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“Jesus Christ The Sure Foundation for a Troubled Church” Saturday, February 1, 2008 1 “Jesus Christ The Sure Foundation for a Troubled Church” Saturday, February 1, 2008 1 Corinthians chapter 11: 1 -2 “Following, Remembering, Keeping. . ” …keep the ordinances vs 2 1

Duke Knepper update Men’s Ministry Missionary to Cork City, Ireland 2 Duke Knepper update Men’s Ministry Missionary to Cork City, Ireland 2

Check out the updated website! • www. wbfireland. org • Walking By Faith Ireland. Check out the updated website! • www. wbfireland. org • Walking By Faith Ireland. org 3

PRAY 4 PRAY 4

Get the Teaching online! www. Ever. Lasting. Strength. org Isaiah 26: 4 5 Get the Teaching online! www. Ever. Lasting. Strength. org Isaiah 26: 4 5

Paul’s story up to the writing of First Corinthians http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Paul’s story up to the writing of First Corinthians http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html PONTUS 1 Corinthians Letter to Paul 7: 1 Chloe’s House 1: 11 0 Corinthians 5: 9 Roman Empire 30 AD 35 AD 40 AD 45 AD 50 AD 55 AD MEDES ELAM 60 AD 65 AD 6 70 AD

Compilation & Copying of Scripture After Paul’s Death http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html PONTUS Compilation & Copying of Scripture After Paul’s Death http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html PONTUS MEDES Roman Empire ELAM 7

Early Manuscript Traditions http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Roman (Greek) Roman Empire Byzantine (Greek) Early Manuscript Traditions http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Roman (Greek) Roman Empire Byzantine (Greek) Alexandrian (Greek) PONTUS MEDES ELAM 8

Three Manuscript Traditions http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Textus Receptus (1%) Byzantine (Greek) 90 Three Manuscript Traditions http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Textus Receptus (1%) Byzantine (Greek) 90 -95% PONTUS Vatican (Greek) Few Alexandrian Roman Empire (Greek) Vaticandrian Received Byzantine A handful The Few, (Greek) 90 -95% Text The Proud (1%) MEDES ELAM 9

Bible Translations http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html KJV Textus NKJV Receptus (1%) Roman Empire Bible Translations http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html KJV Textus NKJV Receptus (1%) Roman Empire RSV Vatican ASV (Greek) NASB Few NIV Byzantine (Greek) 90 -95% PONTUS Most modern Alexandrian Translations! (Greek) Modern KJV Byzantine A handful Translations (Greek) 90 -95% NKJV (1%) MEDES ELAM 10

Which Family is Correct? The Received, the Old or the Majority? http: //www. anova. Which Family is Correct? The Received, the Old or the Majority? http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Received (1%) More Recent 5500 copies 95% Roman Empire OLDER Few 0. 1% PONTUS MEDES ELAM 11

The Bible tells us who “kept the ordinances” correctly 10: 33 Even as I The Bible tells us who “kept the ordinances” correctly 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], not seeking mine own profit, but the [profit] of many, that they may be saved. 11: 1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also [am] of Christ. 11: 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you. 12

…not seeking mine own profit: Love 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] …not seeking mine own profit: Love 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], not seeking mine own profit, but the [profit] of many, that they may be saved. 11: 1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also [am] of Christ. 11: 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you. 13

Follow me: Discipleship 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], Follow me: Discipleship 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], not seeking mine own profit, but the [profit] of many, that they may be saved. 11: 1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also [am] of Christ. 11: 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you. 14

Remember me: Relationship 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], Remember me: Relationship 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], not seeking mine own profit, but the [profit] of many, that they may be saved. 11: 1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also [am] of Christ. 11: 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you. 15

Keep the ordinances: Obey and Preserve Accurately 10: 33 Even as I please all Keep the ordinances: Obey and Preserve Accurately 10: 33 Even as I please all [men] in all [things], not seeking mine own profit, but the [profit] of many, that they may be saved. 11: 1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also [am] of Christ. 11: 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered [them] to you. 16

Ordinances also translated‘Traditions’ = Spoken Word + Written Word Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and Ordinances also translated‘Traditions’ = Spoken Word + Written Word Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle. (2 Th 2: 15). 17

God used the Corinthians to keep His Word! http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Byzantine God used the Corinthians to keep His Word! http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Byzantine Greek Received Text 90 -95% of Greek manuscripts 99. 5% agreement Byzantine Used in the Church (Greek) 90 -95% Widely disseminated Church Fathers agreement Older Translations agreement Roman Empire 1 Corinthians 11: 2 PONTUS MEDES ELAM 18

Compare and Contrast the two Cities Corinthians Low-born Ignorant Fools Despised Kept Word Idolatrous Compare and Contrast the two Cities Corinthians Low-born Ignorant Fools Despised Kept Word Idolatrous Alexandrians Noble Scholars Worldly wise Respected Corrupted Word Idolatrous 19

Why do we have the older Alexandrian manuscripts? • • • University setting in Why do we have the older Alexandrian manuscripts? • • • University setting in Egypt Perfect climate in Egypt Vatican protection in Rome So many mistakes they were not used Unused on the shelf in the Vatican In the trash in Sinai preparing to be burned 20

…and why don’t we have the older Byzantine manuscripts? • They were used and …and why don’t we have the older Byzantine manuscripts? • They were used and wore out • Worn out manuscripts were burned to prevent error • Ask the Pope why he burned them? 21

What evidence do we have to point to the correct text? http: //www. anova. What evidence do we have to point to the correct text? http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html OLDER Few Roman Empire More Recent 5500 copies OLDER Few PONTUS MEDES ELAM 22

What evidence do we have to point to the correct text? • • • What evidence do we have to point to the correct text? • • • The quality of the text: weight The numbers of the text: counted Agreement with early texts: ancestry Compare to dated quotes: fathers The text of the Bible itself: internal 23

Byzantine text Internal Agreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Byzantine Greek 90 -95% of Byzantine text Internal Agreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Byzantine Greek 90 -95% of Greek manuscripts 99. 5% agreement Used in the Church Byzantine Widely disseminated (Greek) 90 -95% PONTUS MEDES Roman Empire ELAM 24

Alexandrian Text Disagreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Vaticanus 2877 words omitted 536 words Alexandrian Text Disagreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Vaticanus 2877 words omitted 536 words added 935 words substituted 2098 words transposed 1132 words modified 7578 differences! Sitting unused on shelf Roman Empire PONTUS Sinaticus 9000 differences! 10 different revisers Found in a trash can MEDES ELAM 25

Why are modern secular scholars prejudiced toward Alexandrians? • They share the same spirit Why are modern secular scholars prejudiced toward Alexandrians? • They share the same spirit • Pressure to discover something new • Wrong analogy: Bible texts similar to Greek Classics • Sit in judgments of Scripture using feeling rather than science • Strong signs of prejudice and closemindedness 26

The abandonment of Science in the late 1800’s • • Darwin - I’ll explain The abandonment of Science in the late 1800’s • • Darwin - I’ll explain my own origin Marx - I’ll fix society Freud - I’ll fix individuals Wescott-Hort - I’ll decide which Bible text …. . based on what? 27

Denying prejudice doesn’t make it go away • Some of the Fathers are even Denying prejudice doesn’t make it go away • Some of the Fathers are even older. Why were they ignored? • Some of the Ancient Translations were older than the Alexandrians. Why were they ignored? • The Alexandrian family of manuscripts are notoriously poor quality. Why is this ignored? • No metrics for judgment, no response to criticism 28

Textual Science: the truth • Fathers give us a date-stamped pedigree • Ancient Translations Textual Science: the truth • Fathers give us a date-stamped pedigree • Ancient Translations give us a date-stamped pedigree: Old Latin, Syriac, Coptic. • Sometimes elderly are poor witnesses. The same can be true with manuscripts • Demonstrated mistakes cast doubt on the manuscript • Numerous revisions cast doubt • Historical/Geographical context. Some time/places fomented heresy. • A skeptical eye towards unused manuscripts • Alexandrians represent an older voice 29

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Serious Examples A bit of prejudice (1: 23) Dyslexia 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Serious Examples A bit of prejudice (1: 23) Dyslexia (1: 29) Holy Spirit, or spirit? (2: 13) A hint of gnosticism mysticism (2: 1) A Doctrinal Warning! (5: 5) a) Saved by redundancy b) Confirmed by a Father 6. Humanity but not divinity? ? ? (5: 7) a) Early Father gets the word b) The volume of evidence 7. Let’s ask Moses (5: 13) 8. To know or to see? (8: 2) 30

Join the team: Write and use our comparison tools! 31 Join the team: Write and use our comparison tools! 31

1. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) 32 1. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) 32

1. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) 33 1. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) 33

2. Dyslexia (1: 29) 34 2. Dyslexia (1: 29) 34

2. Dyslexia (1: 29) 35 2. Dyslexia (1: 29) 35

The Amazing Human Mind I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I The Amazing Human Mind I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid. Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in what oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? 36

 1 Ti 3: 16 Most serious example Jewish Sacred Name • 1 Ti 1 Ti 3: 16 Most serious example Jewish Sacred Name • 1 Ti 3: 16 • Theos (God) os (which or who) 37

 1 Ti 3: 16 Jewish Sacred Name 38 1 Ti 3: 16 Jewish Sacred Name 38

 1 Ti 3: 16 39 1 Ti 3: 16 39

1 Ti 3: 16 Not even the courtesy of a footnote here from any 1 Ti 3: 16 Not even the courtesy of a footnote here from any of these three versions! Shame on NASB. 40

 1 Ti 3: 16 Most serious example Jewish Sacred Name • 1 Ti 1 Ti 3: 16 Most serious example Jewish Sacred Name • 1 Ti 3: 16 • Theos (God) os (which or who) • Alexandrinus “A” had “God” according to half dozen witnesses from 1600’s to 1800’s until it wore off. 41

Other Sacred Names • Theou • Pnematos 42 Other Sacred Names • Theou • Pnematos 42

3. Holy Spirit, or spirit? (1 Co 2: 13) spirit {tr holy } spirit 3. Holy Spirit, or spirit? (1 Co 2: 13) spirit {tr holy } spirit words spiritual truths combining 43

3. Holy Spirit, or spirit? (1 Co 2: 13) 44 3. Holy Spirit, or spirit? (1 Co 2: 13) 44

Serious Examples 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) Dyslexia Serious Examples 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A bit of prejudice (1: 23) Dyslexia (1: 29) Holy Spirit, or spirit? (2: 13) A hint of gnosticism mysticism (2: 1) A Doctrinal Change! (5: 5) a) b) 6. Humanity but not divinity? ? ? (5: 7) a) b) 7. 8. Saved by redundancy Confirmed by a Father Early Father gets the word The volume of evidence Let’s ask Moses (5: 13) To know or to see? (8: 2) 45

4. Gnosticism prefers mysteryion to martyrion! martyrion mysteryion 46 4. Gnosticism prefers mysteryion to martyrion! martyrion mysteryion 46

 Doctrinal Warning! (5: 5) Redundancy: 1 Co 1: 8 and 2 Co 2: Doctrinal Warning! (5: 5) Redundancy: 1 Co 1: 8 and 2 Co 2: 14 each have “Day of the Lord Jesus” 47

Father Knows Best (5: 5) • John Chrysostom - A Pillar of the Early Father Knows Best (5: 5) • John Chrysostom - A Pillar of the Early Church http: //www. chrysostom. org/writings. html • Verse by verse teaching through much of the New Testament! • Chuck Smith of Antioch in the late 300’s “That the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus; ”* * Homily XV John Chrysostom transl. Schaff, Philip (1819 -1893) 48

Humanity but not divinity? ? ? (5: 7) Literally: “of us for us” 49 Humanity but not divinity? ? ? (5: 7) Literally: “of us for us” 49

Heeer’s Johnny! Humanity AND Divinity!! (5: 7) • John Chrysostom, Pastor of Calvary Chapel Heeer’s Johnny! Humanity AND Divinity!! (5: 7) • John Chrysostom, Pastor of Calvary Chapel Antioch, late 300’s, comes to our rescue, again! • “For our Passover also hath been sacrificed for us, even Christ; wherefore let us keep the feast: not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. ” 50

Let’s ask Moses (5: 13) Septuagint (Greek Translation of Hebrew Bible) leaves the ‘Therefore’ Let’s ask Moses (5: 13) Septuagint (Greek Translation of Hebrew Bible) leaves the ‘Therefore’ in! 51

Space the final frontier (7: 5) P 46 is a poor manuscript with numerous Space the final frontier (7: 5) P 46 is a poor manuscript with numerous omissions. * H. C. Hoskier, “A Study of the Chester-Beatty Codex of the Pauline Epistles, ” The Journal of Theological Studies, XXXVIII (1937), 162. 52

To know or to see? (8: 2) • Gnoskos - To know in a To know or to see? (8: 2) • Gnoskos - To know in a mystical way. Gnostics Gnew this way. • Eido - To see (understand) 53

Trivial Examples • Contraction (3: 1, 4: 2, 6: 5) • Localized spelling (3: Trivial Examples • Contraction (3: 1, 4: 2, 6: 5) • Localized spelling (3: 2, 3: 6, 3: 14) • Much ado over nothing (7: 5) 54

The Power of the Web… 55 The Power of the Web… 55

Imagine • Imagine picking any controversial verse in the New Testament from a website Imagine • Imagine picking any controversial verse in the New Testament from a website and clicking on church fathers and a timeline appears moving from the Apostolic era to the 4 th century, • Markers showing when and where each early father's quotes supporting TR and the Alexandrian text appear on a map of the entire Mediterranean basin. Imagine the spatial and temporal view that it would provide. Imagine the insight that Burgon had, laid out for all to see. . . 56

Early Church Fathers* http: //www. ccel. org/fathers. html 57 Early Church Fathers* http: //www. ccel. org/fathers. html 57

Early Church Fathers 1. We could reconstruct the New Testament just from quotes of Early Church Fathers 1. We could reconstruct the New Testament just from quotes of the early church fathers! 2. Dean Burgon compiled over 16 volumes of 86, 000 quotes of early church fathers! 3. The Fathers mostly agree with the Byzantine ‘Received Text. ’ 4. The name of the father dates the quote: we have early fathers quoting from Scripture that has been removed from modern translations! 58

Burgon’s Work Sits in the British Museum • Burgon’s 86, 489 color-coded reference from Burgon’s Work Sits in the British Museum • Burgon’s 86, 489 color-coded reference from 76 fathers in 16 massive volumes available for $2. 00 per color copy page from the British Museum • Arranged by Father then Biblical order contains Scripture chapter and verse then volume and page where it is found in an edition (mainly J. P. Migne’s work) • Contains no quotes, only references to them. The references are useless without the correct edition of the quotes • Burgon worked on these volumes between the years 1872 -1888 59

Burgon’s Work Sits in the British Museum • At the beginning of each Fathere Burgon’s Work Sits in the British Museum • At the beginning of each Fathere is a book by book tabulation giving the total number of quotations. • Burgon, apparently did not tally a summary for and against the Traditional Text • T. R. Miller, no doubt, by interpreting and counting Burgon’s the colored slips, gives a summary for the Gospels in his Traditional Text (pp. 99 -121). These show a 3/2 margin to the TR. * *2008 email with Dr. Jack A. Moorman, discussing his 1992 visit to British Museum to inspect Burgon’s work. 60 Jack. [email protected] com

J. P. Migne • Maverick Catholic Priest who set up his own publishing house J. P. Migne • Maverick Catholic Priest who set up his own publishing house in 1833 on the outskirts of Paris • His Patrologiae Cursus Completus which to this day remains the most extensive collection of patristic material in print. It includes works from the early Fathers to writers of the Middle Ages. The Latin Series contains 221 volumes, and the Greek 167 volumes. * • In fact Rome has distanced herself so completely from Migne’s Series that many do not realize it is a Catholic production. • * Migne’s digitized 161 volume Patrologiae Graecae set available for $400 http: //phoenix. reltech. org/Migne. html 61

Other Translations: Old Latin Syriac Peshitta 62 Other Translations: Old Latin Syriac Peshitta 62

Older Translations: 99% agreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Waldense (Old Latin) Byzantine (Greek) Older Translations: 99% agreement http: //www. anova. org/sev/atlas/htm/index. html Waldense (Old Latin) Byzantine (Greek) PONTUS Syrian (Aramaic) Earlier than Alexandrian! MEDES Roman Empire ELAM 63

English Bible 64 English Bible 64

Why I like the NKJV • • • Based on the Textus Receptus Word Why I like the NKJV • • • Based on the Textus Receptus Word for Word Modern Language Keys well to Strong’s Greek Numbers Notes variant readings from the two other families – Majority, M-text – Alexandrian = NA-text (Wescott-Hort text) 65

Do your homework • “True or False? ” & “Counterfeit or Genuine” & “Which Do your homework • “True or False? ” & “Counterfeit or Genuine” & “Which Bible? ” by David Otis Fuller • “Causes of Corruption” & “The Last 12 Verses of Mark” by Dean J. W. Burgon • “God only wrote one Bible” by Jasper James Ray • Teachings by Chuck Smith @ www. everlastingstrength. org under Corinthians chapter 11: 1 -2 66

Analysis of an Actual Manuscript P 46 Alexandrian 67 Analysis of an Actual Manuscript P 46 Alexandrian 67

Details of P 46 • Alexadrian • c. 150 AD • Split among U Details of P 46 • Alexadrian • c. 150 AD • Split among U of Michigan & Chester Beatty Library http: //www. lib. umich. edu/pap/k 12/reading/Paul/ 68

History of the Bible http: //www. lib. umich. edu/pap/k 12/reading/Paul/ 69 History of the Bible http: //www. lib. umich. edu/pap/k 12/reading/Paul/ 69

The Bad • Dyslexic scribe • Dyscalculus scribe (skipped numbering of pages 100 & The Bad • Dyslexic scribe • Dyscalculus scribe (skipped numbering of pages 100 & 101) • Missing pieces • Padded number of lines • Large number of errors 70

P 46 Surviving Contents 1 -41 Romans 41 -64 Hebrews 64 -117 1 Corinthians P 46 Surviving Contents 1 -41 Romans 41 -64 Hebrews 64 -117 1 Corinthians 118 -145 2 Corinthians 146 -158 Ephesians 158 -168 Galatians 168 -176 Philippians 176 -184 Colossians 184 -191 1 Thessalonians 191 -195 (? ) 2 Thessalonians (? ) 195 -205 (? ) • 86 of 104 leaves survive today. • Missing leaves Uncertain 1 -13 (Romans) 16 -19 (Romans) 186 -189 (1 Thess) 192 -205 (? ) • Pages 100 -101 misnumbered 71

The good • Not massive differences in text • Two Corinthian letters: & • The good • Not massive differences in text • Two Corinthian letters: & • Letters of Paul collated 150 AD Alexandria • Page layout similar • Mis-numbered pages • Tell-tale blanks 72

Paleography • Alpha, sigma • All caps • Noma Sacra - Jewish authorship 73 Paleography • Alpha, sigma • All caps • Noma Sacra - Jewish authorship 73

74 74

Numbers 75 Numbers 75

Greek Letter Lessons 76 Greek Letter Lessons 76