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Kharif campaign meeting 26 -27 Feb 2014 Strategies for implementation of Contingency Plans for Weather Aberrations Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Hyderabad, India http: //www. crida. in
Preparation of District level Contingency Plans for Weather Aberrations- Partners
District Level Contingency Plans (DLCPs) for Weather Aberrations in India Prepared 500* district level contingency plans to meet weather aberrations in crop, livestock, poultry and fisheries sectors Approach: Bottom-up involving district level scientists of Agricultural Research Stations and KVKs of SAUs Organizations involved: Ø CRIDA - Nodal Institute Ø 46 State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) Ø 7 ICAR –NRM institutes (NBSS& LUP, CAZRI, PDFSR, CSWCRTI, DWM, ICAR RCER, ICAR RC-NEH ) The Plans cover: Ø Delay in monsoon onset Ø Breaks in monsoon leading to early, mid and late-season Ø Ø droughts Delayed or limited release of water for irrigation Floods Unseasonal rains Extreme weather events: heat wave, cold wave, frost, hailstorm and cyclone DLCPs - Outcomes Ø Pilot implementation of plans by Department of Agriculture (DAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Go. I; to be implemented in three states during XII Plan Ø Extract of plans developed as a web enabled “Contingency Crop Planning tool” by CRIDA Ø Real time implementation of DLCP’s taken up at 23 locations across India by AICRP on Dryland Agriculture (AICRPDA) Ø On-farm demonstration of climate resilient technologies taken up under the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) in 100 districts through KVK’s Ø Plans adopted by the State Departments of Agriculture on real time basis during delayed monsoon and deficit rainfall situations during 2012 & 2013 seasons Web based Access to District level Contingency Plans in Farmers’ portal Contingency Crop (http: //farmer. gov. in) Aberrations Planning tool for Monsoon * as on 1 st Jan 2014
Decision tree for suggesting contingency measures for drought SW Monsoon Normal onset – Normal sowing Delayed onset – Delayed sowing Rains received prior to cut-off sowing date Normal crop, short duration variety Rains received after cut-off Contingent crop Breaks in Monsoon Early season (Immediately after normal sowing) Midseason (vegetative/ flowering) Terminal (early withdrawal) Gap filling / resowing Crop-soil moisturenutrient conservation measures Early rabi / rabi cropping
Strategies 1. Long, medium and short range weather forecasts of IMD may be used as the base to plan the contingency responses at different levels as the season unfolds and monsoon progresses in the ensuing kharif. 2. State Departments of Agriculture should have action plan to tackle various rainfall scenarios in the state • This should be followed up with a separate meeting by district planning units involving officers from agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, power distribution and irrigation to focus on preparedness for inputs, energy requirements and to dovetail budgetary support from various ongoing schemes for implementation of the contingency plan at the district level.
3. Continuous monitoring and in-season review are fundamental for effective implementation of the contingency plan at the district level. Progressive information on crop situation at the district level is crucial to execute the plan in needy blocks. 4. A sound seed production and storage plan should be put in place if needed at the district level as a medium term strategy for making available seeds of alternate crops and varieties that can be sown in case of delayed monsoon. 5. Ensure availability of breeder seed of contingency crops/varieties which are not normally in the seed chain • A nodal officer may be identified at the SAU level to liaison with line departments to ensure supply of identified breeder / nucleus seed each year for multiplication in the spring season or previous kharif season. A revolving fund may be thought of to provide budgetary, manpower and infrastructure support for this purpose.
6. Seeds to be produced every year. In case the monsoon is normal and the seeds are not used, they may be disposed off as grain. The financial modalities of the cost of production of such seeds, transport, storage and the loss incurred when disposed off as grain needs to be worked out and budgeted from on-going government schemes. 7. Village level seed banks (crop and fodder) need to be promoted to bring in self-sufficiency at the local level and also contribute to the seed supply chain of those varieties suitable for contingency situations elsewhere in the state or other states with similar agro-ecologies. Mechanisms and provisions may need to be evolved to address issues related to certification for buy back arrangements by state seed agencies for redistribution. 8. Adoption of drought and flood tolerant crop varieties in vulnerable districts should be promoted as a risk minimization strategy. Seeds of such varieties may be sourced and made available in sufficient quantities for promotion in drought and flood prone areas.
9. Availability of inputs related to nutrient management (e. g. foliar spray of KCl or KNO 3 to partially alleviate moisture stress during drought) and inputs related to reduction of crop water demand (e. g. application of anti-transpirants or hormones) is an issue to be addressed by the state departments. 10. Large scale demonstrations of climate resilient agronomic practices to create awareness and promote widespread adoption by farmers at block level • direct seeding options for short duration varieties in paddy for delayed situations; 9. in situ moisture conservation practices and crop residue recycling; 10. planting of millets, cotton, pulses and oilseed crops in ridgefurrow or raised bed systems to ensure adequate drainage in case of excess rains 11. Promotion of farm implements on custom hiring basis or purchase Location-specific farm implements needed in such contingency situations should be listed, reasonably priced and provisions made for increasing their availability to farmers.
12. Production strategy for augmenting fodder supply in such situations is essential. Similarly arrangements to increase production and supply of supplements (UMMB blocks) to increase the palatability and digestibility of crop residues not normally fed to livestock should be taken up. 13. Planned location-specific crop diversification options (preferably ID crops) need to be identified and action plan drawn for adoption in endemic areas prone to water shortages due to erratic rainfall, limited and delayed release of canal water, poor inflows into tanks and insufficient groundwater recharge situations. 14. Lessons learnt from combating contingency experiences in the previous year faced in different states due to continuous and excess rainfall such as the onion and vegetable crises and pest outbreaks (eg. brown plant hopper in rice) needs to be captured and integrated into the contingency plans for the ensuing kharif season.
15. Medium and long term strategies are critical and essential for the sustained implementation of district level contingency plans to tackle monsoon aberrations: • Restoration and renovation of drains in flood prone delta areas and cyclone affected areas • Undertake drought proofing, rainwater harvesting works in a planned manner using MGNREGA and IWMP funds • Efficient use of harvested water through micro-irrigation systems • Crop residue recycling to build organic carbon reserves to improve soil health and water holding capacity to cope with dry spells • River bank protection to avoid flooding and sand casting of the crop fields due to heavy unseasonal rains • Promotion of agro-forestry systems for resilience in chronically drought prone areas as they improve soil fertility and also provide fodder for the livestock • Promotion of weather insurance to minimize risk to farmers due to monsoon aberrations
Way forward ü National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) - pilot program launched by DAC, Mo. A, Go. I in three states Ø Implement district level contingency plans for weather aberrations Ø Upscale the successful climate resilient interventions from NICRA-Technology demonstration component
National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture Technology Demonstration Component Location of demonstration sites
Module-wise Interventions at a glance Natural Resource Management Module Crop Production Module Institutional Intervention Module Rainwater Harvesting Structures Land & Water Management Contingency crop plans Weeding/ Mulching/ Bailing Artificial/ Supplemental Irrigation Farm Pond Land Levelling In situ SMC, Zero Till Drill Mechanical/ Power Weeder Micro Sprinklers VCRMC Percolation Tank Trench cum Bunding Drum Seeding in Puddled/ Unpuddled Paddy Cono Weeder for SRI Drip Check Dam Compartmental Bunding Planting cum Pre-emergence Herbicide Application Residue Recycling LEWA Jal Kund Conservation Tillage Planting in Standing Residue using Happy Seeder Planting on Broad Bed (BBF)/Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed Planting (FIRB) Baler cum Knotter for Paddy Straw Farm Machinery Custom Hiring Center (CHC) Use of Pond Water by Low Lift Pump