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Jonathan R. White www. cengage. com/cj/white Chapter 10: Terrorism in Israel and Palestine Rosemary Arway Hodges University
Palestine Liberation Organization § PLO – Palestinian Liberation Organization: o Secular organization o Yasser Arafet – its leader and founder (1964) o Attempted to establish a government for displaced Palestinians o Purpose was to create a political organization to help form a multinational alliance against Israel o Looked to Arab governments to jointly launch a war against Israel
Palestine Liberation Organization § FATAH: o Yasser Arafat formed Fatah in 1959 o Purpose was to create a guerrilla organization o Advocated use of small unit tactics and terrorist actions o Proposed terrorizing unfortified Israeli civilian targets after Six Day War defeat § Merged Fatah into PLO in 1964 § Media coverage of Fatah attacks raised PLO status throughout the Arab world
Palestine Liberation Organization § Fatah after Karamah: o After Fatah’s attack on Israel, Israel respond with force. o In 1968 Israeli Defense Force (IDF) tanks, infantry, helicopters and artillery raided the Palestinians in the village of Karamah (refuge center housing Fatah members fadayeen). o Fadayyen fought back and Israeli army had to retreat.
Palestine Liberation Organization § PLO Expelled: o As it grew, the PLO identified more closely with militant Arab states and organized its base in Jordan. o Concerned about the growing influence of foreign nationals, Jordanian King Hussein ordered PLO to stop attacking Israel. o Arafat defied Hussein’s order. § In 1970 Hussain ordered Marital Law. § Arafat and Hussain signed a ceasefire. Arafat and the PLO fled to southern Lebanon.
Palestine Liberation Organization § Black September and Munich: o Black September was a splinter group of the PLO o Formed after King Hussein’s September attack § Black September began planning a strike against Israel o With the help of German terrorists, Black September attacked Olympic Village in September 1972. o Took most of the Israeli Olympic team hostage o Killed those who attempted escape o Botched rescue attempt by Germans ended when terrorists machine-gunned down their hostages o In October, Arab terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa jet and demanded release of the Munich terrorist – Germans capitulated.
Palestine Liberation Organization § 1982 Invasion of Lebanon: o PLO becoming potent force in southern Lebanon o Iran joined fighting after Islamic revolution of 1979 o Established new terrorist organization called Islamic Jihad o Endemic civil war raged in Lebanon § Operation Peace for Galilee o IDF forces invaded Lebanon o PLO retreat from Lebanon o Fighting in Lebanon continued with a new group: Hezbollah – an umbrella-style organization o Israel's fight with PLO shifted from Lebanon to Palestinians areas in Israel
Factionalism in Palestinian Terrorism § Yom Kippur/ Ramadan War caused shift in Middle East terrorism § 1967 – 1973 PLO characterized by internal splintering § Several groups split from Arafat o Democratic Front for Liberation of Palestine o Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, General Command o Sabri al Banna - Abu Nidal Organization
Abu Nidal Organization § Abu Nidal: o Created rebel organization called Black June o Jointed Fatah for the purpose of regaining a Palestinian homeland o Became disillusioned with Fatah and Arafat o With Iraqi assistance built an infrastructure to support his terrorist organization o Moved his operations to Damascus in 1983 o In 1987 Moumar Gadhafi brought Abu Nidal to Libya ▪ From there Abu Nidal organization operated as private contractor
Abu Nidal § Abu Nidal: o Operated on the international level ▪ Particularly ruthless – terrorists became noted for the brutality of their attacks o Changed the face of Middle Eastern terrorism ▪ ▪ Increased activities in Europe Created a large terrorist group Immersed himself in the Lebanese Civil War Terrorism become the meaning for existence o Began working as a mercenary foreign governments
Palestinian Islamic Jihad § Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) o o Secular group arising after Yom Kippur War Small group that emerged in Egypt Influenced by militant Salafism Disillusioned with the Muslim Brotherhood § PIJ founders: o Fathi Shekaki o Abdul Aziz o Bashir Musa
Palestinian Islamic Jihad § Fathi Shekaki o Longed to take direct – military – action against infidels o Supported Iranian revolution o Left Egypt in 1981 with Aziz and Musa to settle in the Gaza Strip o Advocate of umbrella-style organization and the suicide bomber (Hezbollah innovations) o Discovered that small groups are virtually invisible for enemies, and for that reason let his group split. ▪ The U. S. A. Department of State sees the structure of PIJ as a pillar of strength.
Palestinian Islamic Jihad § PIJ terrorists gained power through group’s hidden structure o No infrastructure or visible means of support ▪ Invisibility partially due to growing number of groups claiming the name Islamic Jihad o Impossible to fight a non-organization o Not concerned with claiming credit for operations ▪ 1987 First Intifada – PIJ joining street fights ▪ 1993 Oslo Accord promises peace in Middle East - Fathi Shekaki joins a new Rejectionist Front
Palestinian Islamic Jihad § Shekaki was assassinated in Malta in 1995. § Shekaki’s succesor, Ramadan Abdullah Sallah, maintained Shekaki philosophy. § In 2001 PIJ launched a suicide bombing campaign: o Sought deeper ties to Hezbollah and Hamas § Department of Justice (DOJ) believes PIJ has an organized network of financial supporters including some within the U. S. o U. S. government claims to have uncovered a PIJ financial and administrative network at a Florida University.
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations § Palestinian Muslim Brothers would become the nucleus of Hamas o Hamas formed in 1987 o Tied to Sheik Ahmed Yassin o Wanted to steer the resistance movement along a religious course o Hamas Charter published in 1988 – declares Palestine as a God-given land from the Jordan river to Mediterranean Sea o Hamas reflects non-violence ideas against fellow Palestinians o Hamas opposes PLO o Hamas maintains political wing to oversee internal and foreign affairs
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations § Struggles for Leadership: o Yassin was jailed from 1989 to 1997 o Musa Abu Marzuq took over Hamas ▪ Strategy more violent than Yassin’s ▪ Launched savage suicide bombings in Israel ▪ Created ‘outside’ leadership basing Hamas outside of Palestine territory o In 1997 Yassin was released from prison and while under house arrest he gradually reasserted control over Hamas.
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations § In 2003 Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmud Abbas brokered a limited ceasefire, asking Hamas, the PIJ and related groups to end their campaigns. § Arafat and PIJ dominate Palestinian politics § In 2006 Fatah lost its position and Hamas won the election. o The U. S. A and UE did not recognize Hamas’s victory. o 2007 - Hamas had driven Fatah from Gaza and Abbas dissolved the government and formed a new one without Hamas. o 2008 - Operation Cast Lead: Israel assaults Gaza.
The Future § In March 2004 Israeli helicopters fired three missiles at Yassin. o Hamas announced his replacement with Abdel Aziz Rantisi. ▪ Israeli assassinated Rantsi in the same manner as Yassin. § A new leader was appointed but his identity is kept in secret. o There is a suspicion the new leader (Khalid Mashal) acts outside of Palestine from Damascus. o It is suspected that he may develop an international orientation and present a threat to the U. S.
The Future Reuvan Paz Matthew Levitt Hamas is: § Shifting targets and focus § Engaged in anti-America rhetoric § Refused to join al-Qaeda and the international Jihad because its focus is on Israel § International § Disincentives for attacking the West § Militant theology behind Hamas may encourage individual terrorists to take action against the West § Strong Sunni organization § Palestinian extension of the Muslim Brotherhood § Influenced by militant Salafi Puritanism § Supported by Saudi sympathizers § Closer to the revolutionary Shi’ites in general § Falling into Hezbollah orbit
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades § Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (Brigades) formed to put Fatah at the center of the new Intifada. o Began as secular group o Increasing use of Jihadist rhetoric o First secular Palestinian group to use suicide tactics ▪ Suicide bombing became the most important tactic of all the Palestinian terrorist groups § Brigades recognize Israel’s right to exist. o Intend to stop Israeli incursions and attacks in Palestinian areas o Punish Israel for each attack
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades § al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades’ effective tactics: o o o Drive-by shootings Snipers Ambushes Kidnap-murders suicide bombings § Brigade suicide bombers were frightening for two reasons: o They were secular o Sought out crowded civilian targets § Purpose is to kill and maim as many victims as possible in the most public way possible
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades § Leadership in the Martyrs Brigades o Al Aqsa has little centralized structure ▪ ▪ ▪ Its strength comes from the fact that small cells are able to operate without a strong leader Administration is pushed to the lowest operational level Cells function almost autonomously Effective because they operate in a network Effective without centralized leadership o Al Aqsa is suspected of being associated with Fatah o Marwan Barghouti is the commander o Arafat pays the expenses and set the agenda (Israelis report) ▪ There is no evidence that he has control over the organization
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism § Jewish Fundamentalism: o Involved in terrorist violence o Militant Judaism is based on the biblical notion that God has promised to restore the state the Israel § Rabbi Meir Kahane o In 1968 created the Jewish Defense League o Involved in several terrorist incidents in the U. S. o Formed the militant group – Kach o Assassinated in 1990 in the United States
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism § Kahane Chai: o Combined politics and biblical literalism to demand all Arabs be expelled from Israel’ occupied territories o Involved in threatening Palestinians o Threatened to attack Arabs and Israeli officials seeking peace o Committed to stop any peace proposal recognizing territorial rights of Palestinians § Gush Emunim o fundamentalist Israeli settlement in Palestinian territory, gets political support from Israel o Same set of beliefs as violent fundamentalists o Rhetoric appears normative compared with violent rhetoric of other groups
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism § Problems with Jewish militant extremism: Hanauer: o Extremists claim the exclusive right to determine the truth. o They advocate an ideal order ▪ Gush Emunim and Kach claim the Messiah can come only when the existing order is purified. o National identify of Israel and its political legitimacy can only be determined through religion. o All current events are defined within a narrow set of beliefs that define a limited worldview and identify only a few people as being chosen by God.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies § Many Israeli police and military units have established excellent reputations in counterterrorist operations. § Tactical operations are second to none. o Mossad – Israeli intelligence service o Shin Beth – Domestic Israeli security service o IDF – Israeli Defense Force o Israeli police – able to handle bombs, kidnappings, snipers
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies § International controversy o Bulldozing ▪ Purpose is to destroy the family homes of suicide bombers ▪ Suspected leaders in militant groups and others were targeted ▪ Farms and other areas were bulldozed o The Wall ▪ Condemned by the international community, a concrete and barbed-wire barrier cut through Palestinian areas. ▪ Construction reduced suicide attacks ▪ Construction separated Palestinians from their jobs, families and services
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies o Invading Lebanon ▪ First invasion, 1982, to rid south of the PLO, ended with 18 year occupation and the creation of Hezbollah. ▪ 1993 offensive in Lebanon to disrupt Hezbollah operations ▪ Operation Grapes of Wrath: destruction of bridges, power plants, and other infrastructure ▪ Attempt to create a wedge between Lebanon and Hezbollah ▪ July 2006 another invasion ▪ Israeli Air Naval and IDF attacked Lebanon with an attempt to destroy Hezbollah; they defended its action saying the Lebanon government was unable to disarm and confront Hezbollah on its own.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies § Selective Assassination o Paz ▪ might internationalize the conflict o Bayman ▪ is publicly transparent o Krauthammer ▪ Israelis feel that harsh policies must be implemented to deter terrorism. ▪ U. S. repeatedly has taken the stance that Israel cannot be condemned for harsh measures until the international community also condemns Palestinian terrorism.