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Kentucky in the Civil War …stuck in the middle…
Lincoln’s Attitude Toward KY “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game…”
Prediction Time… List three reasons why Lincoln thinks KY is so important.
Background Information • Kentucky was part of the Virginia colony • Early pioneers (Walker, Boone, Kenton, etc) explored KY before the Am. Rev. War • KY was a premiere destination during the westward migration over the Appalachian Mountains after Am. Rev. War • Many pioneers came from PA (northern colony), VA, TN, & NC (southern colonies)
Background Information • Kentucky became 15 th state, June 1792 • Kentucky’s legislature passed the “Kentucky Resolutions” in 1798/1799: – states’ rights were more important than the needs of the federal government – states could withdraw from the USA • 1810 -1850…Henry Clay was leader of the Whig Party and the Speaker of the House
KY’s Antebellum Population • By 1860, Kentucky had: – 9 th largest pop. in the USA (1. 1 mil) – 3 rd largest pop. of Southern states • 914, 000 white people • 226, 000 black slaves • 10, 000 free blacks
KY’s Antebellum Economy • By 1860, Kentucky: – was #1 producer of hemp and tobacco – was ranked 7 th in the value of farms – made best whiskey & bourbon in USA – produced large quantities of corn, wheat, flax, horses & mules – was 15 th in manufacturing capacity – linked to the South via OH & MS rivers
Slavery in Kentucky • 25% of whites owned slaves • most slaves lived in “Bluegrass Region” • slavery in KY was unlike slavery in the “deep South” • KY farms needed fewer slaves than the cotton plantations – “excess” slaves were sold to the South
Prediction Time, again… 1. Re-examine your predictions. 2. Alter your predictions if you want.
The Election of 1860 Con. Union Breckinridge So. Dem 66, 000 52, 800 S. Douglas Lincoln No. Dem. Republican 40, 300 1, 350 John Bell
KY’s Political Attitude • Governor Magoffin was pro-slavery & pro-secessionist • KY legislature was pro-slavery & pro-Union
KY People’s Attitude • most Kentuckians were pro-slavery & pro -Union • most Kentuckians believed Lincoln was an abolitionist • most Kentuckians wanted to stay neutral • most Kentuckians hoped North and South would find a compromise and avoid war
KY’s Geographic Importance borders Ohio R. – controls trade along river – meets the Mississippi R. at western tip of KY
KY’s Geographic Importance • borders three Northern states: OH, IN, IL • borders three Southern states: MO, TN, VA
KY’s Geographic Importance • US Army wanted to invade the South by crossing through KY • CS Army wanted to invade the North by crossing through KY
KY Contributes to the CW • 100, 000 pro-Union men joined the United States Army – 75, 000 white men – 25, 000 black men – 67 KY men were generals in US Army • 40, 000 pro-Secession men joined the Confederate States Army – 38 KY men were generals in CS Army
KY contributes to the CW • Some families sent men to both armies • KY resources (food, money, supplies, etc. ) were taken by, or given to, both armies • KY had two governments (one pro-Union, one pro-Confederate) • KY had a star on the USA flag and on the CSA flag
Think, Pair, Share 1. Think: What are three most important contributions KY made to the Civil War? 2. Share: Discuss with your neighbor the decisions you have made.
The Civil War in Kentucky • Both armies wanted to control KY • Both armies “invaded” KY in 1862 • CSA army came into Northern KY to determine if it could invade Cincinnati – discovered the US Army had built forts to protect Cincinnati (e. g. Ft. Wright, Ft. Mitchell, and Ft. Thomas) – retreated back into central KY
The Civil War in Boone Cty. • Largest battle in Boone County was called the Skirmish at Snow’s Pond – South of Florence, near Walton – 25 September, 1862 – USA Army: ? ? ? • Casualties: at least 50 – CSA Army: at least 500 • Casualties: ? ? ?
1862: Battles in Kentucky Cincinnati
The Civil War in Kentucky • Largest battle in KY was the Battle of Perryville (USA victory as CSA retreated) – Southwest of Lexington – 8 -9 October, 1862 – USA Army: 55, 000 • Casualties: 4, 300 – CSA Army: 17, 000 • Casualties: 3, 400
Drawing an inference… Based on what you have just learned, by 1863, who was in charge of KY… the USA or the CSA?
CSA “Raids” in Kentucky • The Confederate Army conducted “guerrilla” raids in KY to: – terrorize Northern sympathizers – encourage Southern sympathizers to enlist in Confederate Army – gather supplies for the CS Army – force the US to station troops in KY
CSA “Raids” in Kentucky • Confederate Army “guerrilla” raids in KY: – December 1862 by John Hunt Morgan – Summer 1863 by John Hunt Morgan – Spring 1864 by Nathan Bedford Forrest – June 1864 by John Hunt Morgan
Union Occupation of KY • US Gen. J. T. Boile was placed in command of KY (1862 -1864) – Tried to “pacify” the citizens – Interfered with local elections • US Gen. St. “the butcher” Berberage was placed in command of KY (1864 -1865) – Tried to “re-educate” the citizens – Interfered with election of 1864 – Interfered with trade
After the Civil War • Pro-Union slave owners became angry at the North and Lincoln because: – The US Army treated KY like it was a “captured” slave state – abused citizens civil rights – the Union Army let black men enlist – the 13 th Amendment outlawed slavery
After the Civil War • • KY’s schools were ruined KY’s economy was ruined Money loaned to the CSA was lost 30, 000 KY men were dead 90, 000 horses were gone 170, 000 cattle were gone Slaves were all set free
After the Civil War • Returning Union soldiers were not cheered • Returning Confederate soldiers were treated like heroes • KY’s economy was not important to either the North or the South • Ex-CSA men were elected to the post-war legislature
Irony of the Civil War in KY • Before the war, KY was pro-Union (north) • After the war, KY was pro-Confederate (south)
Think, Pair, Share 1. Think: What are three coolest things you’ve learned about KY in the Civil War? 2. Share: Discuss with your neighbor the things you have learned.
Kentucky in the Civil War …stuck in the middle…