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Japanese Classification System (FI, F-term) / Quality of Reclassification Susumu IWASAKI Examination Policy Planning Japanese Classification System (FI, F-term) / Quality of Reclassification Susumu IWASAKI Examination Policy Planning Office Japan Patent Office

Japan Patent Office Contents • • • Introduction What is FI? What is F-term? Japan Patent Office Contents • • • Introduction What is FI? What is F-term? Comparison between IPC, FI and F-term Effective search by F-term – – • • Example 1 Example 2 Quality of search index in the JPO Conclusion 1

Japan Patent Office Introduction (1) JPO’s Contribution to the reformed IPC 2007. 10 EP Japan Patent Office Introduction (1) JPO’s Contribution to the reformed IPC 2007. 10 EP 24. 9% JP 74. 7% 2007. 01 EP 23. 8% JP 71. 0% JP shares over 70% of the reclassification results 2

Japan Patent Office Introduction (2) Character of JP patent documents • A huge volume Japan Patent Office Introduction (2) Character of JP patent documents • A huge volume of Japanese patent documents   (over 400, 000 applications per year) • Covered in every technical fields 1993~: CD-ROM publication 1990~: Electronic filing Full-text search 35 million records (1885~present) FI/F-term search 3

Introduction (3) Japan Patent Office Background for creation of internal search index Existence of Introduction (3) Japan Patent Office Background for creation of internal search index Existence of unique/advanced technologies in Japan Growing number of Patent Documents Inefficient search with IPC Creation of internal search indices since 1984 FI (File Index) F-term Cf. IPC ver. 4 (1985) 4

Japan Patent Office Introduction (4) Search index structure for JP patent documents 190, 000 Japan Patent Office Introduction (4) Search index structure for JP patent documents 190, 000 items JP patent documents FI (File Index) 35 million records 70, 000 items IPC 340, 000 items (Multi-dimensional viewpoints) F-term JPO original search tool 5

Japan Patent Office What is FI? (1) Characteristics of FI IPC 70, 000 items Japan Patent Office What is FI? (1) Characteristics of FI IPC 70, 000 items FI (File Index) [Features] • Subdivision of IPC (around 190, 000 items) • Covers all technical fields • Covers all JP patent documents • Backlog reclassification • Available in the JPO internal system & IPDL • Biannual revise to keep pace with technology development 190, 000 items 6

Japan Patent Office What is FI? (2) Relationship b/n FI and IPC Section A Japan Patent Office What is FI? (2) Relationship b/n FI and IPC Section A 01 01 A B ・・・・・ Section B 01 01 A B Section H ・・・・・ IPC: 70, 000 Main group 1/00 1/02 1/04 1/06 1/08 2/00 2/02 2/04 2/06 Sub group 1/00 1/02 A B C Z 101 102 1/04 1/06 A B Z 1/08 2/00 2/02 2/04 2/06 301 A B Z A B C Z A B FI: 190, 000 Subdivision of IPC 7

What is FI? (3) Japan Patent Office Position of the FI in the reformed What is FI? (3) Japan Patent Office Position of the FI in the reformed IPC • Incorporation of the FI scheme into the reformed IPC in the following areas: 2007. 01 Inverter devices (H 02 M 7/)   T 024 A 004 2007. 10 Hybrid Vehicles (B 60 K 6/)   T 010 A 006 Air-conditioning systems (F 24 F) T 035 A 013 8

What is F-term ? (1) Japan Patent Office Background of F-term Limits of subdivision What is F-term ? (1) Japan Patent Office Background of F-term Limits of subdivision of IPC (FI) Ø Limits of technical segmentation by single viewpoint? Destruction of technical segmentation ! Creation of technical group (“Theme”) ü Search by multi-dimensional index (“Fterm) in the above technical group ü 9

What is F-term ? (2) Japan Patent Office Concept of “Theme” Concept of ‘Theme’ What is F-term ? (2) Japan Patent Office Concept of “Theme” Concept of ‘Theme’ l All technical fields are divided by technical groups (“Theme”) defined by certain FI range e. g. , 3 E 003 (theme code) -> B 65 B 5/00 -5/12 (FI coverage) Container packaging and wrapping operation l Approx. 1, 800 themes are composed of unique search indices “F-terms” 10

What is F-term ? (3) Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term Concept of ‘F-term’ What is F-term ? (3) Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term Concept of ‘F-term’ Search keys (“F-term”) which classify prior art documents in light of some technical viewpoints l F-term has some layers so as to search hierarchically l Indications comprised of 2 letters selected from A to Z (viewpoint) and 2 numerals selected from 00 to 99 e. g. , DD 11 = DD (viewpoint) + 11 (numerical order) l 11

Japan Patent Office What is F-term ? (4) Relationship between IPC/FI/Theme/F-term IPC F-terms FI Japan Patent Office What is F-term ? (4) Relationship between IPC/FI/Theme/F-term IPC F-terms FI (Multi-dimensional viewpoints) View point 1 AA 01, AA 02, ‥‥ Theme View point 2 BB 01, BB 02, ‥‥ View point 3 CC 01, CC 02, ‥‥ Query AA 01*BB 01*CC 01 70, 000 items 190, 000 items Preferable number of documents to be retrieved: About 50~ 100 documents 12

What is F-term ? (5) Japan Patent Office Sample of F-term list Theme Code What is F-term ? (5) Japan Patent Office Sample of F-term list Theme Code Subject of theme FI Coverage View point 13

Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (1) Viewpoint AA Components Viewpoint Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (1) Viewpoint AA Components Viewpoint BA Functions and Uses Viewpoint CA Structures 14

Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (2) AA components AA 04 Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (2) AA components AA 04 ··Calcium oxides 4 G 031 AA 04 15

Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (3) AA components BA 24 Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (3) AA components BA 24 ··Low heat expansion 4 G 031 AA 04 and BA 24 BA Functions and Uses 16

Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (4) AA components Refine the Japan Patent Office Concept of F-term -Multiple Technological Viewpoints- (4) AA components Refine the search effectively! CA 05 ·Granularity 4 G 031 AA 04 and BA 24 and CA 05 BA Functions and Uses CA Structures 17

What is F-term ? (6) Japan Patent Office Other features of F-term • Back-log What is F-term ? (6) Japan Patent Office Other features of F-term • Back-log reclassification i. e. reassignment of revised F-terms to the Japanese patent documents already classified in the existing F-terms • Available in the JPO internal system & IPDL 18

Japan Patent Office Comparison between IPC/FI/F-term (1) IPC Total number of items Coverage of Japan Patent Office Comparison between IPC/FI/F-term (1) IPC Total number of items Coverage of patent documents Coverage of technical fields FI F-term 70, 000 190, 000 340, 000 More than 100 countries All Japanese patent documents All Approx. 70% 19

Japan Patent Office Comparison between IPC/FI/F-term (2) Revision Reclassification IPC Quarterly at most ○ Japan Patent Office Comparison between IPC/FI/F-term (2) Revision Reclassification IPC Quarterly at most ○ FI F-term Biannual Annual ○ ○ [FI Revision Policy] ØTo keep pace with technological development ØTo cope with the growing number of documents per the lowest layer of classification 20

Japan Patent Office Effective search by F-term (1) • F-term covers about 70% of Japan Patent Office Effective search by F-term (1) • F-term covers about 70% of all technical fields • Average of F-term utilization rate : 42. 4% • F-term utilization rate > 50% : around 600 themes out of 1800 themes F-term is effective tool for searching Japanese patent documents in certain technical fields 21

Japan Patent Office Effective search by F-term (2) . . . F-term utilization rate Japan Patent Office Effective search by F-term (2) . . . F-term utilization rate > 70% : around 130 themes . . . 22

F-term search (1)-1 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Example 1] Collision F-term search (1)-1 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar (G 01 S 13/93) IPC: G 01 S 13/93 Radar or analogous systems, designed for anti-collision purposes FI: G 01 S 13/[email protected] Anti-collision systems for automobile Theme: 5 J 070 (Radar systems and details thereof) F-term : AD 00 Antennas and polarized waves     AD 13. Fixed Antenna        BF 00 Collision prevention BF 19. Curved roadway 23

F-term search (1)-2 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office Theme: 5 J F-term search (1)-2 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office Theme: 5 J 070 (Radar systems and details thereof) F-term: AD 00 Antennas and polarized waves       ∟AD 13      BF 00 ∟BF 19 . Fixed Antenna Collision prevention. Curved roadway 24

F-term search (1)-3 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Search Formula] G F-term search (1)-3 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Search Formula] G 01 S 13/[email protected] and AD 13 and BF 19 FI F-term G 01 S 13/[email protected] Anti-collision systems for automobile 2266 265 BF 19 Curved roadway 25 193 AD 13 Fixed Antenna 25

F-term search (1)-4 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Number of Patent F-term search (1)-4 [Example 1] Collision Avoidance Radar Japan Patent Office [Number of Patent Documents with Offices] WO 11. 5% US 11. 1% EP 13. 6% DE 16. 3% JP 41. 6% • The percentage of JP documents is over 40% of the total Ø Need for search of JP documents Ø F-term and FI are effective for searching JP patent documents 26

F-term search (2)-1 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office [Example 2] Telephone F-term search (2)-1 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office [Example 2] Telephone set structure Claim Element Analysis View Point Application Constructional element Purposes, Advantages Claim A portable telephone Comprising     a microphone, Fixed on a tip of an antenna extendable out from the main device of said portable telephone the size of the device reduced F-term AA 07 Portable telephones EE 05 Microphone LL 05 Antenna BB 03 Miniaturization 27

F-term search (2)-2 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office Application Constructional element F-term search (2)-2 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office Application Constructional element AA 07 Portable phone Purposes, advantages BB 03 Miniaturization The final retrieval formula: “AA 07*BB 03*EE 05*LL 05” Proper Answer LL 05 Antenna EE 05 Microphone 28

F-term search (2)-3 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office [Number of Patent F-term search (2)-3 [Example 2] Telephone set structure Japan Patent Office [Number of Patent Documents with Offices] US 8. 7% DE 5. 8% EP 9. 3% WO 10. 1% JP 55. 6% • The percentage of JP documents is over 55% of the total Ø Need for search of JP documents Ø F-term is effective for searching JP patent documents 29

Japan Patent Office Quality of Search Indices in the JPO • Reclassification by outsource Japan Patent Office Quality of Search Indices in the JPO • Reclassification by outsource organization, technical advisors or examiners Outsource organization has many experienced specialists with necessary knowledge • Rigid quality control system Stringent check by examiners (Check each case during early stage. Even if some criteria is satisfied, sampling check will be due. ) • JP’s reclassification (quantity and quality) is useful and important infrastructure for other Offices. 30

Japan Patent Office Conclusion • Japanese classification (FI / F-term) is effective for searching Japan Patent Office Conclusion • Japanese classification (FI / F-term) is effective for searching JP patent documents. • JP plays an important role in the operation of the reformed IPC. • Quantity and quality of JP’s reclassification will make contribution to search by other Offices Future: Super IPC (multi-dimensional viewpoint) ? ? 31

Japan Patent Office Thank you Japan Patent Office Thank you