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КИЇВСЬКИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ БОРИСА ГРІНЧЕНКА Кафедра англійської мови АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА для студентів спеціальності «Психологія» English for Psychologists Викладач Бондар Олександра Юріївна Київ-2015
Contents of Module 1 1. Indefinite and Continuous Tenses. Formation and Use 2. Perfect and Perfect-Continuous Tenses. Formation and Use 3. Passive voice. Sequence of tenses. Formation and Use 4. Conditional Mood. Formation and Use
VERB Notional Auxiliary Modal
Person and Number Tense Grammatical categories of the verb Aspect Voice Mood
Reviewing Verb Tenses
The two elements of meaning Every verb form (tense) has 2 elements of meaning: Time – the time when the action happens (present, past, future/ a point or a period of time) Attitude- our interest in the action, the way we interpret the situation.
The Group of Indefinite Tenses The Indefinite form shows that the action takes place in the present, past, or future. Present Indefinite is formed from the infinitive without to or by means of adding the ending –es in the 3 rd person singular. Past Indefinite is formed by adding the ending –ed with regular verbs or the second column of irregular verbs. Future Indefinite is formed with the help of the auxiliary verbs shall/will and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to. S + to infinitive/-es (present) S + (e)d/V 2 (past) S + will + to infinitive (future) Attitude Ø attitude, concern only to state the fact of the action.
The Group of Continuous Tenses The Continuous form denotes an action in progress at the present moment or at a given moment in the past or future. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the required tense and Participle I of the notional verb. am, is, are/was, were/ WILL be + PTI Attitude We are talking about an action which is unfinished, incomplete, in progress, going on during the period of time we are in.
The Group of Perfect Tenses The Perfect form denotes an action completed before the present moment (and connected with it) or before a definite moment in the past or future. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the required tense and Participle II of the notional verb. HAVE/HAS/HAD/ WILL HAVE + PTII Attitude We are talking about an action which took place at an unspecified time before now. We are usually more interested in the result of the action rather than in the action itself.
The Group of Perfect Continuous Tenses The Perfect Continuous form denotes an action in progress, whose duration before a definite moment in the present, past or future is expressed. It is formed, by means of the auxiliary verb to be in one of the perfect tenses and Participle I of the notional verb. HAVE/HAS/HAD/ WILL HAVE BEEN+ PTI Attitude We are talking about something which began but did not necessarily finish in the period before now and now. In particular, we are interested in the process and duration of the action
Tenses in the Active Voice 1. The … is formed by means of the auxiliary verb … and the notional verb in the form of …. 2. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. 3. In the negative form the negative particle NOT is placed after the auxiliary verb. 4. The …is used to express a) permanent ‒ temporary b) finished ‒ unfinished c) habitual d) repeated e) planned 5. Time phrases we can use in this tense are…. http: //www. elihinkel. org/tips/tenses. htm action.
The Passive Voice shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject is acted upon (the object of the action). does X Y Y X is done by Shakespeare wrote Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. The Passive Voice is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the required form and Past Participle of the notional verb. The passive = to be + Participle II !!! The Future Continuous and all Perfect-Continuous tenses are not used in the passive.
The Sequence of Tenses a certain dependence of the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause on that of the verb in the principal clause. Principal clause Simultaneous actions Subordinate clause The action of the S. C. preceded the follows the action of the P. C. past Past Indefinite Past Continuous present Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect- Continuous future Present Indefinite Present Continuous Past Perfect- Continuous Present Perfect- Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Present Perfect- Continuous Past Indefinite Future-in-the-Past future tense form or one of the means of expressing futurity
The Conditional Mood There are four conditional verb patterns. § The General Condition expresses a general rule, where the condition is or could be repeatedly fulfilled: If you heat ice, it melts. § The First Condition refers to the future, where the condition may or may not be fulfilled: If it rains, I'll wear a hat. § The Second Condition refers to the future, where it is very unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled: If I saw a lion, I'd run away; or talking about the present or future, where the condition cannot possibly be fulfilled: If I were you, I'd come more often. § The Third Condition refers to the past, and where the condition was not fulfilled or where the speaker does not know if the condition was fulfilled: If I'd woken up earlier I wouldn't have missed the train, If he had picked up the snake, it would have bitten him.
Questions to Answer Do you know about? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formation and Use of the Group of Indefinite Tenses. Formation and Use of the Group of Continuous Tenses. Formation and Use the Group of Perfect Tenses. Formation and Use of the Group of Perfect-Continuous Tenses. Formation of Passive Voice. Main Rules of Sequence of Tenses. Types of Conditional Mood.
THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION Старший викладач кафедри англійської мови Бондар О. Ю. [email protected] com