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Jan Roscoe Publications Edexcel A Level Examinations Physical Education Advanced GCE A 2 Unit Jan Roscoe Publications Edexcel A Level Examinations Physical Education Advanced GCE A 2 Unit 3 Preparation for Optimum Sports Performance Section 3. 1 Short-term preparation Short-term technical preparation H - Ergogenic aids

Ergogenic aids INDEX 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ERGOGENIC AIDS CREATINE Ergogenic aids INDEX 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ERGOGENIC AIDS CREATINE - ERGOGENIC AIDS GLUTAMINE - ERGOGENIC AIDS CAFFEINE - ERGOGENIC AIDS ALCOHOL - ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTITUDE TRAINING 10 - ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PSYCHOLOGICAL 11 - ERGOGENIC AIDS THERAPIES 12 - ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL 13 - ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 14 - ERGOGENIC AIDS CLOTHING 15 - PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING PRODUCTS IN SPORT 16 - A DEFINITION OF ILLEGAL DRUG TAKING… 17 - ILLEGAL ERGOGENIC AIDS 18 - CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES USED IN SPORT 20 - ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BLOOD DOPING 21 - ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL r. EPO 22 - ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL AMPHETAMINES / BETA BLOCKERS 23 - ERGOGENIC AIDS HGH /ANABOLIC STEROIDS 24 - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS index previous next A 2 Physical Education unit 3 26 - WHY TAKE DRUGS IN SPORT? 28 - HOW CAN AN ATHLETE BENEFIT FROM DOPING? 29 - HOW CAN WE STOP ATHLETES FROM DOPING? 30 - HOW DOES DRUG-TESTING WORK? 31 - THE IOC AND DRUG-TAKING 32 - THE ROLE OF THE WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY (WADA) 33 - KEY PRIORITIES FOR WADA 34 - THE WHEREABOUTS RULE 36 - THE ATHLETE PASSPORT Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 2

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS index previous next Section Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 3

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ERGOGENIC AID any substance Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ERGOGENIC AID any substance or method which enhances performance the term ergogenic aid includes any method used in training which has this effect including training equipment and nutrition as well as doping and supplementation index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 4

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CREATINE Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION creatine is a substance found in skeletal muscle and can be obtained from a normal diet - white meat and fish stored as phosphocreatine (PC) supplementation increases PC levels to enhance the ATPPC system of ATP resynthesis creatine also assists intense anaerobic exercise via muscle rehydration creatine supplementation delays the alactic / lactic threshold this is a legal ergogenic aid index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 5

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION GLUTAMINE Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION GLUTAMINE is an amino acid forming part of skeletal muscle and immune cells supplementation after exercise therefore reinforces the immune system and reduces the risk of infection glutamine enhances the process of glycogen synthesis in recovering muscles glutamine is a legal ergogenic aid index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 6

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CAFFEINE Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION CAFFEINE stimulates the CNS but acts as a diuretic - this can lead to dehydration used to be illegal in large quantities, rules changed in 2002, when drinking large amounts of coffee became legal again! index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 7

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION ALCOHOL Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS NUTRITIONAL DIETARY MANIPULATION ALCOHOL a relaxant in quite small quantities absorbed into the body as an alternative to water therefore causes dehydration quite small quantities of alcohol can cause a drastic loss of performance alcohol is a legal ergogenic aid - but anyone using it as such must be aware of the consequences! index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 8

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTITUDE TRAINING Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTITUDE TRAINING a predominantly endurance-based exercise programme used by elite endurance athletes from a range of sports consisting of 2 visits of at least two weeks duration per visit, to altitude (normally between 1800 -3000 metres) second visit just prior to major competition training at altitude uses the fact that the body will create more haemoglobin to compensate for the reduction in oxygen available benefits: reversible physiological adaptations – increased Hb concentration – increases in myoglobin mitochondria and oxidative enzymes hence on return to sea level we have an increased VO 2 max and tissue cell respiration leading to enhanced aerobic performance risks: hypoxia, altitude sickness index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 9

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PSYCHOLOGICAL imagery / Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PSYCHOLOGICAL imagery / hypnosis / visualisation stimulate mental rehearsal of relevant skills by activating neural pathways that reinforce skill many athletes use music via ipod etc to stimulate rhythm of an activity or to produce calmness prior to an activity requiring control at full effort index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 10

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPIES physiotherapy Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS LEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPIES physiotherapy / acupuncture / herbal medicines used in injury treatment also used to reduce muscle soreness (DOMS) and aid recovery of local damaged tissue ice baths and ice belts to reduce joint and muscle inflammation produced by microtears in tissue produced by intense training ice / cooling jackets to attempt to reduce core temperature in very hot conditions (see tennis players in long hot matches) the Australian rowing eight at the Atlanta Olympics 1996 wearing ice jackets during the final index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 11

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL NASAL STRIPS use Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL NASAL STRIPS use of sticky plaster placed over bridge of nose to enlarge nasal cavity enables easier breathing SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT carbon fibre bike frames are lighter and aerodynamically more efficient bike helmets are shaped to reduce drag / air resistance index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 12

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT specialist Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT specialist training machines specific to the sport – concept II ergo rower – swimming ergo – flumes for rowing / swimming / canoeing – treadmill – spinning bikes with varying loading resistance training equipment such as weight training machines or pulley machines (with stacks or hydraulic) – many of these are now designed to mimic the sports movement – which make the movement specific to the sport towing sledges / parachutes to increase resistance for running hypobaric (low pressure / low oxygen / hypoxic) chambers, to have similar effects as altitude training index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 13

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL SPECIALIST CLOTHING lycra Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS MECHANICAL SPECIALIST CLOTHING lycra sports clothing reduces air resistance (cycling and sprinting) special shark suits for the swimmers - reduce drag swim hats reduce drag on the head compression clothing (rubber belts or strapping) to increase hydrostatic pressure within body part – one shoulder javelin suit – bench press suits – squatting suits – weight lifting belts force from the pressure supports the tissue enclosed from the inside index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 14

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING PRODUCTS IN SPORT the following Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING PRODUCTS IN SPORT the following slides look at doping as a deviant feature of sports behaviour and: – give a summary of illegal ergogenic aids (doping) – discuss the ethics of doping – discuss the testing procedures in place to deter drug cheats index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 15

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 A DEFINITION OF ILLEGAL DRUG TAKING Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 A DEFINITION OF ILLEGAL DRUG TAKING - DOPING the International Olympic Committee considers doping to be: ‘the administration of or use by a competing athlete of any substance foreign to the body or any physiological substance taken in abnormal quantity or taken by abnormal route of entry into the body with the sole intention of increasing in an artificial and unfair manner his / her performance in a competition’ index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 16

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ILLEGAL ERGOGENIC AIDS index previous next Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ILLEGAL ERGOGENIC AIDS index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 17

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES USED IN SPORT… Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES USED IN SPORT… type of substance ergogenic effects stimulants e. g. amphetamines, ephedrine reduce fatigue, increase alertness & aggression, suppresses appetite r. HGH stimulate naturally occurring HGH: increases blood glucose, protein synthesis, lean body mass, bone growth enhances healing anabolic steroid increases protein synthesis, fat free mass (FFM) strength, power recombin ant human growth hormone (cloned through genetic engineering) related to naturally occurring hormone testosterone e. g. testosterone, nandrolone index reduces recovery time between sessions, promotes aggressiveness previous next health risks sports used in cause lasting tissue & organ damage, masks injury, addiction, death(!) muscle/joint weakness, acromegaly causes bone thickening of hands, feet and jaw, diabetes, enlargement of organs, heart dis. cycling, boxing, rugby liver damage, cardiovascular diseases, acne, pituitary failure, testicular atrophy, explosive events – sprinting, weight lifting, swimming excessive aggressive behaviour outside the activity Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 18

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES USED IN SPORT… Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES USED IN SPORT… type of substance diuretics e. g. triamterene, bendrofluazide ergogenic effects reduces weight quickly, hence increasing urine flow also used as a masking agent r. EPO recombinant erythropoietin cloned through genetic engineering r. EPO is a form of blood doping beta blockers class of hormonal drugs e. g. atenolol, propanalol index mimics body’s naturally occurring hormone EPO that stimulates red blood cell production, increasing aerobic capacity, aids recovery in endurance events blocks transmission of SNS to reduce HR and BP health risks dehydration and heat loss impairment loss of water soluble vitamins reduces production of naturally occurring EPO major risk of thrombosis and heart failure due to increase blood viscosity sports used in used by gymnasts and combat sports where there are bodyweight categories any endurance activity, distance cycling (Tour de France), marathon running reduces resting heart rate to dangerously low level during sleep dangerously low HR could lead to heart failure shooting, archery, snooker, darts to give calming effect previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 19

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BLOOD DOPING Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BLOOD DOPING this practice refers to any method by which the total volume of red blood cells can be increased the original method involved the removal of athlete’s own blood which is then stored the athlete’s body then remanufactures blood to replace that taken the stored blood is reinfused this temporarily increases red blood cell count (polycythemia) problem of mis-matching can lead to a transfusion reaction increases VO 2 max and hence energy delivery to enhance aerobic performances the method includes the use of r. EPO - see next slide index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 20

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL EPO (erythropoietin) Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHYSIOLOGICAL EPO (erythropoietin) is a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production r. EPO (recombinant erythropoietin) is cloned through genetic engineering involves infusion of hormone recombinant erythropoietin 6 weeks prior to major event stimulating erythrocytes (up to 10% more) - red blood cells increases VO 2 max and hence energy delivery to enhance aerobic performances but elevates red blood cell production that can reach toxic lifethreatening levels other risks are blood clots, strokes / coronary thrombosis, very low resting heart rates there have been many test failures for this substance in Tour de France cyclists and distance runners index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 21

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL AMPHETAMINES act Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL AMPHETAMINES act as CNS stimulants to increase arousal levels BETA BLOCKERS reduce HR and BP thereby reducing tension, but can lead to heart failure index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 22

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL HUMAN GROWTH Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 ERGOGENIC AIDS ILLEGAL PHARMACEUTICAL HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH) stimulates bone growth and increased lean body mass give artificial increased strength / power outputs ANABOLIC STEROIDS increase lean body mass, but reduce natural secretions of gonadotrophins females acquire masculine features such as facial and body hair and deep voices give artificial increased strength / power outputs index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 23

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS genetic engineering modern technology Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS genetic engineering modern technology allows us to manipulate human genes to make them more powerful / more efficient than average genes this form of performance enhancement is seen by both WADA and the IOC as being illegal laboratories in various countries are continuously working to devise new substances which cannot be tested by current drug tests index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 24

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 DOPING METHODS - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS gene Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 DOPING METHODS - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS gene doping uses the injection of foreign genes via a virus into the target cells example: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a protein that is important in promoting the growth of skeletal muscle this protein is used to treat muscle-wasting disorders, such as muscular dystrophy injected into an athlete, such a virus could carry a performance-enhancing gene and splice it into a muscle cell to increase muscle mass and achieve increased muscle hypertrophy index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 25

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 WHY TAKE DRUGS IN SPORT? the Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 WHY TAKE DRUGS IN SPORT? the notion that athletes participate in sport ‘for the love of the game’ has dramatically faded in recent years with the promise of fame and wealth for successful athletes, it is little wonder that performers are persuaded to illegally enhance their performance put simply, athletes take drugs in order to win index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 26

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 WHY TAKE DRUGS IN SPORT? another Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 WHY TAKE DRUGS IN SPORT? another fallacy widely put forward by the less successful sportsperson: is that you have to take drugs to succeed ‘because everyone at the top must be taking drugs’ people who believe this cannot believe that someone else may be better than they are!!! index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 27

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW CAN AN ATHLETE BENEFIT FROM Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW CAN AN ATHLETE BENEFIT FROM DOPING? the ability to train harder an increased chance of success an increase in aggression weight control muscle hypertrophy to control nerves becoming faster or stronger index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 28

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW CAN WE STOP ATHLETES FROM Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW CAN WE STOP ATHLETES FROM DOPING? random testing education programmes – for players & coaches strict punishments unified NGB policies more money & research into testing programmes index previous liaison between relevant organisations next use of both positive & negative role models Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 29

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW DOES DRUG-TESTING WORK? athletes chosen Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 HOW DOES DRUG-TESTING WORK? athletes chosen for test athlete produces urine or blood sample urine / blood sent for testing sample tested positive negative investigation by NGB no further action athlete must provide explanation sample usually destroyed NGB hearing, athlete to plead case but sometimes kept for testing later punishment if found guilty index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 30

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE IOC AND DRUG-TAKING the IOC Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE IOC AND DRUG-TAKING the IOC has taken a unified stance against performance-enhancing drugs a list of illegal drugs has been published, laboratories have been accredited for their consistent & precise testing of drugs the IOC also sponsors conferences regarding the topic of drug-taking index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 31

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE ROLE OF THE WORLD ANTIDOPING Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE ROLE OF THE WORLD ANTIDOPING AGENCY (WADA) WADA is an international independent organisation, based in Montreal, Canada established in 1999 it promotes, co-ordinates and monitors the movement against doping and drug-taking in sport it is funded by the sports movement & governments of the world WADA coordinated the world anti-doping code, which brings together anti-doping policies in sports across the world index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 32

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 KEY PRIORITIES FOR WADA adoption, implementation Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 KEY PRIORITIES FOR WADA adoption, implementation & compliance of the world anti-doping code promoting global research to identify & detect doping substances developing & maintaining an anti-doping system (Adams) aiding the co-ordination of regional anti-doping organisations leading effective education programmes to prevent doping in sport educating international level athletes regarding doping enabling stakeholders to fulfil responsibilities of random, out of competition testing index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 33

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE WHEREABOUTS RULE the British Olympic Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE WHEREABOUTS RULE the British Olympic Committee and UK sport have a widespread random drug testing programme to miss two of these random tests results in sanctions and to miss for a third time produces an automatic one year ban this happened to Christine Ohuruogu – World and Olympic champion in track and field athletics this was in spite of her passing many other tests during the period when this was happening she was forced to miss the 2006 season during her ban index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 34

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE WHEREABOUTS RULE under the WADA Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE WHEREABOUTS RULE under the WADA rules brought in January 1 st 2009, athletes in all Olympic sports are required to state 3 months in advance their locations for 1 hour per day, 7 days a week this is the time during which random testing could take place this is called the ‘whereabouts rule’ and this rule has provoked anger from tennis players, such as Andy Murray, Rafael Nadal and Roger Federer, who feel that the European Union privacy law has been breached in season, testing normally takes place after competitions or matches index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 35

Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE ATHLETE PASSPORT WADA has introduced Ergogenic aids A 2 Physical Education unit 3 THE ATHLETE PASSPORT WADA has introduced the “Athlete Passport” which contains an on-going collection of an individual’s urine and blood profiles which have so far been collected and tested during the international athlete’s performance lifespan samples are stored and then made available for retro-testing when appropriate it is projected that future profile collection could include endocrine information http: //www. wada-ama. org/en/Resources/Q-and-A/Athlete. Passport/ index previous next Section 3. 1 H: Short-term preparation - Technical 36