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• Augustine and Martin Luther wrote that Jesus condemned “Malitia” (hatred) not “Militia” (fighting)
Criteria origins • Augustine used the Hebrew scriptures to put forward two conditions for Just War: – Legitimate authority – Just cause • Aquinas added – Right intention • In 1983 Catholic Bishops in America set out the conditions for Just War: – Jus ad Bellum – Jus in Bello
Jus ad Bellum • • Just Cause Competent and legal authority Comparative justice Right intention Last resort Probability of success Proportionality
Jus in Bello • Vatican statement: – “ any act of war aimed indescriminately at the destruction of entire cities or extensive areas along with the populations is crime against God and man himself. It merits unhesitating and unequivocal condemnation. ” “Gaudium et Spes”
Jus in Bello • Proportionality • Discrimination- Vardy (page 123)
Just War • Holmes- there is a distinction between the guilty and the non-innocent. The members of the offending state can be divided into 5 categories. – Initiators of wrongdoings (government leaders) – Agents of wrongdoings (millitary commanders and soldiers) – Contributors to the war effort (armament manufacturers, research, tax payers. – Those who approve of the war (without contributing) – Non contributors and non supporters eg. children and those who do not obey the laws.
Objections • Holmes- the fact that there are conditions set out makes war possible. • George Weigel- The conditions set out are confusing and can justify the aggressor. Open to abuse. The Bishops should have considered that just war was wrong. • During the Gulf war in 1991 efforts were made to reduce civilian casualties but they often went wrong. They attacked a bridge and accidentally hit a residential area •
Objections • Modern Warfare often targets non military targets • Bonheoffer considered that tyranicide was the way forward. • Eusebius of Caesarea said that Pacifism should be justified by a higher way of life. Eg. The clergy could not fight in war but lay people could (like marriage) • Peace Churches – quakers, mennonites and Brethren are pacifist and reject Just War. • The state can never maintain the high standards for a just war. • As soon as you allow war, you allow corruption.
Objections • Walter Wink- – The early church was non violent, including Jesus – Oppressive violence is always evil. It may be the lesser of two evils but can never be good. – War should not be seen as a necessity. Ethics demands free choice, necessity denies choice. There can be reasons for war but not Just reasons as justice is about fairness and war is not fair for either side. • Objection to Wink – St Paul may have sanctioned violence • 1 Peter 2: 14 • Romans 13: 1 -5
Conscientious Objection • When related to war this falls under 2 criteria: – Contentious objection on the grounds of pacifism- so objection to all cases (war) – Conscientious Objection to particular cases. If a particular war is not considered Just. PROBLEM- Generally Christians have considered it right to object to an unjust war although the bible seems clear that you should obey the orders of the state
Conscientious Objection • Objection – If you reject all war you may be refusing to protect the innocent. Eg, the second world war. – If you reject war you run the risk of being wiped out. If Israel had been pacifist it would have been destroyed before Jesus’ time. • Resolution? – The UN could provide a solution to this problem (by deciding if a conflict is Just) but only if it is unbiased and not dominated by wealthy self-serving nations. – A problem is that this will not protect from Holy Wars, which serve a higher purpose that justice.
Roman 13: 1 -5 • 1 Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. 4 For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. 5 Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also because of conscience. Roman 13: 1 -5 • BACK
1 peter 2: 14 • 13 Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every authority instituted among men: whether to the king, as the supreme authority, 14 or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right • BACK
Dietrich Bonhoeffer • Born- 4/02/1906 9, • Job- was a German Lutheran pastor and theologian. • He was also a participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, a founding member of the Confessing Church. His involvement in plans by members of the Abwehr (the German Military Intelligence Office) to assassinate Adolf Hitler resulted in his arrest in April 1943 • Died- execution by hanging in April 1945, shortly before the war's end. • His view of Christianity's role in the secular world has become very influential.  • "the ultimate question for a responsible man to ask is not how he is to extricate himself heroically from the affair, but how the coming generation shall continue to live. "
Dietrich Bonhoeffer • “The right way to requite evil, according to Jesus, is not to resist it. . . At this point it becomes evident that when a Christian meets with injustice, he no longer clings to his rights and defends them at all costs. He is absolutely free from possessions and bound to Christ alone. Again, his witness to this exclusive adherence to Jesus creates the only workable basis for fellowship, and leaves the aggressor for him to deal with. The only way to overcome evil is to let it run itself to a stand-still because it does not find the resistance it is looking for. Resistance merely creates further evil and adds fuel to the flames. ”
Dietrich Bonhoeffer • “the blood of martyrs might once again be demanded, but this blood, if we really have the courage and loyalty to shed it, will not be innocent, shining like that of the first witnesses for the faith. On our blood lies heavy guilt, the guilt of the unprofitable servant who is cast into outer darkness. ” • "when a man takes guilt upon himself in responsibility, he imputes his guilt to himself and no one else. He answers for it. . . Before other men he is justified by dire necessity; before himself he is acquitted by his conscience, but before God he hopes only for grace. "
Dietrich Bonhoeffer • The camp doctor who witnessed the execution wrote: “I saw Pastor Bonhoeffer. . . kneeling on the floor praying fervently to God. I was most deeply moved by the way this lovable man prayed, so devout and so certain that God heard his prayer. At the place of execution, he again said a short prayer and then climbed the few steps to the gallows, brave and composed. His death ensued after a few seconds. In the almost fifty years that I worked as a doctor, I have hardly ever seen a man die so entirely submissive to the will of God. ” 
• Paper 1 - Foundations • Philosophy – Design Argument or Cosmological – Miracles or Problem of evil • Ethics – Utilitarianism or situation ethics – Just War or Sexual Ethics
Pacifism • What are the 4 types? Page 118 green book • What is the difference between a pacifist and conscientious objector? • What do pacifists hope to achieve? (119) • What do Absolute Pacifists believe? (119) • What is a “face saving way out”? (119) • What did Gandhi say? • List and explain all the biblical quotes supporting pacifism.
Pacifism • What are the protestant objections to nuclear war? (120) • What are the catholic objections to nuclear war? (120) • What is the aim of Christians according to Stott ? (120) • What is the problem of Pacifism? • What does Vardy say about the role with the UN and its advantages and disadvantages?
Morality of Warfare • International arms trade – Why can it be argued that this is not a moral issue? (121) – How can it be argued that it is ok to trade in arms? (121) – How can it be argued that we should not trade in arms? (121)
Moral Problems (122) • What happens when an agency does not act? • How can we decide upon what is just? (see vardy page 12 GB) • Wars are more complicated nowadays. Do poor nations have the right to attack rich ones? • Indiscriminate • War often targets civilians and always affects them
Moral Problems • Weapons of mass destruction • Problems after war