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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

The Three Religions 1. Judaism, Jew 2. Christianity, Christian 3. Islam, Muslim Star of The Three Religions 1. Judaism, Jew 2. Christianity, Christian 3. Islam, Muslim Star of David The Cross Crescent Moon and Star

Some Similarities 1. Monotheistic 2. Abrahamic – Recognize Abraham as Patriarch (father) 3. Consider Some Similarities 1. Monotheistic 2. Abrahamic – Recognize Abraham as Patriarch (father) 3. Consider city of Jerusalem to be Holy 4. All connected to parts of the Bible.

Origins and History of Each Faith Origins and History of Each Faith

Origins of Each Faith • Date and Place founded: – Judaism – approximately 1300 Origins of Each Faith • Date and Place founded: – Judaism – approximately 1300 B. C. in Palestine • Some say the date is unknown – Christianity – approximately 33 A. D. in Palestine – Islam – 622 A. D. in Saudi Arabia 6

Founders and Early Leaders • All three trace their origins originally to Abraham as Founders and Early Leaders • All three trace their origins originally to Abraham as explained in the reading – Judaism – Abraham and Moses – Christianity – Jesus – Islam - Muhammad 7

Brief History on Origins • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 Brief History on Origins • Judaism- The Hebrew leader Abraham founded Judaism around 2000 B. C. – Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths (religions with one God). • Christianity - Founded by Jesus Christ, who was crucified around A. D. 30 in Jerusalem – After his death his followers came to believe in him as the Christ, the Messiah. • Islam - Founded in Arabia by Muhammad between A. D. 610 and A. D. 632

Spread of Each Faith • Early Expansion – Judaism – Little expansion mostly confined Spread of Each Faith • Early Expansion – Judaism – Little expansion mostly confined to Israel – Christianity – by the end of the 4 th century Christianity spread across the entire Roman Empire – Islam – Within 12 years, entire Arabian peninsula • After 100 years stretched from Spain to Southeast Asia 9

Terms for Followers and Clergy • Followers Called: – Judaism Jews – Christianity Christians Terms for Followers and Clergy • Followers Called: – Judaism Jews – Christianity Christians – Islam Muslims • Clergy Called: – Judaism rabbis – Christianity bishop, pastor, ministers, priest – Islam imams 10

More Detailed History on Each Religion More Detailed History on Each Religion

Judaism Timeline • 1800 BCE Hebrews flee Canaan, migrate to Egypt (enslaved). – Lead Judaism Timeline • 1800 BCE Hebrews flee Canaan, migrate to Egypt (enslaved). – Lead by Moses to Sinai Peninsula. Covenant w/God. – 1 God, 10 Commandments, Chosen People • 1025 BCE form kingdom of Israel in Fertile Crescent. – Kings David & Solomon help reach greatest glory • 500 BCE Persians take over, Return to Israel & rebuild temple in Jerusalem. • 70 CE Romans expel Jews from Israel/Palestine – diaspora… – Won’t return until late 1800 s

Christianity • Jesus born in Roman ruled Palestine (Bethlehem) – Carpenter’s apprentice – Studied Christianity • Jesus born in Roman ruled Palestine (Bethlehem) – Carpenter’s apprentice – Studied w/ rabbis - Preacher 30 yrs old • Some believed he was the messiah – Savior from foreign rule, restore kingdom • Roman’s, scared of popularity & refusal to accept emperor as a god, crucified him in 33 CE. • Followers, Christians, spread word – Everyone equal, salvation & eternal life – Persecuted by Romans, became martyrs – 313 CE, Emperor Constantine converts – 395 CE, official religion Roman Empire

Islam Timeline • 610 CE Angel Gabriel tells Mohammed he is to be the Islam Timeline • 610 CE Angel Gabriel tells Mohammed he is to be the messenger of God/Allah – Merchant in Mecca • 622 flee to Medina, build 1 st mosque – Hejira – Yr 1 of Muslim Calendar – Prophet • Expansion of Islam – Uses war & political maneuvering to spread ideas – 632 control Peninsula – 732 Atlantic to Indus

How They Worship How They Worship

Where and When They Worship • House of Worship – Judaism: synagogue or temple Where and When They Worship • House of Worship – Judaism: synagogue or temple – Christianity: church, cathedral, chapel – Islam: mosque § Day of Worship o Judaism: Saturday o Christianity: Sunday o Islam: Friday 16

Languages of Faiths • Original Language – Judaism: Hebrew – Christianity: Aramaic and Greek, Languages of Faiths • Original Language – Judaism: Hebrew – Christianity: Aramaic and Greek, then Latin – Islam: Arabic • Names of God – Judaism: Yahweh and Elohim – Christianity: God, the Trinity – Islam: Allah 17

Holy/Religious Texts Holy/Religious Texts

Sacred Texts of Each Faith • Sacred Texts • All three accept the Old Sacred Texts of Each Faith • Sacred Texts • All three accept the Old Testament as explained in the reading. – Judaism: Hebrew Bible is the Torah, Talmud – Christianity: Old Testament and New Testament – Islam: Qur’an (Koran) 19

Beliefs Beliefs

Monotheistic Beliefs • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism) – Judaism: One God – Christianity: Monotheistic Beliefs • Ultimate Reality (Type of Theism) – Judaism: One God – Christianity: Trinity (God the father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) – Islam: One God 21

Divine Revelation---God’s Words How do we know about God? – Judaism: through prophets; recorded Divine Revelation---God’s Words How do we know about God? – Judaism: through prophets; recorded in the Hebrew Bible – Christianity: through prophets and Jesus as recorded in the Old and New Testament – Islam: through God’s final prophet Muhammad; recorded in the Qur’an 22

Identity of Jesus – Judaism: False prophet – Christianity: Son of God, the Messiah, Identity of Jesus – Judaism: False prophet – Christianity: Son of God, the Messiah, Savior – Islam: prophet of God 23

Death of Jesus – Judaism: death by Crucifixion – Christianity: death by Crucifixion – Death of Jesus – Judaism: death by Crucifixion – Christianity: death by Crucifixion – Islam: Did not die, but ascended into heaven (a disciple took his place) 24

Resurrection of Jesus – Judaism: Denied – Christianity: Affirmed – Islam: Denied; since he Resurrection of Jesus – Judaism: Denied – Christianity: Affirmed – Islam: Denied; since he did not die 25

Means of Salvation – Judaism: Belief in one God; good deeds – Christianity: correct Means of Salvation – Judaism: Belief in one God; good deeds – Christianity: correct belief, good deeds; by faith accept Christ as Savior (Protestants) – Islam: Belief in one God; good deeds and follow Five Pillars of Faith 26

Afterlife – Judaism: eternal heaven/ eternal hell ( This is debated among Jewish Scholars) Afterlife – Judaism: eternal heaven/ eternal hell ( This is debated among Jewish Scholars) – Christianity: eternal heaven/ eternal hell – Islam: eternal paradise (heaven)/ eternal hell 27

Followers Followers

Where They Can Be Found • Major Locations TODAY – Judaism: Europe, Israel, North Where They Can Be Found • Major Locations TODAY – Judaism: Europe, Israel, North America – Christianity: Europe, North and South America – Islam: Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia 29

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Current Worldwide Followers TODAY – Judaism: 14 million (ranks 12 th) – Christianity: 2 Current Worldwide Followers TODAY – Judaism: 14 million (ranks 12 th) – Christianity: 2 billion (ranks 1 st) – Islam: 1. 3 billion (ranks 2 nd) In the USA • Judaism: 5. 6 million • Christianity: 159 million • Islam: 1. 1 million 31

Judaism • religion of just one people: the Jews. • first to teach belief Judaism • religion of just one people: the Jews. • first to teach belief in only one God. • Two other important religions developed from Judaism: Christianity and Islam.

Judaism Beliefs • Jews believe that there is a single God (Yahweh) who not Judaism Beliefs • Jews believe that there is a single God (Yahweh) who not only created the universe, but with whom every Jew can have an individual and personal relationship. • They await the Messiah, who will be an earthly king. They believe in heaven, but that God determines where they go after life on earth. • Ten Commandments is the basic code of law.

Judaism Briefly • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the oldest of Judaism Briefly • Judaism is around 3500 years old and is the oldest of the world's four great monotheistic religions (religions with only one God). • It's also the smallest, with only about 12 million followers around the world. • Its holy city is Jerusalem. • The Jewish calendar is based on 29 or 30 days therefore they have 12. 13 months.

Judaism • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite Judaism • Jews think that God will send a Messiah (a deliverer) to unite them and lead them in His way. • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah. – The Jewish people do not agree; they anticipate His arrival in the future.

Judaism Holy Book • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first Judaism Holy Book • The most holy Jewish book is the Torah (the first five books of the Christian Bible) • Others include Judaism's oral tradition, the written form of which is known as the Talmud. • The Torah (scroll of teachings) contains the five books revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy • Another important book is the "Talmud, " serving primarily as a guide to the civil and religious laws of Judaism. • Hebrew is read right to left.

Judaism Place of Worship • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. • Men and Judaism Place of Worship • Jews worship in Synagogues or temples. • Men and women usually sit separately. • Worship is led by a Rabbi. • Friday evening is time for worship. Stamford Hill, London

Judaism • Important Cities 1. Jerusalem • Major Groups: 1. Orthodox Jews: • adheres Judaism • Important Cities 1. Jerusalem • Major Groups: 1. Orthodox Jews: • adheres faithfully to the principles and practices of traditional Judaism. 2. Conservative Jews: • modern denomination of Judaism that arose in United States in the early 1900's. 3. Reform Jews: • largest denomination of Jews. They are more liberal in their thinking about Judaism. Samson destroys the Philistine temple

7 Holy Days • Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year • Yom Kippur-A day of fasting 7 Holy Days • Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year • Yom Kippur-A day of fasting and praying which occurs 10 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah. The holiest day in the year • Sukkot-8 day festival of thanksgiving • Hanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 day Feast of Dedication. It recalls the war fought by the Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom

 • Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by Queen Esther of the • Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by Queen Esther of the plan to slaughter all of the Persian Jews, circa 400 BC • Pesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt circa 1300 BCE. A holiday meal, the Seder, is held at home • Shavouth-Pentecost recalls God's revelation of the Torah to the Jewish people

 • Menorah-It is a symbol of the nation of Israel and a mission • Menorah-It is a symbol of the nation of Israel and a mission to be "a light unto the nations.

 • A Yarmulke is worn during prayer to shoe respect to G_d • A Yarmulke is worn during prayer to shoe respect to G_d

Kosher Foods • Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law Kosher Foods • Foods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law applies to food • Characteristics that make a food non-kosher: – the mixture of meat and milk – the use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for non-kosher food – The type of animal it is

 • Leviticus 11: 3 says that Jews may eat all animals that have • Leviticus 11: 3 says that Jews may eat all animals that have cloven hooves and chew their cud • Leviticus 11: 4 explicitly prohibited the consumption of animals that do not have these characteristics designating them "unclean to you. " • Six mammals are specifically not allowed: – The camel – The hyrax – The hare – The pig – Whales and dolphins

 • Kosher animals are as follows: – Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes, • Kosher animals are as follows: – Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes, okapis and pronghorns – Most fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octupus, eels and squid) – Chicken, duck, turkey – Milk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten with meat or mixed with meat.

Judaism – Map! Judaism in 1500 C. E. Judaism Today In 1500, located in Judaism – Map! Judaism in 1500 C. E. Judaism Today In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East Today, located in Israel and U. S.

Christianity briefly • Christianity is the world's biggest religion, with about 2. 2 billion Christianity briefly • Christianity is the world's biggest religion, with about 2. 2 billion followers worldwide. • It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2, 000 years ago.

Christianity • Where: – SW Asia, Jerusalem • When: – 2000 years ago – Christianity • Where: – SW Asia, Jerusalem • When: – 2000 years ago – Stems from Judaism. • Jesus was a Jew, whom Christians claim is the Messiah (Savior) Jesus with Children

Christianity • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the Christianity • The early Hebrews who eventually developed into the Jewish religion became the foundation of Christianity. • Jesus, or the Messiah, was a Jewish boy who disagreed with some of the Jewish principles of his day began to profess a new way of thinking. • This eventually led to the beginning of the Christian religion. • The central point of Christian belief is that God, the Father, entered into human history as the Son, Jesus of Nazereth, and arose as the Holy Spirit.

Christianity • Important Cities – Jerusalem – Vatican City (Rome) Crucifixion of the Apostle Christianity • Important Cities – Jerusalem – Vatican City (Rome) Crucifixion of the Apostle Peter • Important Groups – Roman Catholic • makes up the largest group of Christians. – Protestant • represents a diverse range of theological and social perspectives, denominations, individuals, and related organizations. • Would include Lutherans, Presbyterians, Baptists, Charismatics, Methodists, Disciples of Christ, etc. – Eastern Orthodox • body of Christians that claims origins extending directly back to Jesus and his Apostles. • Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Abyssinian (Ethiopia) Orthodox The Vatican City

Christian Sects • Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern Orthodox. Christian Church divided when the Roman Christian Sects • Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern Orthodox. Christian Church divided when the Roman Empire was divided and then fell. Orthodox Christians do not recognize the authority of the Pope. • Catholicism vs. Protestantism-as a result of the Reformation, Protestant sects broke with the Catholic Church and established their own separate churches.

Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God • Christianity Beliefs • Christians believe that Jesus Christ was the Son of God • God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins • Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his Crucifixion (the Resurrection) • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament • Christians believe that there is only one God, but that this one God consists of 3 "persons" • Christians believe that God made the world.

Christianity Beliefs continued • • • Christians believe that they can have a personal Christianity Beliefs continued • • • Christians believe that they can have a personal relationship with God, and that they are saved by faith, not works. Grace is the law code. They believe in actual heaven and hell. Sin and Evil are realities in our existence. They believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God. The leader of Christianity was Jesus, and the followers was his 12 disciples. Their giving is a tithe or offerings.

Christians Holy Book • The Bible is the Christian holy book. • It is Christians Holy Book • The Bible is the Christian holy book. • It is divided into the Old and New Testaments. • Parts of the writing contained in the Old Testament are also sacred to Jewish and Muslim people.

Christian Place of Worship • The Christian place of worship is called a Church, Christian Place of Worship • The Christian place of worship is called a Church, which are built in the shape of a cross with the altar facing east towards the rising sun. • Services are led by a priest, pastor or reverend. • Day of worship is normally Sunday but most recently Saturday has been added. Westminster Abbey London

Christianity – Map! Christianity 1500 C. E. In 1500, located in Europe and Middle Christianity – Map! Christianity 1500 C. E. In 1500, located in Europe and Middle East Christianity Today, located in Americas and Europe

Islam Close ties to Christianity & Judaism: 1. Believe that both Abraham & Jesus Islam Close ties to Christianity & Judaism: 1. Believe that both Abraham & Jesus were prophets 2. Islam is the last religion of the Abrahamic tradition 3. Muhammad is the last prophet in a long line of prophets Mecca (Arial View)

Islam • Where – SW Asia – Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia. – Medina, Saudi Islam • Where – SW Asia – Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia. – Medina, Saudi Arabia • When – 613 A. D. Muslims worship at the Kaaba (sacred black stone) in Mecca

Islam Briefly • Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with Islam Briefly • Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with over a billion followers. • Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). • Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. • Muslims believe that there is only one God, called Allah, who speaks Arabic. • The Muslim calendar has 354 days – based on the 12 crescent moon cycles.

Islam • ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached by the prophet Islam • ISLAM is the name given to the religion preached by the prophet Muhammad in the 600 s A. D. • The Islamic religion started in the area known as Palestine in the year 600 AD. • It has about 850 million followers, most of them in the region north and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Islam • Important Teachings: 1. Five Pillars of Islam 2. Monotheistic 3. God is Islam • Important Teachings: 1. Five Pillars of Islam 2. Monotheistic 3. God is called Allah • Holy Book(s): 1. The Qur’an (Koran) • The Qur’an contains both verses from the Torah & the Bible. 2. Sharia • a tradition of rulings that touch on virtually all aspects of life and society. Muslims worshiping towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Zoomed out.

Islam’s Holy Book • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is 'the Islam’s Holy Book • The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is 'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices are rooted in the Qur'an. • Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect because they believe that the Qur'an is from Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred. • Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word of God. • It is read from right to left and written in Arabic, the language of heaven.

Islamic Philosophy • Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of testing Islamic Philosophy • Muslims learn that life on earth is a period of testing and preparation for the life to come. • Angels record good and bad deeds. • People should behave themselves and help others, trusting in Allah's justice and mercy for their reward.

Islam’s Place of Worship • The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Islam’s Place of Worship • The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic for "place of prostration". • Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day from minarets – towers on the mosque corners. • They contain only designs, no people or animals or furniture. • Normal day of worship is Friday. • Religious leaders are called imams. Grand mosque in Mecca

Islam’s Most Holy City • While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca Islam’s Most Holy City • While praying, they face the holy city of Mecca (in Saudi-Arabia) and sometimes kneel with faces to the ground. • All Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage (trip to a sacred place) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.

Islam – Moral Code is derived from Five Pillars: 1. Faith: There is only Islam – Moral Code is derived from Five Pillars: 1. Faith: There is only one god- Allah. 2. Prayer: pray five times a day. (Towards Mecca) 3. Fasting: during month of Ramadan. 4. Zakah: Giving Alms to the poor. 5. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims gathering outside Mecca during their Hajj

5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith - 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith - "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah" • Muslims say this when they wake up in the morning and just before they go to sleep at night

 • • • 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5 times • • • 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10 Between first light and sunrise After the sun has passed the middle of the sky Between mid-afternoon and sunset Between sunset and the last light of the day Between darkness and dawn

3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan • Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, 3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan • Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God's gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived. • Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when Muhammad had the Qur-an revealed to him • Sawm is usually described as fasting, but it actually involves abstaining from all bodily pleasures between dawn and sunset • Not only is food forbidden, but also things like smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and sexual activity

4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving alms to the poor • This is a compulsory gift 4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving alms to the poor • This is a compulsory gift of 2. 5 % of one's savings each year • Giving in this way is intended to free Muslims from the love of money • It reminds them that everything they have really belongs to God.

5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims should make 5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims should make at least once in their life • Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims • Takes place during days 8 -13 of the 12 th month of the Islamic Lunar calendar • They circle the Kaaba seven times on three occasions, say prayers, drink from a holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones at three pillars(to fight Satan’s temptations), shave hair, run seven times between some hills

The Kaaba The Kaaba

Food Laws • Very similar laws to the Jewish kosher foods • No alcohol, Food Laws • Very similar laws to the Jewish kosher foods • No alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fat products, scavenger animals

Islam • Important Cities: – Mecca – Medina – Jerusalem • Major Groups: – Islam • Important Cities: – Mecca – Medina – Jerusalem • Major Groups: – Sunni • largest denomination of Islam; means the tradition of the prophet of Islam Muhammad • Believe caliphs (priests) were to be chosen by consensus – Shi-ite • Shi'a Muslims adhere to the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his Ahlul Bayt (family). • Believe caliphs should be descendants from Muhammad’s son in law (Ali) and wife (Fatima) Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

Islam – Map! Islam in 1500 C. E. In 1500, located in Middle East, Islam – Map! Islam in 1500 C. E. In 1500, located in Middle East, Africa, and Southern Europe Islam Today, located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia

Comparative Religions Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Origins Canaan ~2000 BCE Palestine ~30 CE Saudi Comparative Religions Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Origins Canaan ~2000 BCE Palestine ~30 CE Saudi Arabia 622 CE Founders Moses Jesus Christ Mohammad Adherents Jews Christians Muslims Population 14 million 2. 1 billion 1. 5 billion Israel, Euro, US Euro, Americas, Africa Mid East, SE Asia

Comparative Religions Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Diety God Yahweh, Elohim God Allah Holy Book Comparative Religions Religion Judaism Christianity Islam Diety God Yahweh, Elohim God Allah Holy Book “People of the book” Torah (Old Test. ) Bible (Old and New Test. ) Qur’an (Koran) Religious Law Halakhah Canon Law Sharia Place of Worship Synagogue Church Chapel Cathedral Mosque Clergy Rabbis Priest, Minister, Pastor Imam