Скачать презентацию Knowledge Management Baskar Subbarao Sarah Sullivan Michael Tobin Скачать презентацию Knowledge Management Baskar Subbarao Sarah Sullivan Michael Tobin

c6d63da8996f8f04ba452c772f314efc.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 73

Knowledge Management Baskar Subbarao Sarah Sullivan Michael Tobin Knowledge management reflects a point made Knowledge Management Baskar Subbarao Sarah Sullivan Michael Tobin Knowledge management reflects a point made by Lew Platt, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard: "If HP knew what HP knows, we would be three times as profitable. " 1 Ref. 28 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Introduction - KM l l Before something can be managed, it must Knowledge Management Introduction - KM l l Before something can be managed, it must be understood. A discussion of Knowledge Management must start with – – – 2 Data & Data Management Information & Information Management Knowledge & Knowledge Management © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management Although “knowledge” and “management” have been around for Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management Although “knowledge” and “management” have been around for a long period of time, the topic of “Knowledge Management” is fairly new and is generating much interest and study. Neither information management, nor information and communication technology are the same as Knowledge Management. Information management is data based and generally addresses information which can be processed by the programming of computers. Information management has influenced knowledge management and indeed plays a role in the knowledge management process. Information and communication technology (ICT) often act as a catalyst for Knowledge Management. The availability and development ICT has facilitated the Knowledge Management process. 3 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Data Information Data Management 4 Knowledge Information Management © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin Knowledge Management Data Information Data Management 4 Knowledge Information Management © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management DATA: Data includes Facts, figures, statistics Data is Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management DATA: Data includes Facts, figures, statistics Data is easy to store, sort, and manipulate (it is greatly enhanced by ICT) Data is clear cut and concise Data is of limited value by itself Data is very easy to share EXAMPLES OF “DATA” 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Data and Data Management Data Information Knowledge DATA is a collection of Knowledge Management Data and Data Management Data Information Knowledge DATA is a collection of discrete, factual records Data Management The storage and addressability of data. Purpose - Ensure that data resources are continuously available for manipulation and interpretation. 6 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management INFORMATION: Information consists of patterns of data Information Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management INFORMATION: Information consists of patterns of data Information is developed when people analyze Data and put into useable terms How the Data is interpreted can change from one person to another The value of Information is increased over raw Data, but so is ambiguity Information is relatively easy to share, open to various interpretations EXAMPLES OF “INFORMATION” 7 Ref. 11 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Information Management Data Information Knowledge Information is meaningful organization of data that Knowledge Management Information Management Data Information Knowledge Information is meaningful organization of data that is communicated. It is a complex function with Specific intentions of the originator Specific context Depends on interpretation by recipient. Specific goal Information Management of the communication channels that run between the people in an enterprise. 8 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge is the information inside people’s minds Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge is the information inside people’s minds Knowledge is the understanding of the information & data Knowledge is very valuable Sharing of knowledge is much more difficult than the sharing of data or information The creation of knowledge in organizations is a collective process of sense making. EXAMPLES OF “KNOWLEDGE” 9 Ref. 7 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Knowledge Data Information Knowledge is the meaningful organization of information. Knowledge includes Knowledge Management Knowledge Data Information Knowledge is the meaningful organization of information. Knowledge includes Data, Information and personal experience & know how Knowledge consists of Explicit knowledge and Tacit knowledge Results in a greater use and sharing of valuable information and thus eliminates the need for everyone to “reinvent the wheel” 10 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management KNOWLEDGE Knowledge in people’s heads is the most Knowledge Management Background of Knowledge Management KNOWLEDGE Knowledge in people’s heads is the most important resource a company has. Only a small amount of a company’s knowledge is available in exchangeable data files. It is the explicit and tacit knowledge which makes up the knowledgebase of a company. Explicit Knowledge Explicit knowledge is easy to code, it comes in the form of books, company policy manuals, mission statements, company documents, databases, reports and etc. Tacit Knowledge is hard to code and extract. It is the practical knowledge on how to get things done and personal knowledge based on individual experience. Tacit knowledge is invisible and the most difficult to share. EXAMPLES OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE: 11 Ref. 30 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Managing Knowledge well means creating an culture that demands, supports, encourages and Knowledge Management Managing Knowledge well means creating an culture that demands, supports, encourages and rewards the sharing of knowledge. This includes paying attention to people and organizational structure, as well as to the information technology for knowledge sharing and use. 12 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM Interview - Accenture l l l l l Knowledge is important Knowledge Management KM Interview - Accenture l l l l l Knowledge is important for the success of the company. Knowledge Source - People on the front lines, actually doing the work. Knowledge Users - Everyone. Knowledge captured in databases usually self-submitted, sometimes external. Distribution – Next generation mobile devices. KM tools used - Intranet and proprietary software. People aren't threatened by KM. Success Criteria – Difficult to measure value. Showing value is difficult. Support from company leadership is critical. KM obstacles - Lack of management support, Poor communication and communication devices, financial resources Lisa Pappalardo, has a Master’s in Industrial/Organizational psychology and has been with Accenture for over six and half years. 13 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Have you ever heard of a little company called General Electric? l Knowledge Management Have you ever heard of a little company called General Electric? l l l 14 Annual Sales: Roughly $132 billion Major Products: Power systems, aircraft engines, plastics, television media, medical systems, consumer finance, corporate finance, lighting, real estate, insurance, transportation, appliances, to name a few Who are GE’s customers? Just about everyone! Who is the CIO? Gary Reiner, a GE veteran Who does he report to? The CEO Ref. 17, 22 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management A case study: General Electric’s Knowledge Management success Jack Welch took over Knowledge Management A case study: General Electric’s Knowledge Management success Jack Welch took over in 1981 GE must become: l Lean, and l Agile 15 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Why was the change needed? A decision that should have taken a Knowledge Management Why was the change needed? A decision that should have taken a half an hour would take months GE’s numerous reporting layers hindered the flow of information l From the top down, and l The bottom up 16 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management I mean business l Become either #1 or #2 in its respective Knowledge Management I mean business l Become either #1 or #2 in its respective area, or face the consequence of being divested l Welch cut nearly 20% of the global GE workforce So in his first moves, he let them know he meant business 17 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management The culture shifts… It was at this point that Welch believed the Knowledge Management The culture shifts… It was at this point that Welch believed the company was primed for the vision. Welch began his crusade with changing the culture at GE: l “Shun the incremental and go for the leap” l He started with attitudes… l He started at the top 18 Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management TALK TO ME!! Welch began: l The constant interactive process l Aiming Knowledge Management TALK TO ME!! Welch began: l The constant interactive process l Aiming to produce consensus l Teaching by example that listening was more important than talking l Emphasizing that Real communication takes “countless hours of eyeball to eyeball contact” l Idealizing honesty and clarity as business imperatives Those managers who could not get on board with GE’s new vision, well, they had to go 19 Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Share the vision… The next steps: l Ensure that every single employee Knowledge Management Share the vision… The next steps: l Ensure that every single employee understood what the business was trying to achieve l Engender self-confidence in his people, which he believed to be central in unfettered organizational communication “people who were freed from the confines of their box on the organizational chart, whose status rests on real-world achievement-those are the people…who share every bit of information…” 20 Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management See how easy this is? “Business isn’t complicated. Complications arise when people Knowledge Management See how easy this is? “Business isn’t complicated. Complications arise when people are cut off from information they need…” As people began to feel free to exchange information, decisions that used to take months were taking minutes 21 Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Let the games begin! Corporate Executive Council: l An intensive 2 -day Knowledge Management Let the games begin! Corporate Executive Council: l An intensive 2 -day session l Held quarterly l To candidly and openly share ideas and information 22 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management And KM takes shape… Welch soon began 2 extremely significant KM programs: Knowledge Management And KM takes shape… Welch soon began 2 extremely significant KM programs: l l 23 Work Out Best Management Practices © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Work Out… The Work Out Process: l l l Based upon the Knowledge Management Work Out… The Work Out Process: l l l Based upon the sharing of knowledge internally Brings thousands of employees together to share knowledge and perspectives Fights middle management’s tendency to “do nothing” with ideas from below -”hot seat” example Encourages trust, teamwork, independence and confidence in the system Allows for empowerment of the employees, thereby doing more with less The goal of Work-Out was to “get to a point where people challenge their bosses every day” 24 Ref. 5, 16 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Best Management Practices… Best Management Practices: l l 25 Based on the Knowledge Management Best Management Practices… Best Management Practices: l l 25 Based on the gathering of external knowledge Involves a system whereby – weaknesses are identified – superior processes are located -”Welch goes to market” example – those processes are communicated – those practices become embedded in the company through intensive and extensive training Ref. 16 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management If you build it, will they come? GE employees are continually motivated Knowledge Management If you build it, will they come? GE employees are continually motivated to participate in KM programs by: l l l 26 Compensation plan overhaul Stock and bonus awards Strong cultural promotion of KM Intense management support of KM Evaluation criterion for success within GE Re-defined the internal concept of “loyalty” from “giving time” to “an affinity among people who want to grapple with the outside world and win” Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management What has this meant to GE? l l 27 Ideas developed and Knowledge Management What has this meant to GE? l l 27 Ideas developed and implemented as a result of the Work. Out process saved over $200, 000 in 1991 “GE expects a 5 to 1 return on every dollar of working capital invested” Ref. 5 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Can I get a CIO over here? In 1996, Welch appointed GE’s Knowledge Management Can I get a CIO over here? In 1996, Welch appointed GE’s first ever CIO, Gary Reiner encouraged employee use of technology in KM by: l l l 28 Eliminating other options so the only option left is the one we want them to take Get complete company support and commitment, from the top down Talk to you internal customers; listen to what works, and what doesn’t Ref. 26 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Examples of it all coming together: l l 29 Destroy Your Business!! Knowledge Management Examples of it all coming together: l l 29 Destroy Your Business!! GE Capital Fleet Services GENet GE Answer Center USA © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Applying what we have learned for the future… As a result of Knowledge Management Applying what we have learned for the future… As a result of the huge amount of knowledge GE has gained, GE took on a new 3 -prong e-business strategy to improve yet again in the processes of: l l l 30 Making goods Buying goods Selling goods © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management The “make” side… Digitize internal processes for competitive advantage l l Aims Knowledge Management The “make” side… Digitize internal processes for competitive advantage l l Aims to eliminate manual and paper processes to increase efficiency Get there by using the Six Sigma process -Process starts with mapping workflow and determining the cycle of corresponding actions -Desired result is to reduce defect rates, improve productivity, and efficiency Current implementation identified 1. 5 billion in cost savings for 2001 31 Ref. 17 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management The “buy” side… Apply e-business to improve sourcing and purchasing l l Knowledge Management The “buy” side… Apply e-business to improve sourcing and purchasing l l E-Auctioning which provided 480 million in annualized savings in the first 6 months The process drives costs down by a competitive, open bidding process The price of a each transaction has decreased by about 8% 32 Ref. 17 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management The “sell” side… Digitize the online sales process l l New customers Knowledge Management The “sell” side… Digitize the online sales process l l New customers are attracted through online offerings Old customers are migrated to the online system Online transactions have grown from 0 to over 7 billion in 3 years 33 Ref. 17 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Other successes resulting from GE’s KM process… l Mentor program provides for Knowledge Management Other successes resulting from GE’s KM process… l Mentor program provides for reverse mentoring for top management, regular meetings and reviews on e-business learning's and practices, discussion groups for best practice sharing l The Six Sigma approach to quality: significantly reducing manufacturing errors l 2001 won Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises study for world-class effort in managing knowledge, resulting in superior performance (noted in subcategories: Establishing an enterprise culture, management support for managing knowledge, maximizing the value of intellectual capital, establishing a culture of continued learning, managing customer knowledge to increase loyalty/value, manage knowledge to increase shareholder value. ) 34 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management GE’s Corporate Values: All of us…always with unyielding integrity… l l Live Knowledge Management GE’s Corporate Values: All of us…always with unyielding integrity… l l Live Six Sigma Quality…ensure that the customer is always its beneficiary…and use it to accelerate growth l Insist on excellence and are intolerant of bureaucracy l Act in boundaryless fashion…always search for and apply the best ideas regardless of their source l 35 Are passionately focused on driving customer success Prize global intellectual capital and the people that provide it…teams to maximize it © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management GE Values continued… l l Create a clear, simple, customer-centered vision…and continually Knowledge Management GE Values continued… l l Create a clear, simple, customer-centered vision…and continually renew and refresh its execution l Create an environment of “stretch, ” excitement, informality and trust…reward improvements…and celebrate results l 36 See change for the growth opportunities it brings…e. g. , “e-Business” Demonstrate…always with infectious enthusiasm for the customer…the “ 4 -E’s” of GE leadership: the personal Energy to welcome and deal with the speed of change…the ability to create an atmosphere that energizes others…the Edge to make difficult decisions…and the ability to execute © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Lessons learned… l l 37 It starts at the top Don’t be Knowledge Management Lessons learned… l l 37 It starts at the top Don’t be afraid of change Share ideas, and promote idea sharing Culture is KEY © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management What is Knowledge? Experience Value Insights Knowledge Requires human activity Tacit Relevance Knowledge Management What is Knowledge? Experience Value Insights Knowledge Requires human activity Tacit Relevance Comparison Consequences Connection Conversation Explicit Information Contextual zed Categorized Connected Condensed Must inform 38 No inherent meaning Ref. 1 Data © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Information put into User-actionable Reports, Records, Documents, Files Knowledge and Information are symbiotic Data arranged in Meaningful pattern Purpose Raw facts and figures 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM Truisms Perfect information does not equal perfect decisions Behaviors are not Knowledge Management KM Truisms Perfect information does not equal perfect decisions Behaviors are not changed by technology alone Connecting is not sufficient to create value Example - Collapse of Dot-Coms 39 Ref. 27 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM - Possible Benefits 20 % Creative 80% Routine Without knowledge Management Knowledge Management KM - Possible Benefits 20 % Creative 80% Routine Without knowledge Management 80 % Creative Cycle Time Reduction With knowledge Management 40 Ref. 14 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 TIME 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content 41 Community © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Computing Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content 41 Community © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Computing 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content Community Explicit Knowledge Computing Tacit Knowledge Written or Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content Community Explicit Knowledge Computing Tacit Knowledge Written or otherwise recorded. Tacit Knowledge often takes the form of a mental model: It can be readily identified, articulated, captured, shared, and applied. Beliefs and perspectives so ingrained that they are difficult to articulate. Examples - Books, manuals, patents, databases, reports, libraries, policies, and procedures. It's the wisdom and expertise in people's heads 42 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content Community Computing Community is the most significant differentiator Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Content Community Computing Community is the most significant differentiator between knowledge management and information management. Processes Collaboration All community members have a vested interest. Members must have a strong bond that encourages them to work together. 43 Processes Include aligning policy, incentives, and performance measurement with the forms of collaboration desired. © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Community Content Computing The requisite backbone of knowledge sharing Knowledge Management KM - Enablers Community Content Computing The requisite backbone of knowledge sharing and the most significant enabler. Enables Processes Enables new types of relationships. Connects through hardware, software, networks, and the like. Access through data repositories, browsers, search technology, Collaboration through chat & discussion groups, bulletins boards Identify Capture Sharing Storage Package Formalize 44 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Essence of Knowledge Management Tacit INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL (Individual) – Expertise Knowledge Management Essence of Knowledge Management Tacit INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL (Individual) – Expertise – Experience – Capability – Capacity – Creativity – Adaptability 45 Ref. 27 SOCIAL CAPITAL (Team) – Networks – Relationships – Interactions – Language – Patterning Explicit CORPORATE CAPITAL (Organization) – Intellectual Property – Processes – Databases – Flexibility KNOWLEDGE © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Information and Knowledge Data Information Knowledge Information and KM is closely linked Knowledge Management Information and Knowledge Data Information Knowledge Information and KM is closely linked People convert knowledge People Improve their knowledge. Intellectual asset 46 Information e-mails, memos, reports etc. Transform well structured Information (with employees help) By acquiring information from others © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Relationship of IT, IM and KM Enabler Human Capital Individual Enabler § Knowledge Management Relationship of IT, IM and KM Enabler Human Capital Individual Enabler § Successes § Lessons Learned Technology Innovation Enabler 47 Social Capital Team Ref. 27 § Capability § Capacity § Incentives § Education § Training § Relationships § Connectivity Corporate Capital Organization § Data § Info § Mapping § Software § Hardware The Essence of Knowledge Management The Essence of Information Technology Infrastructure § Teams § Physical Assets © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Relationship of KM and e. Business Different Lenses, Common Focus 48 © Knowledge Management Relationship of KM and e. Business Different Lenses, Common Focus 48 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 27 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management - Aspects Five aspects to be considered 1. People or personnel (who Knowledge Management - Aspects Five aspects to be considered 1. People or personnel (who does the work) 2. Culture, communication, corporate climate, society (where, when and why the work gets done) 3. Processes (how the work gets done) 4. Resources (what can help work get done better-- intellectually) 5. Tools, including technology (what can help work get done better--physically or mechanically) 49 Ref. 2 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Knowledge – Types Experimental Practical (Skills/Knowledge) Conceptual Factual 50 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Knowledge Management Knowledge – Types Experimental Practical (Skills/Knowledge) Conceptual Factual 50 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic 51 Economic © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Behavioral 11/8/2001 Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic 51 Economic © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Behavioral 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic Economic Behavioral Cartographic Systems Engineering Focus Maps Processes Aim Knowledge Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic Economic Behavioral Cartographic Systems Engineering Focus Maps Processes Aim Knowledge Bases Knowledge Directories Knowledge Flows Example Xerox, Sharko Films Bain & Co, AT&T Critical Success Factors Content Validation. Culture/Incentives to Share Knowledge Learning and Incentives to Knowledge. Networks to Information. Unrestricted provide Content connect People Distribution Principal Contribution Knowledge Based Profiles and Directories Systems on Internet Shared Databases Philosophy 52 Technology Codification Capability Connectivity © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 HP, Frito-Lay 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic Economic Behavioral Commercial Focus Aim Knowledge Asset Example Dow Chemical, Knowledge Management Schools Technocratic Economic Behavioral Commercial Focus Aim Knowledge Asset Example Dow Chemical, IBM Critical Success Factors Principal Contribution Specialized Teams, Institutionalized Process Philosophy 53 Income Commercialization Intellectual Asset, Register and Processing System © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Schools Economic Technocratic Organizational Spatial Behavioral Strategic Focus Space Mindset Aim Knowledge Knowledge Management Schools Economic Technocratic Organizational Spatial Behavioral Strategic Focus Space Mindset Aim Knowledge Pooling Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Capabilities Example BP Amoco, Shell Skandia, British Airways Skandia, Unilever Critical Success Factors Sociable culture Knowledge Intermediaries Design for purpose Encouragement Rhetoric Artifacts Principal Contribution Groupware and Intranets Access and Representation Tools Eclectic Philosophy 54 Networks Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management How organizations implement Knowledge l l l Management Intranet Repository Decision-support Groupware Knowledge Management How organizations implement Knowledge l l l Management Intranet Repository Decision-support Groupware People networks Map links to expertise 47% 33% 33% 24% 18% Source: American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) Research 55 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey – Definitions n = 423 Organizations Knowledge: The knowledge in the Knowledge Management Survey – Definitions n = 423 Organizations Knowledge: The knowledge in the business about customers, products, processes, competitors, etc. that can be locked away in people’s minds or electronic form. Knowledge Management: The systematic and organized attempt to use knowledge within an organization to improve performance The research was conducted among company executives in organizations with turnover exceeding $350 million a year. 56 Ref. 4 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey – Knowledge Management Strategy n = 423 Organizations Based on definitions, Knowledge Management Survey – Knowledge Management Strategy n = 423 Organizations Based on definitions, does your company have a KM strategy? 57 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 4 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey – Industry Sector n = 423 Organizations 58 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Knowledge Management Survey – Industry Sector n = 423 Organizations 58 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 4 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey - Status of Knowledge Management Programs n = 423 Organizations Which Knowledge Management Survey - Status of Knowledge Management Programs n = 423 Organizations Which one of the following statements best describes your organizations? 59 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 4 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey – KM Drivers, Who is pushing hardest? n = 345 Organizations Knowledge Management Survey – KM Drivers, Who is pushing hardest? n = 345 Organizations in KM Program What level in the organization pushed / is pushing hardest to have a KM program? 60 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 4 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Survey – Current Knowledge Problems n = 413 61 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Knowledge Management Survey – Current Knowledge Problems n = 413 61 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 Ref. 4 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management ROLE OF CKO l l l l l 62 Create knowledge sharing Knowledge Management ROLE OF CKO l l l l l 62 Create knowledge sharing culture Provide leadership and Strategy Secure resources Promote best practices and outcomes Champion Education Champion communities of practice Create and Use Common Language Provide Tools & Technology Use incentives and Awards Measure outcomes © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management 12 Guiding Principles of KM l l l 63 Ref. Knowledge is Knowledge Management 12 Guiding Principles of KM l l l 63 Ref. Knowledge is messy Knowledge is self-organizing Knowledge seeks community Knowledge travels via language The more you try to pin Knowledge down, the more it slips away Looser is probably better There is no one solution Knowledge doesn’t grow forever No one is in charge You can’t impose rules and systems There is no silver bullet How you define knowledge determines how you manage it © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Challenges to Knowledge Management It is almost impossible to directly tie results, Knowledge Management Challenges to Knowledge Management It is almost impossible to directly tie results, sales, income … to Knowledge Management As such, the task of judging success or failure is not cut and dry. While the importance of Knowledge Management may be agreed upon, the disconnect between KM and results may pose justification challenges. This reinforces the need for strong support from the top down. 64 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Take Away Points We have discussed how knowledge is in the minds Knowledge Management Take Away Points We have discussed how knowledge is in the minds of the employees. The extraction of this knowledge is a critical portion of knowledge management. This extraction presents a significant challenge both in process and cooperation. In many cases an employees value may be tied closely to their knowledge, convincing them to share this knowledge and possibly lessen their value is a tough task. 65 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Take Away Points l 66 Mastering Knowledge is a decisive factor for Knowledge Management Take Away Points l 66 Mastering Knowledge is a decisive factor for success. Optimizing knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer results in competitive advantage. Ref. 7 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Take Away Points l 67 Sharing Knowledge means “ the wheel does Knowledge Management Take Away Points l 67 Sharing Knowledge means “ the wheel does not have to be reinvented by everyone”. © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management Summary “Everyday that a better idea goes unused is a lost opportunity. Knowledge Management Summary “Everyday that a better idea goes unused is a lost opportunity. We have to share more, and we have to share faster. I tell employees that sharing and using best practices is the single most important thing they can do. ” Ken Derr, CEO of Chevron 68 Ref. 31 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management References Page 1 of 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 69 Knowledge Management References Page 1 of 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 69 Defining knowledge management; Barry Sterndale-Bennett; The British Journal of Administrative Management, Orpington; Jul/Aug 2001, Iss. 26; pg. 26, 2 pgs Map you knowledge strategy; Xenia Stanford; Information Outlook, Washington; Jun 2001; Vol. 5, Iss. 6; pg. 18, 7 pgs The information audit as a first step towards effective knowledge management; Susan Henczel; Information Outlook, Washington; Jun 2001; Vol. 5, Iss. 6; pg. 48, 10 pgs Knowledge Management Research Report 2000, KPMG Consulting Jack Welch: General Electric’s Revolutionary, Harvard Business School, 9 -394 -065, Rev. April 12, 1994 Customer Knowledge Management, The GE Answer Center, 800626 -2000. © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management References Page 2 of 5 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 70 Knowledge Knowledge Management References Page 2 of 5 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 70 Knowledge Management, New ways to improve the Bottom Line; Films for the Humanities & Sciences; Video; 2000. Jack Welch: General Electric’s Revolutionary; Harvard Business School; 9 -394 -065; Rev. April 12, 1994. Many rivers to cross: from ICT to knowledge management systems; Paul H. J. Hendricks; Journal of Information Technology; June 2001, Vol. 16, No. 2; pg. 57, 15 pgs. Sharing knowledge across boundaries; Claudio Ciborra and Rafeal Andreu; Journal of Information Technology; June 2001, Vol. 16, No. 2; pg. 73, 19 pgs. Innovation through knowledge codification; Carsten Sorensen and Ulrika Lundh-Snis; Journal of Information Technology; June 2001, Vol. 16, No. 2; pg. 83, 16 pgs. © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management References Page 3 of 5 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 71 The Knowledge Management References Page 3 of 5 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 71 The knowledge management tussle – speech communities and rhetorical strategies in the development of knowledge management; Steffen Raub and Charles-Clemens Ruling; Journal of Information Technology; June 2001, Vol. 16, No. 2; pg. 113, 13 pgs. Practicing peer review in organizations: a qualifier for knowledge dissemination and legimization; Magnus Bergquist, Jan Ljungberg and Ulrika Lundh-Snis; Journal of Information Technology; June 2001, Vol. 16, No. 2; pg. 99, 13 pgs. Managing Engineering Knowledge, MOKA: Methodology for knowledge based engineering applications; Melody Stokes; MOKA Consortium, 2001 http: //academic. emporia. edu/smithwil/00 spmg 456/groups/genelect ric. html http: //www. mountainplains. org/articles/csr. html © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management References Page 4 of 5 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Knowledge Management References Page 4 of 5 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 72 GE Web Site - http: //www. ge. com http: //www. zdnet. com/products/stories/reviews/0, 4161, 2763630, 00. html http: //www. knowledgebusiness. com/resource/news_read. asp? id= 623 http: //www. kmmag. co. uk/CURRENTFEB/TOOLSfeb. HTM http: //www. knowledgebusiness. com/resource/news_read. asp? id=3 25 http: //www. ktic. com/topics 6/13_lead. htm http: //www. uts. edu. au/fac/hss/Department/DIS/km/knowman. htm http: //www. emgltd. com/events/kmnews 31. htm CIO Magazine, "Destructive Behavior" article, July 15, 2000 PC Magazine, "Q&A: Gary Reiner CIO and Executive Vice. President, General Electric Company" article, May 31, 2001 © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001

Knowledge Management References Page 5 of 5 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 73 Building Knowledge Management References Page 5 of 5 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 73 Building the Knowledge Enterprise, Department of the Navy, USA, Feb 2001 Mastering Information Management, Complete MBA companion in Information Management; Donald Marchand, Thomas Davenport and Tim Dickson; 2000. CIO Magazine, "Capital Gains" article, August 1997. A guide to planning a knowledge management system by: Floyd W. Carlson (1999) University of Maryland Bowie State University. O'Dell, C. & Grayson, C. J. "If only we knew what we know: the transfer of internal knowledge and best practice. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. © Subbarao, Sullivan, Tobin 2001 11/8/2001