- To identify the firm’s core business processes and leverage those processes to share and reuse across global boundaries. Establish New Country Blueprint- Define the business processes that will provide a common blueprint for establishing new target markets. https: //devnet. edwardjones. com/BPM_purpose/cgi/get. html. 61

Business Process Modeling(BPM) Objectives Analyze all business processes from a global perspective Analyze all Business Process Modeling(BPM) Objectives Analyze all business processes from a global perspective Analyze all business processes from both current and future vision perspectives Clarify business requirements Recommend opportunities for process automation, elimination, reassignment and optimization Quantify the benefits and savings to the firm for each proposed project https: //devnet. edwardjones. com/BPM_objective/cgi/get. html. 62

BPM: Possible Roadblocks Not all employees or departments are open to change Current employee BPM: Possible Roadblocks Not all employees or departments are open to change Current employee complacency Re-training costs n n monetary time Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 63

Successes All explicit and tacit knowledge throughout the company has been moved to the Successes All explicit and tacit knowledge throughout the company has been moved to the Intranet Several business processes have been streamlined(trades, web site integration) BPM is still in its infancy and it may be too early to tell whether or not it will be a success Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 64

How does Edward Jones motivate associates to share knowledge? “Our firm has a culture How does Edward Jones motivate associates to share knowledge? “Our firm has a culture that encourages the sharing of knowledge and ideas. Since we are not a publicly traded company and are run as a partnership, almost all of our associates are partners in the firm. They share directly in the profitability of the firm. Basically, the better we perform through their hard work and knowledge, the more the firm and its partners profit. ” - IT Director Source: Personal Interview, Pat Buffum, IT Director, February 2003 65

Best Practices for Knowledge Management “The average knowledge worker spends a quarter of of Best Practices for Knowledge Management “The average knowledge worker spends a quarter of of his or her day looking for information. ” Informationweek; Manhasset; Jan 20, 2003; Tony Kontzer, p. 2 66

Best Practices Two Kinds of Knowledge n n Explicit: Codification strategy Tacit: Personalization strategy Best Practices Two Kinds of Knowledge n n Explicit: Codification strategy Tacit: Personalization strategy Both types are used by all organizations to some degree Must add value to for employees to contribute and utilize. 67

Best Practices: A knowledge management strategy should… Reflect the goals of upper management n Best Practices: A knowledge management strategy should… Reflect the goals of upper management n The Maritz mission statement is a definition of knowledge management Focus on one strategy n Every company uses both, follow and allow for the 80/20 split Incorporate core competencies n n What sets us apart, how does managing knowledge add value to our organizational goals Tacit Knowledge Systems Co. Knowledge Mail product Info. World; Trends bode well for KM; March 2003; Jon Udell, p. 2 68

The 80/20 Split Tacit Heavy Organization n 80 % Tacit, 20% Explicit n Competitive The 80/20 Split Tacit Heavy Organization n 80 % Tacit, 20% Explicit n Competitive advantage dictates strategy n Outsource explicit needs such as messaging and software customization Explicit Heavy Organization n 80% Explicit, 20% Tacit Competitive advantage dictates strategy Benefits by achieving economies of scale in knowledge through reuse 1. Harvard Business Review; Hansen 69

How do we create this new and wonderful KM strategy? 70 How do we create this new and wonderful KM strategy? 70

Best Practices Identify what strategy is best with 3 questions. 1. ) Do you Best Practices Identify what strategy is best with 3 questions. 1. ) Do you offer standardized or customized products? 2. ) Is your product in a mature or innovative stage of its life cycle? 3. ) Do associates rely on tacit or explicit knowledge? Organizational structure. 4. Harvard Business Review, Hansen, p. 116 71

1. ) Standardized or customized products? Maritz n Highly customized products, supported by tacit 1. ) Standardized or customized products? Maritz n Highly customized products, supported by tacit knowledge Edward Jones n Standardized financial solutions, access to explicit and codified knowledge 72

2. ) Product Life Cycle: Innovative of mature stage? Edward Jones n n Financial 2. ) Product Life Cycle: Innovative of mature stage? Edward Jones n n Financial services are a mature offering Innovative solutions Maritz n n Corporate rewards is now a mature market New and innovative ideas to promote selling 73

3. ) Information needed by associates, tacit or explicit? Maritz n n Employees rely 3. ) Information needed by associates, tacit or explicit? Maritz n n Employees rely on explicit knowledge Knowledge gained through experience Edward Jones n n Employees rely on tacit knowledge Formats, portfolios, transactions, fees, are easily recorded and reused 74

Best Practices and Strategy Maritz n n n Tacit knowledge Offer a highly customized Best Practices and Strategy Maritz n n n Tacit knowledge Offer a highly customized product Mature market with new and mature products Personalization strategy to support sharing of explicit knowledge and associate development Edward Jones n n n Explicit knowledge Standardized products Mature product and market Codification strategy or database that shares formulas, formats, assumptions, client, market, and investment information 75

Failure to Use Internal discomfort Unsatisfied customers Organization that cannot find identify its target Failure to Use Internal discomfort Unsatisfied customers Organization that cannot find identify its target market Misallocation of financial and human resources Xerox example $450 Million lost annually to information mismanagement "IT Panel" Computerworld; July 2002; Hoffman. "Pinpointing price of Information" Infomation World Review, May 2002, Flood. G. 76

Summary of Best Practices Knowledge management strategy should: n n reflect the goals of Summary of Best Practices Knowledge management strategy should: n n reflect the goals of upper management Should align with: w w w n n Customer expectations Strategic advantages Environmental Trends Organizational structure Product type Treat end users as customers and consumers Should include incentives and be fostered by management 77

Questions? 78 Questions? 78

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Allee, Verna. “ 12 Principles of Knowledge Management, References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Allee, Verna. “ 12 Principles of Knowledge Management, ” pp 1 -7, from www. astd. org/CMS/templates/template_1. html? articleid=105 95, viewed February 1, 2003. Santosus, Megan and Surmacz, Jon. “The ABC’s of Knowledge Management, ” pp. 1 -4, from www. cio. com/research/knowledge/edit/kmabcs. html, viewed on February 1, 2003. “What is Knowledge Management (KM)? ” pp 1 -4, from www. sims. berkeley. edu. courses/is 213/s 99/Projects/P 9/web_s ite/about_km. html, viewed February 1, 2003. Hansen, Nohria, Tierney. “What’s your strategy for managing knowledge? ” Harvard Business Review, March 1999, pp 106119. Davenport, Thomas, and Prusak, Laurence. “Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know. ” Harvard Business School Press. Boston, Massachusetts. 79 1998, pp xiv and 71.