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JUDAISM LESSON 3 - JUDAISM OVER THE CENTURIES
Judaism over the Centuries The Big Idea Although they were forced out of Israel by the Romans, shared beliefs and customs helped Jews maintain their religion. Main Ideas • Revolt, defeat, and migration led to great changes in Jewish culture. • Because Jews settled in different parts of the world, two cultural traditions formed. • Jewish traditions and holy days celebrate their history and religion.
MAIN IDEA 1: REVOLT, DEFEAT, AND MIGRATION LED TO GREAT CHANGES IN JEWISH CULTURE. • The Zealots, a group of people who thought that Jews shouldn’t answer to anyone but God, refused to answer to the Romans and revolted. • During the battles, the Second Temple was destroyed. The Romans finally won in AD 73. • The Romans killed much of the Jewish population as punishment.
DESTRUCTION OF THE SECOND TEMPLE
A SECOND REVOLT • Jews in Jerusalem revolted against the Romans in the 130 s. • After winning the second revolt, the Romans declared that any Jew caught in or near the city would be killed. This increased Jewish migration to the Mediterranean region. • Because the Jews no longer had a single temple in which to worship, local synagogues and rabbis became important in guiding their religious lives.
MAIN IDEA 2: BECAUSE JEWS SETTLED IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD, TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS FORMED. • Jewish communities in various parts of the world developed different customs, including language and rituals. • One of the two traditions, Ashkenazim, is made up of Jews who moved to France, Germany, and eastern Europe. • They developed their own language called Yiddish.
MAIN IDEA 2: BECAUSE JEWS SETTLED IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD, TWO CULTURAL TRADITIONS FORMED. • Another group of descendants, called the Sephardim, lived in what is now Spain and Portugal. • They mixed with non-Jews, borrowing elements from their culture and producing a golden age of Jewish culture.
JEWISH MIGRATION AFTER AD 70
MAIN IDEA 3: JEWISH TRADITIONS AND HOLY DAYS CELEBRATE THEIR HISTORY AND RELIGION. Hanukkah Passover • This holiday honors the rededication of the Second Temple. • This is a time for Jews to remember the Exodus. • It is celebrated by lighting candles in a menorah. • They eat only flat bread and have a ritual meal called the seder. • The eight days represent the amount of time the oil burned during the rededication. High Holy Days • The first two days, Rosh Hashanah, celebrate the beginning of the Jewish new year. • On Yom Kippur, the most holy day, they fast all day and ask God forgiveness of their sins.
• Video: Holiday Facts and Fun: Hanakkah