Скачать презентацию Kashafrud River Mashhad Basin GWADI PILOT BASIN Facing Скачать презентацию Kashafrud River Mashhad Basin GWADI PILOT BASIN Facing

2ad5370319909e94d708b52e3a2c5b44.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 30

Kashafrud River (Mashhad) Basin GWADI PILOT BASIN Facing Challenges and Problems and Short Progress Kashafrud River (Mashhad) Basin GWADI PILOT BASIN Facing Challenges and Problems and Short Progress report

Catchments Area Geographical Location of Kashafrod Basin: 16400 km 2 Mean annual rainfall : Catchments Area Geographical Location of Kashafrod Basin: 16400 km 2 Mean annual rainfall : 275 mm Altitude Max: 3302 Mean: 1328 Min: 390 Total Population in Basin: 3 Million Renewable water per capita: 370 m 3/capita/year

Mashhad 2. 5 million population (> 15 million tourists per year) Mashhad 2. 5 million population (> 15 million tourists per year)

Mashhad city 1972 Area : 15 km 2 , Pop. : 0. 55 million Mashhad city 1972 Area : 15 km 2 , Pop. : 0. 55 million

Mashhad city 1986 Area : 50 km 2 , Pop. : 1. 5 million Mashhad city 1986 Area : 50 km 2 , Pop. : 1. 5 million

Mashhad city 2006 Area : 170 km 2 , Pop. : 2. 6 million Mashhad city 2006 Area : 170 km 2 , Pop. : 2. 6 million

Population growth in Kashafrud basin Population growth in Kashafrud basin

Land Use in Kashafrud River Basin Land Use Percentage Mountains 17. 5 Pasture 60 Land Use in Kashafrud River Basin Land Use Percentage Mountains 17. 5 Pasture 60 Agriculture 22 (Irrigated Lands = 10) Urban Area 0. 5

Surface Water nesa z di n Used Water : 205 MCM ha S h Surface Water nesa z di n Used Water : 205 MCM ha S h og Tor Mah od eh afr Kard Ka sh Ardak Mean Annual runoff : 250 MCM Outflow : 45 MCM

Pole-Khaton Hydrometric station Mean Annual Runoff (1967 -84) : 76 MCM Mean Annual Runoff Pole-Khaton Hydrometric station Mean Annual Runoff (1967 -84) : 76 MCM Mean Annual Runoff (1985 -02) : 44 MCM Min Annual Runoff : 0 MCM Max Annual Run off : 214 MCM There is no more surface water to control Olang-Asadee Hydrometric station Mean Annual Runoff (1967 -84) : 44 MCM Mean Annual Runoff (1985 -02) : 18 MCM Min Annual Runoff : 0 MCM Max Annual Run off : 108 MCM

Kashafrud basin Groundwater Resources Ground water recharge : 945 MCM/year Ground water exploitation : Kashafrud basin Groundwater Resources Ground water recharge : 945 MCM/year Ground water exploitation : 1145 MCM/year Ground water deficit : -200 MCM/year W. L. Drawdown from 1963 to 1973 : 7 m (0. 7 m/year) W. L. Drawdown from 1974 to 2002 : 33 m (1. 2 m/year)

Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971 Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971

Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971 2005 4. 6 x 109 m 3 Over-exploitation Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971 2005 4. 6 x 109 m 3 Over-exploitation

Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971 2005 2025 4. 6 x 109 m 3 Over-exploitation Mashhad Plain Groundwater Exploitation 1971 2005 2025 4. 6 x 109 m 3 Over-exploitation 2. 5 x 109 m 3 Over-exploitation

Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin 1972 Year Irrigated Area : 100, 000 ha Percentage Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin 1972 Year Irrigated Area : 100, 000 ha Percentage of Cereals on crop patterns: 72

Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin Year 1986 Irrigated Area : 115, 000 ha Percentage Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin Year 1986 Irrigated Area : 115, 000 ha Percentage of Cereals on crop patterns : 66

Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin Year 2006 Irrigated Area : 130, 000 ha Percentage Agricultural Development in Kashafrud Basin Year 2006 Irrigated Area : 130, 000 ha Percentage of Cereals on crop patterns : 55

Kashafrud basin water uses in Agriculture Total irrigated area : 130000 ha Surface water Kashafrud basin water uses in Agriculture Total irrigated area : 130000 ha Surface water Use : 190 MCM Groundwater Use : 850 MCM Irrigation efficiency : 45 – 50 % Crop water use : 8000 m 3 /ha/year Cropping pattern : Cereals Orchards Vegetables Industrial crops 55% 19% 21% 5%

Mashhad water supply and future requirement Surface water : Groundwater resources : 15 MCM Mashhad water supply and future requirement Surface water : Groundwater resources : 15 MCM 220 MCM Future Inter-Basin Transfer: 150 MCM

Kashafrud basin water allotment Surface water resources : 205 MCM Groundwater resources : 1145 Kashafrud basin water allotment Surface water resources : 205 MCM Groundwater resources : 1145 MCM

Challenges and problems üSurface water control : more than 80% (There is no more Challenges and problems üSurface water control : more than 80% (There is no more surface water to control) üGroundwater table drawdown : more than 1 m/year üLand subsidence üRapid population and water demand growth üSurface and ground water pollution üSectarian water resource management

The Solution IWRM With focus on Participatory Decision Making and Water Demand Management The Solution IWRM With focus on Participatory Decision Making and Water Demand Management

Time Stages in IWRM Implementation Short Term (3 Years) Crisis Mitigation Mid Term (5 Time Stages in IWRM Implementation Short Term (3 Years) Crisis Mitigation Mid Term (5 Years) Environmental degradation control Long Term (Continuously) Environmental enhancement and sustainable management of the water resources

CRICESS MITIGATION l Urgent solution for “MASHHAD” water scarce problem l Planning and conducting CRICESS MITIGATION l Urgent solution for “MASHHAD” water scarce problem l Planning and conducting , IWRM related studies l Establishment of the temporary basin management structure l Initiate stakeholders participatory mechanism on IWRM

Urgent solution for “MASHHAD” water scarce problem About 30% water scare happened In summer Urgent solution for “MASHHAD” water scarce problem About 30% water scare happened In summer of 2006 l More than 100 wells drilled or developed (safe for next five years, till the inter basin water supply project “Doosti” be operational). l Special efforts for closing unregistered water wells.

Planning and conducting , IWRM related studies A well known consult engineer has nominated. Planning and conducting , IWRM related studies A well known consult engineer has nominated. The main items of his scope of work are : l l l Development of a basin-wide water knowledge database Quantitative and qualitative assessment of existing water resources Evaluating present consumption and future demands, related to different sectors Water demand management plan Preparing : – – – l EAP DSS Monitoring & Evaluation System Preparing strategies guidelines for IWRM (Mid & Long Term)

Establishment of a temporary Kashafrud basin management structure Proposed managing structure: Management Unit ü Establishment of a temporary Kashafrud basin management structure Proposed managing structure: Management Unit ü Ministry of Energy ü ü Khorasan Water Authority UNESCO Tehran Office Executive Board Steering Committee ü Technical Advisory Committee ü Ferdowsi University of Mashhad ü Consultants Water Council ü province State ü Water Authority company ü Agriculture Authority organization ü razavi Water and Wastewater Company ü Environmental Organization ü Industry & Mines Organization (NGO) ü Mashhad City Council (NGO) ü Farmers House (NGO) ü Other NGOs

Initiate stakeholders participatory mechanism on IWRM By Holding Workshops Regarding IWRM Objectives in the Initiate stakeholders participatory mechanism on IWRM By Holding Workshops Regarding IWRM Objectives in the Basin: Ø September 2005 : Introduction to Mashhad basin as an pilot plan Ø September 2007: Mashhad basin IWRM and participatory decision mocking Ø Workshops on IWRM objectives every six month

Key issues for research projects on kashafrud basin l Overall existing irrigation efficiency at Key issues for research projects on kashafrud basin l Overall existing irrigation efficiency at basin level l Irrigation water productivity in basin

Thank You For Your Attention Thank You For Your Attention